Switching Regulator Fundamentals

© All Rights Reserved

5 views

Switching Regulator Fundamentals

© All Rights Reserved

- 2001 Weimer Past Present and Future of Aircraft Electrical Power Systems (AIAA-2001-1147).pdf
- EC2404-LM
- Bridge Less Buck PFC Rectifier
- 7580937 Philips Chassis E8 TV Training Manual
- Controlador
- Help for Buck Boost Converter
- PROJECT .pdf
- dc-dc converter.docx
- Stamford HCI634V Data Sheet
- [002448].pdf
- Buck Converter Operation
- Automatic Voltage Regulator-r438
- modeling of dc dc converter.pdf
- Chapter 1(Final)
- 25si Voltage Regulator Replacment 10511622
- Book List
- A Novel Control Method for Light-Loaded
- Digital LED Boost
- 10.1.1.133
- Presentation - finalv1.ppt

You are on page 1of 10

Switching regulators are defined, with input, output and duty cycle relationships presented. Whether you are a novice or a seasoned pro, this

course is designed to get your inductor switching in the right direction.

You will learn the three basic regulator types and how to recognize them at a glance. You will also learn the basics for doing positive, negative

and inverting voltage conversion.

Why do you need this course? Read the FAQ.

1. Course Navigation

1. 1.1 Course Navigation

2. Switching Regulators

1. 2.1 Pulse Width Modulation

2. 2.2 DC-DC Converters

3. 2.3 Inductive Switching

3. Topologies

1.

2.

3.

4.

3.1 Buck

3.2 Boost

3.3 Buck-Boost (Inverting)

3.4 Application Note

4. Review Test

1. 4.1 Review Test

Course Navigation

1.1 Course Navigation

Course Navigation

This course is organized like a book with multiple chapters. Each chapter may have one or more pages.

The previous and next arrows move you forward and back through the course page by page.

The left navigation bar takes you to any chapter. It also contains the bookmarking buttons, 'save' and 'go to.' To save your place

in a course, press the 'save' button. The next time you open the course, clicking on 'go to' will take you to the page you saved or

bookmarked.

The 'Go to Final Test' button on the left navigation bar takes you back to the Analog University course listing, where you started.

Take the course final test by clicking on 'Test Yourself.'

The top services bar contains additional information such as glossary of terms, who to go to for help with this subject and an

FAQ. Clicking home on this bar will take you back to the course beginning.

Don't miss the hints, references, exercises and quizzes which appear at the bottom of some pages.

Switching Regulators

Switching Regulator Fundamentals Copyright 2010 by National Semiconductor All rights reserved

A fresh look at how inductor and switch placement define the basic converter topology. Pulse width modulation and inductor operation are

covered.

2.2 DC-DC Converters

2.3 Inductive Switching

One way to control average power to a load is to control the average voltage to it.

By opening and closing the switch, the average voltage as seen by the load resistor R is:

Where:

Changing the duty cycle D changes the average voltage to the load. This method of control is known as pulse width modulation, which

is used in fixed frequency switching regulators.

Using only a switch is fine for lighting and heater control. When a DC output voltage is needed, an additional filter must be used.

DC-DC Converters

For DC-DC converters, an inductor is used to average the switched voltage. The basic switching regulator has three terminals. This means there

are only three places the inductor can connect to, which is a very important concept. All square wave inductive switchers use at least one of the

following building blocks.

A buck converter has the inductor connected to the output terminal. The DC (average) inductor

current is equal to the output current. This converter will step down the input to produce a lower

output voltage of the same polarity.

A boost converter has the inductor connected to the input terminal. The DC (average) inductor

current is equal to the input current. This converter will step up the input to produce a higher

A buck-boost converter has the inductor connected to the ground terminal. The DC (average)

inductor current is equal to the sum of the input and output current. This converter will invert the input

to produce a lower or higher output voltage of opposite polarity.

By noting the inductor placement, it's easy to tell what the inductors DC (average)

current is.

Inductive Switching

The inductor doesn't care where it is connected. Its operation will always be the same.

In steady state, the average inductor voltage equals zero. V and V are defined by the switches and the applied circuit voltages.

1

Graphically:

The inductor will pass the required DC current. An AC current will ramp up and down as the inductor voltage is switched.

Inductor Current

I=V*T/L

I = 5V * 10us / 10 uH = 5A

Topologies

The input, output and duty cycle relationships are defined for each topology. All voltages and currents are presented in terms of magnitude, not

polarity.

3.1 Buck

3.2 Boost

3.3 Buck-Boost (Inverting)

3.4 Application Note

Buck

Because of it's simplicity and ease of use, the buck converter is very popular in distributed power systems.

To analyze the ideal buck converter, equate the voltage across the inductor when Sw is on, to the voltage when Sw is on:

1

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D:

2

Capacitors are used to filter the ripple currents and produce a DC voltage. Since

the inductor is in series with the output, the output capacitor sees low ripple

current. With a switch at the input, the input capacitor sees high pulsating current.

