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REVIEW TEAM : 2014-15

Sl. No.

Name

Designation

Dr. Vandita Kalra


Vice Principal / HOS

SKV, Moti Nagar

1.

Sh. Joginder Arora


(PGT Maths)

SBV Subhash Nagar, Delhi

2.

Ms. Rajni Arora


(PGT Maths)

SKV Ramesh Nagar, Delhi

3.

Sh. Ashok Kumar Gupta


(PGT Maths)

GBSSS, SU Block, Pitam Pura, Delhi

CLASS XII (2014 - 2015)

MATHEMATICS
Units

No. of
Periods

Weightage
(Marks)

(i)

Relations and Functions

30

10

(ii)

Algebra

50

13

(iii)

Calculus

80

44

(iv)

Vector and Three Dimensional Geometry

30

17

(v)

Linear Programming

20

16

(vi)

Probability

30

Total :

240

100

Unit I : RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS


1.

Relations and Functions

(15 Periods)

Types of Relations : Reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence


relations. Functions. One to one and onto functions, composite functions,
inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

(15Periods)

Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse


trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric
functions.

Unit II : ALGEBRA
1.

Matrices

(25 Periods)

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity


[Class XII : Maths]

[2]

matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices.


Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple
properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero
matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of
order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible
matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all
matrices will have real entries).
2.

Determinants

(25 Periods)

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 3 matrices), properties of


determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding
the area of a triangle. adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency,
inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by
examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables
(having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit III : CALCULUS


1.

Continuity and Differentiability

(20 Periods)

Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule,


derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function.
Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivatives.
Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric
forms. Second order derivatives. Rolles and Lagranges mean Value
Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
2.

Applications of Derivatives

(10 Periods)

Applications of Derivatives : Rate of change of bodies, increasing/


decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in
approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated
geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Sample
problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject
as well as real-life situations).
3.

Integrals

(20 Periods)

Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of


functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple
integrals of the type to be evaluated.

[3]

[Class XII : Maths]

dx

x 2 a2 ,
px q

dx
2

x a

ax 2 bx c dx ,

dx

a x

px q
2

ax bx c

ax 2 bx c dx and

dx
dx
,
2
ax bx c
ax bx c
2

dx , a 2 x 2 dx ,

px q

x 2 a 2 dx ,

ax 2 bx c dx

Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus


(without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of
definite integrals.
4.

Applications of the Integrals

(15 Periods)

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, area
of circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between any of
the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5.

Differential Equations

(15 Periods)

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential


equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.
Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables,
homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions
of linear differential equation of the form:
dy
py q , where p and q are functions of x or constants
dx

dx
px q , where p and q are functions of y or constants
dy

Unit IV : VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY


1.

Vectors

(15 Periods)

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines


and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel
and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector,
components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by
a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and applications of scalar
(dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple
product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line.
[Class XII : Maths]

[4]

2.

Three-Dimensional Geometry

(15 Periods)

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian
and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance
between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between
(i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from
a plane.

Unit V : LINEAR PROGRAMMING


(20 Periods)
1.

Linear Programming : Introduction, related terminology such as constraints,


objective function, optimization. Different types of linear programming (L.P.)
problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of
solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions,
feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three
non-trivial constraints).

Unit VI : PROBABILITY
1.

Probability

(30 Periods)

Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent


events, total probability, Bayes theorem, Random variable and its probability
distribution, mean and variance of a random variable. Repeated independent
(Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

Marks per Question

Total Number of Questions in


2013-14

2014-15

10

12

13

Total

29

26

[5]

[Class XII : Maths]

MATHEMATICS (CODE NO. 041)

Time : 3 hours
Sl.No.

