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Excelente material para quem deseja se aprofundar no cálculo diferencial.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS:

CHAPTER 6

A Click here for answers.

; 1. Three mathematics students have ordered a 14-inch pizza. Instead of slicing it in the traditional

way, they decide to slice it by parallel cuts, as shown in the figure. Being mathematics majors, they

are able to determine where to slice so that each gets the same amount of pizza. Where are the cuts

made?

1

dx.

x7 x

The straightforward approach would be to start with partial fractions, but that would be brutal. Try

a substitution.

2. Evaluate y

3

7

3. Evaluate y (s

1 x7 s

1 x 3 ) dx.

14 in

4. A man initially standing at the point O walks along a pier pulling a rowboat by a rope of length L.

The man keeps the rope straight and taut. The path followed by the boat is a curve called a tractrix

and it has the property that the rope is always tangent to the curve (see the figure).

(a) Show that if the path followed by the boat is the graph of the function y f x, then

pier

f x

L

(x, y )

(L, 0)

dy

sL 2 x 2

dx

x

5. A function f is defined by

f x

cos t cosx t dt

0 x 2

6. If n is a positive integer, prove that

ln xn dx 1n n!

7. Show that

1 x 2 n dx

2 2n n!2

2n 1!

Ik1

2k 2

Ik

2k 3

(a) How is the graph of y f x sin nx related to the graph of y f x? What happens

as n l ?

(b) Make a guess as to the value of the limit

lim

nl

f x sin nx dx

(c) Using integration by parts, confirm the guess that you made in part (b). [Use the fact that, since

f is continuous, there is a constant M such that f x M for 0 x 1.]

9. If 0 a b, find lim

tl0

1t

bx a1 x t dx

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

t1

x

; 10. Graph f x sine and use the graph to estimate the value of t such that xt f x dx is a maxi-

mum. Then find the exact value of t that maximizes this integral.

11. The circle with radius 1 shown in the figure touches the curve y 2x twice. Find the area of the

12. A rocket is fired straight up, burning fuel at the constant rate of b kilograms per second. Let

v vt be the velocity of the rocket at time t and suppose that the velocity u of the exhaust gas is

constant. Let M Mt be the mass of the rocket at time t and note that M decreases as the fuel

burns. If we neglect air resistance, it follows from Newtons Second Law that

y=| 2x |

0

FM

dv

ub

dt

1

dv

ub Mt

dt

Let M1 be the mass of the rocket without fuel, M2 the initial mass of the fuel, and M0 M1 M2 .

Then, until the fuel runs out at time t M2 b, the mass is M M0 bt.

(a) Substitute M M0 bt into Equation 1 and solve the resulting equation for v. Use the initial

condition v 0 0 to evaluate the constant.

(b) Determine the velocity of the rocket at time t M2 b. This is called the burnout velocity.

(c) Determine the height of the rocket y yt at the burnout time.

(d) Find the height of the rocket at any time t.

13. Use integration by parts to show that, for all x 0,

0y

sin t

2

dt

ln1 x t

ln1 x

Tnx cosn arccos x

n 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

(b) We know that T0x 1 and T1x x. Express T2 explicitly as a quadratic polynomial and T3

as a cubic polynomial.

(c) Show that, for n 1,

Tn1x 2x Tnx Tn1x

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Use parts (b) and (c) to express T4 , T5 , T6 , and T7 explicitly as polynomials.

What are the zeros of Tn ? At what numbers does Tn have local maximum and minimum values?

Graph T2 , T3 , T4 , and T5 on a common screen.

Graph T5 , T6 , and T7 on a common screen.

Based on your observations from parts (g) and (h), how are the zeros of Tn related to the zeros

of Tn1 ? What about the x-coordinates of the maximum and minimum values?

1

(j) Based on your graphs in parts (g) and (h), what can you say about x1

Tnx dx when n is odd

and when n is even?

(k) Use the substitution u arccos x to evaluate the integral in part (j).

(l) The family of functions f x cosc arccos x are defined even when c is not an integer (but

then f is not a polynomial). Describe how the graph of f changes as c increases.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

ANSWERS

Solutions

3. 0

5. f 2

9. b baa 1bae1

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS

Exercises

1.