The negative buck is a mirror image of the positive buck. Note that the diode

points in the direction of positive current flow at the output.

For a practical buck converter, the loss elements must be accounted for.

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D:

D=V /V

O

IN

D = 5V / 10V = 0.5

Boost

Because of it's ability to step up a voltage, the boost converter is popular in many battery powered applications.

To analyze the ideal boost converter, equate the voltage across the inductor when Sw is on, to the voltage when Sw is on:

1

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D:

2

Since the inductor is in series with the input, the input capacitor sees low ripple

current. With a diode at the output, the output capacitor sees high pulsating

current.

The negative boost is mirrored from the positive boost. Note that the diode

points in the direction of positive current flow at the output.

For a practical boost converter, the loss elements must be accounted for.

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D

The DC (average) inductor current in the boost converter is equal to:

1. Input current

2. Output current

3. Input + output current

4. Input - output current

1 Answer: Input current. Since the inductor is in series with the input terminal, the DC (average) input current must flow through it.

Buck-Boost (Inverting)

The buck-boost converter is used when a voltage inversion is needed. For this discussion, all voltages are presented in terms of magnitude.

To analyze the ideal buck-boost converter, equate the voltage across the inductor when Sw is on, to the voltage when Sw is on:

1

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D:

Sw . With a switch at the input and diode at the output, both the input and output

2

buck-boost. Note that the diode points in the direction of positive current flow at

the output.

For a practical buck-boost converter, the loss elements must be accounted for.

Solving for V :

O

Solving for D:

input.

With respect to ground, the inductor voltage when the switch is on:

(V

-V

IN

-0)D

SW

Again with respect to ground, the inductor voltage when the switch is off:

(0-V +V )(1-D)

O

(V

-V

IN

)D=(-V +V )(1-D)

SW

D=(-V +V )/(V

O

IN

V = - ( D / ( 1 - D )) ( V

O

-V -V

O

IN

SW

-V

SW

+V )

D

)+V

Application Note

AN-1246: Stresses in Wide Input DC-DC Converters is an invaluable reference for buck, boost and buck-boost converters. It has all of the

formulas in one complete design table. Print it out and keep it handy.

AN-1246: Stresses in Wide Input DC-DC Converters

For the buck converter, it is easy to visualize the output voltage being proportional to the input by the relationship:

V =V

O

IN

The terms 1 / (1 - D) and D / (1 - D) for the boost and buck-boost are more abstract.

T can be expressed as t

on

D=t

+ t , so:

off

/T

on

(1 - D) = t

off

/T

Buck

V =V

*t

Boost

V =V

*T/t

IN

IN

on

/T

off

Buck-Boost (Inverting)

V =V *t /t

O

IN

on

off

Review Test

Place a short summary of this chapter's topics here.

4.1 Review Test

Review Test

Take a short test to review your progress

Review Test

Select the appropriate answer for each question or enter the answer in the blank provided. When you are done, click the button to submit your

answers and find out your score.

A. Equal to Vi / Vo

B. Another term for PWM

C. The ratio of t(on) / T

D. Used to measure an inductor

1 Correct Answer: C

2. In a buck converter, the inductor is connected to:

A. Input

B. Output

C. Ground

2 Correct Answer: B

3. In a switching regulator at steady state, the average voltage across the inductor is:

A. Positive

B. Zero

C. Negative

D. Undefined

3 Correct Answer: B

4. In a buck-boost converter, the DC (average) inductor current is equal to the:

A. Input current

B. Output current

C. Input + output current

D. Input - output current

4 Correct Answer: C

5. An ideal boost converter has 5V in and 15V out. What is the duty cycle?

A. 0.333

B. 0.667

C. 0.75

5 Correct Answer: B

Boost

A switching regulator used to step up a voltage.

Buck

A switching regulator used to step down a voltage.

Buck-boost

A switching regulator used to invert a voltage.

Duty Cycle

The ratio of on-time to period in a switching regulator.

D = t (on) / T

PWM

Pulse width modulation. A technique used to vary the duty cycle, thereby controlling the voltage to the load.

Do you have a question? We may have already answered it. Check below to see if you can find the answer to your question.

Questions

Why do I need to see switching regulator basics again?

Answers

Why do I need to see switching regulator basics again?

Answer

Most of us learn switching regulators piecemeal, or circuit by circuit. We don't get an intuitive grasp of how the basic topologies

relate to each other, or how simple they really are when approached the right way. Building blocks focus on the fundamental

concepts which are common to all switching regulators. This method will help you understand each circuits operation by simple

inspection.