Max. Marks 100

Typology of Questions

Learning Outcomes
& Testing
Competencies

Reasoning
Analytical Skills
Critical thinking
Derivative

Marks

%
Weightage

20

20%

2. Understanding (Comprehensionto be familiar with meaning and to


understand conceptually, interpret,
compare, contrast, explain,
paraphrase, information)

16

16%

3. Application (Use abstract


information in concrete situation, to
apply knowledge to new situations;
Use given content to interpret a
situation, provide an example, or
solve a problem)

25

25%

4. High Order Thinking Skills


(Analysis & Synthesis-classify,
compare, contrast, or differentiate
between different pieces of
information; Organise and/or
integrate unique pieces of
information from a variety of
sources)

21

21%

2+1
(values
based)

18

18%

100

100%

1. Remembering (Knowledge based


Simple recall questions, to know
specific facts, terms, concepts,
principles, or theories; Identify,
define, or recite, information)

*
*
*
*

Very
Long Long
Short Answer Answer
Answer
I
II
(1 M) (4 M) (6 M)

5. Evaluation and Multi-Disciplinary


(Appraise, judge, and/or justify the
value or worth of a decision or
outcome, or to predict outcomes
based on values)

61= 134= 76=


6
52
42

TOTAL

[Class XII : Maths]

[6]

CONTENTS
S.No.

Chapter

Page

1.

Relations and Functions

2.

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

3 & 4. Matrices and Determinants

17
23

5.

Continuity and Differentiation

39

6.

Applications of Derivatives

47

7.

Integrals

61

8.

Applications of Integrals

85

9.

Differential Equations

90

10.

Vectors

101

11.

Three-Dimensional Geometry

111

12.

Linear Programming

122

13.

Probability

127

Model Papers

141

[7]

[Class XII : Maths]

[Class XII : Maths]

[8]

CHAPTER 1

RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

Relation R from a set A to a set B is subset of A B.

A B = {(a, b) : a A, b B}.

If n(A) = r, n (B) = s from set A to set B then n (A B) = rs.


and number of relations = 2rs

is also a relation defined on set A, called the void (empty) relation.

R = A A is called universal relation.

Reflexive Relation : Relation R defined on set A is said to be reflexive iff


(a, a) R a A

Symmetric Relation : Relation R defined on set A is said to be symmetric


iff (a, b) R (b, a) R a, b, A

Transitive Relation : Relation R defined on set A is said to be transitive


if (a, b) R, (b, c) R (a, c) R a, b, c R

Equivalence Relation : A relation defined on set A is said to be equivalence


relation iff it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

One-One Function : f : A B is said to be one-one if distinct elements


in A have distinct images in B. i.e. x1, x2 A such that x1 x2 f(x1)
f(x2).
OR

x1, x2 A such that f(x1) = f(x2)


x1 = x2
One-one function is also called injective function.
[9]

[Class XII : Maths]

Onto function (surjective) : A function f : A B is said to be onto iff


Rf = B i.e. b B, there exists a A such that f(a) = b

A function which is not one-one is called many-one function.

A function which is not onto is called into function.

Bijective Function : A function which is both injective and surjective is


called bijective function.

Composition of Two Functions : If f : A B, g : B C are two


functions, then composition of f and g denoted by gof is a function from
A to C given by, (gof) (x) = g (f (x)) x A
Clearly gof is defined if Range of f domain of g. Similarly fog can be
defined.

Invertible Function : A function f : X Y is invertible iff it is bijective.


If f : X Y is bijective function, then function g : Y X is said to be
inverse of f iff fog = Iy and gof = Ix
when Ix, Iy are identity functions.
1.

g is inverse of f and is denoted by f

Binary Operation : A binary operation * defined on set A is a function


from A A A. * (a, b) is denoted by a * b.

Binary operation * defined on set A is said to be commutative iff


a * b = b * a a, b A.

Binary operation * defined on set A is called associative iff a * (b * c) =


(a * b) * c a, b, c A

If * is Binary operation on A, then an element e A is said to be the


identity element iff a * e = e * a a A

Identity element is unique.

If * is Binary operation on set A, then an element b is said to be inverse


of a A iff a * b = b * a = e

Inverse of an element, if it exists, is unique.

[Class XII : Maths]

[10]

1.

If A is the set of students of a school then write, which of following relations


are Universal, Empty or neither of the two.
R1 = {(a, b) : a, b are ages of students and |a b| 0}
R2 = {(a, b) : a, b are weights of students, and |a b| < 0}
R3 = {(a, b) : a, b are students studying in same class}

2.