By symmetry, the problem can be reduced to finding the line x = c such that the shaded area is one-third of the area

c

of the quarter-circle. The equation of the circle is y = 49 x2 , so we require that 0 49 x2 dx = 13 14 (7)2

1

x

2

49 x2 +

49

2

sin1 (x/7)

49

12

1

c

2

49 c2 +

49

2

sin1 (c/7) =

49

.

12

This equation would be difficult to solve exactly, so we plot the left-hand side as a function of c, and find that the

equation holds for c 1.85. So the cuts should be made at distances of about 1.85 inches from the center of the

pizza.

3. The given integral represents the difference of the shaded areas, which appears

to be 0. It can be calculated by integrating with respect to either x or y, so we

y = 7 1 x3 x = 3 1 y 7 , so

1

0

1 y7

7

1 x3 3 1 x7 dx. But this

1

0

1 y 3 dy =

3

1 x7 7 1 x3 dx = 0.

1

0

f (x) =

=

1

2

cos t cos(x t) dt =

t cos x +

cos x +

1

4

1

2

sin(2t x)

sin(x)

1

2

1

4

cos x +

sin(x) =

1

4

sin(2 x)

1

4

1

2

sin(x)

cos x

1

0

integrate Ik+1 by parts with u = 1 x2

1 x2

k+1

du = (k + 1) 1 x2

(2x), dv = dx v = x, and

= (2k + 2)

1

0

+ 2(k + 1)

0

1 x2

1

0

x2(1 x2 )k dx

1 1 x2

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

I0 = 1 =

Ik+1 =

2k + 2

Ik . Now to complete the proof, we use induction:

2k + 3

20 (0!)2

, so the formula holds for n = 0. Now suppose it holds for n = k. Then

1!

Ik+1 =

2(k + 1) 2(k + 1)22k (k!)2

2k + 2

2k + 2 22k (k!)2

Ik =

=

=

2k + 3

2k + 3 (2k + 1)!

(2k + 3)(2k + 1)!

2k + 2 (2k + 3)(2k + 1)!

[2(k + 1)]2 22k (k!)2

22(k+1) [(k + 1)!]2

=

(2k + 3)(2k + 2)(2k + 1)!

[2(k + 1) + 1]!

9. 0 < a < b. Now

1

0

t0

b ut

a (ba)

bt+1 at+1

(t + 1)(b a)

1/t

. Then ln y = lim

t0

ut+1

(t + 1)(b a)

=

a

bt+1 at+1

.

(t + 1)(b a)

bt+1 at+1

1

ln

. This limit is of the form 0/0,

t

(t + 1)(b a)

bt+1 ln b at+1 ln a

b ln b a ln a

b ln b

a ln a

bb/(ba)

1

=

1

=

ln

e

=

ln

.

bt+1 at+1

t+1

ba

ba

ba

eaa/(ba)

ln y = lim

t0

Therefore, y = e1

11.

bb

aa

1/(ba)

x2 + (y c)2 = 12 , so an equation of the lower semicircle is

and semicircle must be equal. For x 0, we must have

x

y0 = 2

= 2 x = 2 1 x2

2

1x

x2 = 4(1 x2 ) 5x2 = 4 x2 =

4

5

x=

2

5

segment is y 45 5 = 12 x 25 5

y = 12 x + 15 5 + 45 5 y = 12 x + 5, so c = 5 and

and so y = 2

2

5

(2/5) 5

(2/5) 5

x

1

30

5 1 x2 2x dx = 2 5 x

1 x2 sin1 x x2

2

2

0

4

5 1

2

1

sin1

2(0)

=2 2

5

2

5

5

5

2

2

1

= 2 sin1

= 2 1 sin1

2

5

5

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

1

1

, dv = sin t dt, so du =

and

ln(1 + x + t)

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

I=

0

= lim

cos t

sin t dt

= lim

ln(1 + x + t) b

ln(1 + x + t)

cos b

1

+

+

ln(1 + x + b)

ln(1 + x)

where J =

cos t dt

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

cos t dt

1

+J

=

ln(1 + x)

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

cos t dt

. Now 1 cos t 1 for all t; in fact, the inequality is strict

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

1

1

<J <

ln(1 + x)

ln(1 + x)

dt

<J <

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

0<I <

2

.

ln(1 + x)

dt

(1 + x + t)[ln(1 + x + t)]2

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