Contact/Help Information

For additional information on getting started go to http://www.national.com/analog/training/getting_started

To contact us, and send feedback go to

http://wwwd.national.com/feedback/newfeed.nsf/newfeedback?openform&category=pwdesignuniv

For Frequently Asked Questions go to

http://www.national.com/analog/training/faqs

Thank you,

PowerWise Design University Team

- 2001 Weimer Past Present and Future of Aircraft Electrical Power Systems (AIAA-2001-1147).pdfUploaded byvenuscp
- EC2404-LMUploaded byprakashkumar
- Bridge Less Buck PFC RectifierUploaded bykartheekvankadara
- 7580937 Philips Chassis E8 TV Training ManualUploaded bysargodha_club
- ControladorUploaded byAntonio Robles
- Help for Buck Boost ConverterUploaded bybuditux
- PROJECT .pdfUploaded byKAUSHAL KUMAR
- dc-dc converter.docxUploaded byMaruthi Jacs
- Stamford HCI634V Data SheetUploaded byBruno Pinheiro
- [002448].pdfUploaded byrafat
- Buck Converter OperationUploaded byGhitza Gheorghita
- Automatic Voltage Regulator-r438Uploaded byWilman33
- modeling of dc dc converter.pdfUploaded byVishalArya
- Chapter 1(Final)Uploaded byعريبي اكرار
- 25si Voltage Regulator Replacment 10511622Uploaded byjcardenas2011
- Book ListUploaded bydebasishmee5808
- A Novel Control Method for Light-LoadedUploaded byVisu Tamil
- Digital LED BoostUploaded byLin Chong
- 10.1.1.133Uploaded byAnurag Bisen
- Presentation - finalv1.pptUploaded bysudeeraranjan
- Buck Converter Experiment-Comments NatanaelUploaded byNatanael Acencio Rijo
- tlc555cp-application-note-1-en.pdfUploaded bymubafaw
- Power Loss Comparison of Single- And Two-stage Grid-connected Photo VoltaicUploaded byHarshad Padmawar
- versao_12Uploaded byValentim Ernandes
- Project Report - TumiUploaded byArpit Choudhary
- Gain Setting - AdjustUploaded byWagner Guimaraes
- Project SynopsisUploaded byKarthik SD
- WEG Regulador Automatico de TensaoUploaded byManoel Batista
- MAX1798-MAX1799Uploaded byfeku feku
- Mtech Ped Odd SemUploaded byamasharfeh

- RTS qn unit-5Uploaded byDhanyasri
- Using MATLAB With Tektronix InstrumentsUploaded byYuvaraja
- 9000A_DOCUploaded byDhanyasri
- 10076AUploaded byDhanyasri
- N2771AUploaded byDhanyasri
- Chap 4Lesson05Device DriverUploaded byreneeshcz
- Zilogic - Linux Device Drivers - Training - ChennaiUploaded byDhanyasri
- National Input Filter Design for SwitchersUploaded byDhanyasri
- Intro Power SupplyUploaded byDhanyasri
- f10Uploaded byanilpanalog
- SONET_SDH OC192_STM64 PICs With XFP (T4000 Router) - Sonet Sdh Support - Juniper NetworksUploaded byDhanyasri

- Laboratory 12 - SMPSUploaded byAriana Ribeiro Lameirinhas
- 80a7b7228-744f-4b42-8678-b8b4d437b339Uploaded byxeileen08
- A New Soft-Switching Technique for Buck, Boost,Uploaded byVisu Tamil
- PLECS Lab ManualUploaded byGanesan Subramanian
- CIGRE-120 Direct Switching Control of DC-DC Power Electronic Converters Using Hybrid System TheoryUploaded bykamuik
- Data SheetUploaded byNico Saibort Junior
- Proiect MESUploaded byNicholas Valdez
- Basics for PF Corr154Uploaded bynamamani
- Soft Switching Bidirectional Converter for Battery charging dischargingUploaded byvargil
- Variable Frequency Digital PWM Control for Low-Power Buck ConvertersUploaded byantonytechno
- 2012 IEEE BULK PROJECTSUploaded byBULKIEEEPROJECTS
- 12477Uploaded bygongseng
- Lm 27402Uploaded byJoseph Bernard
- AN-H50Uploaded byHugo Rojas
- Control Loop CookbookUploaded byLixo4618
- Anna University Qb 03-08Uploaded bythailmuthu
- Development, Implementation, And Assessment of AUploaded byFatima Ahsan
- Fixed Frequency Pulse Width Modulation Based Quasi-Sliding-Mode Controller for Buck ConvertersUploaded byapi-27465568
- A New Low Stress Buck-boost Converter for Universal Input PFC ApplicationsUploaded byChandragupta Mowave
- LM3445Uploaded byAlfredo Valencia Rodriguez
- PV MPPT with Inductor.pdfUploaded byrajan
- 12V_3A Step-Down Switching Regulator-LM2596Uploaded byAmarnath M Damodaran
- lm2841 transistor regulatorUploaded byAbbas Maghazehi
- 650 to 400V, 100kW Buck ConverterUploaded byCata
- EE4532 Tut Part II 1 HintsUploaded bySean Ng
- 1000w Inverter PURE SINE WAVE Schematic DiagramUploaded byjeevapillay
- LTH-IEA-1042.pdfUploaded bybacuoc.nguyen356
- Lab sheetUploaded byKennedy Kolute
- Taufik TutorialUploaded byGerard Francesco Apolinario
- MC34063 DWSUploaded bycorado33