Is the relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined as


R = {(a, b) : b = a + 1} reflexive?

3.

If R, is a relation in set N given by


R = {(a, b) : a = b 3, b > 5},
then does element (5, 7) R?

4.

If f : {1, 3} {1, 2, 5} and g : {1, 2, 5} {1, 2, 3, 4} be given by


f = {(1, 2), (3, 5)}, g = {(1, 3), (2, 3), (5, 1)},
write gof.

5.

Let g, f : R R be defined by
g x

6.

If

x 2
, f x 3x 2. write fog x
3

f : R R defined by
f x

2x 1
5

be an invertible function, write f 1(x).


x
x 1, write
x 1

7.

If f x

8.

Let * be a Binary operation defined on R, then if


(i)

fo f x .

a * b = a + b + ab, write 3 * 2

[11]

[Class XII : Maths]

(ii)
9.

a*b

a b 2
3

, write 2 * 3 * 4.

If n(A) = n(B) = 3, then how many bijective functions from A to B can be


formed?

10.

If f (x) = x + 1, g(x) = x 1, then (gof) (3) = ?

11.

Is f : N N given by f(x) = x2 one-one? Give reason.

12.

If f : R A, given by
f(x) = x2 2x + 2 is onto function, find set A.

13.

If f : A B is bijective function such that n (A) = 10, then n (B) = ?

14.

If f : R R defined by f x

15.

R = {(a, b) : a, b N, a b and a divides b}. Is R reflexive? Give reason

16.

Is f : R R, given by f(x) = |x 1| one-one? Give reason

17.

f : R B given by f(x) = sin x is onto function, then write set B.

18.

1 x
2x
, show that f
2f x .
If f x log
1 x
1 x 2

19.

If * is a binary operation on set Q of rational numbers given by a * b

x 1
, find (fof) (x)
2

then write the identity element in Q.

ab
5

20.

If * is Binary operation on N defined by a * b = a + ab a, b N, write


the identity element in N if it exists.

21.

Check the following functions for one-one and onto.


2x 3
7

(a)

f : R R , f (x )

(b)

f : R R, f(x) = |x + 1|

(c)

f : R {2} R, f x

[Class XII : Maths]

3x 1
x 2

[12]

(d)

f : R [1, 1], f(x) = sin2x

22.

Consider the binary operation * on the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} defined by


a* b = H.C.F. of a and b. Write the operation table for the operation *.

23.

Let f : R

4
4
R
3
3

be a function given by f x

1
that f is invertible with f x

4x
w
. Show
3x 4

4x
.
4 3x

24.

Let R be the relation on set A = {x : x Z, 0 x 10} given by


R = {(a, b) : (a b) is divisible by 4}. Show that R is an equivalence
relation. Also, write all elements related to 4.

25.

Show that function f : A B defined as f x

3x 4
where
5x 7

7
3
A R , B R is invertible and hence find f 1.
5

5
26.

27.

Let * be a binary operation on Q such that a * b = a + b ab.


(i)

Prove that * is commutative and associative.

(ii)

Find identify element of * in Q (if it exists).

If * is a binary operation defined on R {0} defined by a * b


check * for commutativity and associativity.

28.

2a
b2

, then

If A = N N and binary operation * is defined on A as


(a, b) * (c, d) = (ac, bd).
(i)

Check * for commutativity and associativity.

(ii)

Find the identity element for * in A (If it exists).

29.

Show that the relation R defined by (a, b) R(c, d) a + d = b + c on


the set N N is an equivalence relation.

30.

Let * be a binary operation on set Q defined by a * b ab , show that


4
(i)

4 is the identity element in Q.

[13]

[Class XII : Maths]

(ii)

Every non zero element of Q is invertible with


a 1

31.

16
,
a

a Q 0 .

Show that f : R+ R+ defined by f x


set of all non-zero positive real numbers.

1
is bijective where R+ is the
2x

32.

Let A = {1, 2, 3, ...., 12} and R be a relation in A A defined by (a, b)


R (c, d) if ad = bc (a, b), (c, d), A A. Prove that R is an equivalence
relation. Also obtain the equivalence class [(3, 4)].

33.

If * is a binary operation on R defined by a * b = a + b + ab. Prove that


* is commutative and associative. Find the identify element. Also show that
every element of R is invertible except 1.

34.

If f, g : R R defined by f(x) = x2 x and g(x) = x + 1 find (fog) (x) and


(gof) (x). Are they equal?

35.

f : [1, ) [2, ) is given by f x x

36.

f : R R, g : R R given by f(x) = [x], g(x) = |x| then find

fog

1.

2
2
and gof .
3
3

R1 : is universal relation.
R2 : is empty relation.
R3 : is neither universal nor empty.

2.

No, R is not reflexive.

3.

(5, 7) R

4.

gof = {(1, 3), (3, 1)}

5.

(fog)(x) = x x R

[Class XII : Maths]

[14]

1
, find f 1 x .
x

5x 1
2

6.

f 1 x

7.

fof x

8.

x
1
,x
2x 1
2

(i)

3 * 2 = 11

(ii)

1369
27

9.

10.

11.

Yes, f is one-one x 1, x 2 N x 12 x 22 .

12.

A = [1, ) because Rf = [1, )

13.

n(B) = 10

14.

fof x x 3

15.

No, R is not reflexive a, a R a N

16.

f is not one-one function

f(3) = f (1) = 2
3 1 i.e. distinct elements have same images.
17.

B = [1, 1]

19.

e = 5

20.

Identity element does not exists.

21.

(a)

Bijective

(b)

Neither one-one nor onto.

(c)

One-one, but not onto.

(d)

Neither one-one nor onto.

[15]

[Class XII : Maths]

22.
*

24.

Elements related to 4 are 0, 4, 8.

25.

f 1 x

26.

0 is the identity element.

27.

Neither commutative nor associative.

28.

7x 4
5x 3

(i)

Commutative and associative.

(ii)

(1, 1) is identity in N N

32.

3, 4 3, 4 , 6, 8 , 9, 12

33.

0 is the identity element.

34.

(fog) (x) = x2 + x
(gof) (x) = x2 x + 1
Clearly, they are unequal.

x x2 4
2

35.

f 1 x

36.

fog

2
0
3

gof

2
1
3

[Class XII : Maths]

[16]

CHAPTER 2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

sin1 x, cos1 x, ... etc., are angles.


If sin x and , then = sin1x etc.
2 2

Function

Domain

Range
(Principal Value Branch)

sin1x

[1, 1]


2 , 2

cos1x

[1, 1]

[0, ]

tan1x


,
2 2

cot1x

(0, )

sec1x

R (1, 1)

0,

cosec1x

R (1, 1)


2 , 2 0

sin1 (sin x) = x x ,
2 2
cos1 (cos x) = x x [0, ] etc.

sin (sin1x) = x x [1, 1]


cos (cos1x) = x x [1, 1] etc.
[17]

[Class XII : Maths]

1
sin1x cosec1 x 1, 1
x
tan1x = cot1 (1/x) x > 0
sec1x = cos1 (1/x), |x| 1

sin1(x) = sin1x x [1, 1]


tan1(x) = tan1x x R
cosec1(x) = cosec1x |x| 1

cos1(x) = cos1x [1, 1]


cot1(x) = cot1x x R
sec1(x) = sec1x |x| 1

sin1 x cos 1 x

tan1 x cot 1 x

, x 1, 1
2

x R
2

sec 1 x cosec 1x

x 1
2

x y
tan1 x tan1 y tan1
;
1 xy

xy 1.

x y
tan1 x tan1 y tan1
;
1 xy

xy 1.

2x
2 tan1 x tan 1
, x 1
1 x 2
2x
2 tan1 x sin1
, x 1,
1 x 2
1 x 2
2 tan1 x cos 1
, x 0.
1 x 2

[Class XII : Maths]

[18]

1.

2.

Write the principal value of

3 2

(ii)

cos

(iv)

cosec1 ( 2).

.
3

(vi)

sec1 ( 2).

3
1 1
1

cos tan 1 3
2
2

sin

(iii)

tan

(v)

cot

(vii)

sin

3 2 .

What is the value of the following functions (using principal value).

(i)

tan

1 2
1

sec
.
3
3

(iv)

cosec

(v)

tan1 (1) + cot1 (1) + sin1 (1).

(vi)

sin

sin
.
5

cosec

Show that tan

1 3
1
.
cos
2
2

sin

tan1 (1) cot1 (1).

(ii)

(iii)

(viii)

3.

(i)

(vii)

tan

tan
.
6

2 sec

2.

cosec
.
4

1 cos x

1 cos x

1 cos x

x
.

1 cos x
4
2

[19]

x [0, ]

[Class XII : Maths]

4.

Prove that
1

tan

1 1 cos x
cos x

cot
1 sin x
1 cos x
4

5.

Prove that tan

6.

Prove that

cot

x 0, 2 .

2
2

x
a x
1 x
1

.
sin
cos

a
a
a2 x 2

1 8
1
1 8
1 300

2 tan cos
tan 2 tan sin
tan
.
17
17
161

7.

Prove that tan

8.

Solve :

cot

1 x

1 x

2x cot

1
1 2

cos x .
2
4
2
1 x
1 x

3x

4
9.

m
m n
Prove that tan1 tan1
, m, n 0
n
m n 4

10.

2
1
x y
2x 1
1 1 y

cos

Prove that tan sin1

2
2

2
1 x
1 y 1 xy
2

11.

x 2 1 1
2x 2

Solve for x, cos1 2 tan1


x 1 2
1 x 2
3

12.

Prove that tan1

13.

Solve for x ,

14.

1
1
32
Prove that 2 tan1 tan 1 tan 1
4
5
43

[Class XII : Maths]

1
1
1
1
tan1 tan1 tan1
3
5
7
8 4

tan cos 1 x sin tan1 2 ; x 0

[20]

15.

Evaluate

1
3
tan cos 1
11
2

16.

Prove that

a cos x b sin x
a
tan1
tan 1 x
b cos x a sin x
b

17.

Prove that

1
cot tan1 x tan1 cos 1 1 2 x 2 cos 1 2 x 2 1 , x 0
x

18.

Prove that

a b
b c
c a
tan1
tan 1
tan 1
0 where a, b,,
1 ab
1 bc
1 ca

c > 0
19.

Solve for x, 2 tan1(cos x) = tan1 (2 cosec x)

20.

Express

21.

If tan1a + tan1b + tan1c = then

sin1 x 1 x x 1 x 2

prove that
22.

in simplest form.

a + b + c = abc

If cos1x + cos1y + cos1z = , prove that x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1


[Hint : Let cos1 x = A, cos1 y = B, cos1 z = c then A + B + C =
or A + B = c
Take cos on both the sides].

1.

2.

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

2
3

(vii)

.
6

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(i)

(v)

[21]

(iv)

(iv)

(viii)

.
4

[Class XII : Maths]

8.

11.

13.

5
3

19.

21.

Hint:

15.

.
4

Let

20
tan1 a =
tan1 b =
tan1 c =

then given,

take tangent on both sides,


tan ( ) = tan

[Class XII : Maths]

[22]

tan

2 3
12

11 3
3 11
sin 1

x sin1 x.

CHAPTER 3 & 4

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

Matrix : A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers or functions.


The numbers or functions are called the elements of the matrix.

Order of Matrix : A matrix having m rows and n columns is called the


matrix of order mxn.

Square Matrix : An mxn matrix is said to be a square matrix of order n


if m = n.

Column Matrix : A matrix having only one column is called a column


matrix i.e. A = [aij]mx1 is a column matrix of order mx1.

Row Matrix : A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix
i.e. B bij 1xn is a row matrix of order 1xn.

Zero Matrix : A matrix having all the elements zero is called zero matrix
or null matrix.

Diagonal Matrix : A square matrix is called a diagonal matrix if all its non
diagonal elements are zero.

Scalar Matrix : A diagonal matrix in which all diagonal elements are equal
is called a scalar matrix.

Identity Matrix : A scalar matrix in which each diagonal element is 1, is


called an identity matrix or a unit matrix. It is denoted by I.

I = [eij]n n

where,

1 if i j
eij
0 if i j

[23]

[Class XII : Maths]

Transpose of a Matrix : If A = [ai j ]m n be an m n matrix then the matrix


obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of A is called the transpose
of the matrix. Transpose of A is denoted by A or AT.
Properties of the transpose of a matrix.
(i)
(iii)

(A) = A

(ii)

(A + B) = A + B

(kA) = kA, k is a scalar

(iv)

(AB) = BA

Symmetric Matrix : A square matrix A = [aij ] is symmetric if aij = aji


i, j. Also a square matrix A is symmetric if A = A.

Skew Symmetric Matrix : A square matrix A = [aij] is skew-symmetric, if


aij = aji i, j. Also a square matrix A is skew - symmetric, if
A = A.

Determinant : To every square matrix A = [aij] of order n n, we can


associate a number (real or complex) called determinant of A. It is denoted
by det A or |A|.
Properties
(i)

|AB| = |A| |B|

(ii)

|kA|n n = kn |A|n n where k is a scalar.


Area of triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is given
by

x1
1
x2
2
x3

y1
y2
y3

1
1
1

x1
The points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) are collinear x 2
x3

y1 1
y2 1 0
y3 1

Adjoint of a Square Matrix A is the transpose of the matrix whose


elements have been replaced by their cofactors and is denoted as adj A.
Let

A = [aij]n n
adj A = [Aji]n n

[Class XII : Maths]

[24]

Properties
(i)

A(adj A) = (adj A) A = |A| I

(ii)

If A is a square matrix of order n then |adj A| = |A|n1

(iii)

adj (AB) = (adj B) (adj A).

[Note : Correctness of adj A can be checked by using


A.(adj A) = (adj A) . A = |A| I ]
Singular Matrix : A square matrix is called singular if |A| = 0, otherwise
it will be called a non-singular matrix.
Inverse of a Matrix : A square matrix whose inverse exists, is called
invertible matrix. Inverse of only a non-singular matrix exists. Inverse of a
matrix A is denoted by A1 and is given by

. adj A

A
Properties
(i)

AA1 = A1A = I

(ii)

(A1)1 = A

(iii)

(AB)1 = B1A1

(iv)

(AT)1 = (A1)T

(v)

1
, A 0
A

Solution of system of equations using matrix :


If AX = B is a matrix equation then its solution is X = A1B.
(i)

If |A| 0, system is consistent and has a unique solution.

(ii)

If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B 0 then system is inconsistent and has


no solution.

(iii)

If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B = 0 then system is either consistent and


has infinitely many solutions or system is inconsistent and has no
solution.
[25]

[Class XII : Maths]

1.

4
x 3
If

y 4 x y

5 4
3 9 , find x and y.

2.

i
If A
0

3.

Find the value of a23 + a32 in the matrix A = [aij]3 3

0
0
and B

i
i

i
, find AB .
0

if i j
2i j
where aij
.
i 2 j 3 if i j
4.

If B be a 4 5 type matrix, then what is the number of elements in the


third column.

5.

5 2
3 6
and B
If A

find 3 A 2B.
0 9
0 1

6.

2 3
1 0
If A
and B

find A B .
7 5
2 6

7.

2
If A = [1 0 4] and B 5 find AB .
6

8.

x 2
4
If A
is symmetric matrix, then find x.
2x 3 x 1

9.

3
0 2
2 0
4 is skew symmetric matrix.
For what value of x the matrix
3 4 x 5

10.

2 3
If A
P Q where P is symmetric and Q is skew-symmetric
1 0
matrix, then find the matrix Q.

[Class XII : Maths]

[26]

11.

a ib
Find the value of c id

12.

If

13.

k
For what value of k, the matrix
3

14.

sin 30
If A
sin 60

15.

2x 5
5x 2

c id
a ib

3
0, find x .
9
2
has no inverse..
4

cos 30
, what is |A|.
cos 60

Find the cofactor of a12 in

2
6
1

3
0
5

5
4
7

1 3 2
4 5 6 .
3 5 2

16.

Find the minor of a23 in

17.

1 2
Find the value of P, such that the matrix
is singular..
4 P

18.

Find the value of x such that the points (0, 2), (1, x) and (3, 1) are
collinear.

19.

Area of a triangle with vertices (k, 0), (1, 1) and (0, 3) is 5 unit. Find the
value (s) of k.

20.

If A is a square matrix of order 3 and |A| = 2, find the value of |3A|.

21.

If A = 2B where A and B are square matrices of order 3 3 and |B| = 5,


what is |A|?

22.

What is the number of all possible matrices of order 2 3 with each entry
0, 1 or 2.

23.

Find the area of the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (6, 0) and (4, 3).

24.

If

2x 4 6 3

, find x .
1 x
2
1
[27]

[Class XII : Maths]

25.

x y

If A z
1

26.

Write the value of the following determinant


2
5
6x

y z
x
1

z x
y , write the value of det A.
1

3
4
6
8
9x 12x

27.

If A is a non-singular matrix of order 3 and |A| = 3 find |adj A|.

28.

5 3
If A
find adj A
6 8

29.

Given a square matrix A of order 3 3 such that |A| = 12 find the value
of |A adj A|.

30.

If A is a square matrix of order 3 such that |adj A| = 81 find |A|.

31.

Let A be a non-singular square matrix of order 3 3 find |adj A| if


|A| = 10.

32.

2 1
If A
find
3 4

33.

3
If A 1 2 3 and B 4 find |AB|.
0

34.

x y
Find x, y, z and w if
2x y

35.

Construct a 3 3 matrix A = [aij] whose elements are given by

A 1 1 .

2x z
1

3x w
0

1 i j if i j

aij = i 2 j if i j
2
[Class XII : Maths]

[28]

5
.
13

36.

1 2 3
3 0 1
and A 2B
Find A and B if 2A + 3B =

.
2 0 1
1 6 2

37.

1
If A 2 and B 2 1 4 , verify that (AB) = BA.
3

38.

3 1
3

Express the matrix 2 2 1 P Q where P is a symmetric and Q

4 5 2
a skew-symmetric matrix.

39.

cos
If A =
sin

sin
cos n sin n
, then prove that An

cos
sin n cos n

where n is a natural number.


40.

2 1
5 2
2 5
Let A
, B
, C

, find a matrix D such that


3 4
7 4
3 8
CD AB = O.

41.

1 3 2 1
1
x
1
2 5 1 2 0
Find the value of x such that
15 3 2 x

42.

Prove that the product of the matrices


cos2
cos2
cos sin
cos sin
and

2
2
cos sin sin
cos sin sin

is the null matrix, when and differ by an odd multiple of

43.

.
2

5 3
2
1
If A
, show that A 12A I = 0. Hence find A .
12 7

[29]

[Class XII : Maths]

44.

2 3
2
Show that A 3
4 satisfies the equation x 6x + 17 = 0. Hence find

A1.

45.

4
If A
2

46.

1 2 3 7 8 9
Find the matrix X so that X

.
4 5 6 2 4 6

47.

2 3
1 2
1
1 1
If A
and B

then show that (AB) = B A .


1

1
3

48.

Test the consistency of the following system of equations by matrix method :

3
, find x and y such that A2 xA + yI = 0.
5

3x y = 5; 6x 2y = 3
49.

Using elementary row transformations, find the inverse of the matrix

6 3
, if possible..
A
1
2
50.

3 1
By using elementary column transformation, find the inverse of A
.
5 2

51.

cos sin
If A
and A + A = I, then find the general value of .
sin cos
Using properties of determinants, prove the following : Q 52 to Q 59.

52.

a b c
2a
2a
3
2b
b c a
2b
a b c
2c
2c
c a b

53.

x 2 x 3 x 2a
x 3 x 4 x 2b 0 if a, b, c are in A.P .
x 4 x 5 x 2c

54.

sin cos sin


sin cos sin 0
sin cos sin

[Class XII : Maths]

[30]

c
b

55.

56.

59.

a ab
b

a b

2 2 2

4a b c .
2

a b
a
p q 2 p
x y
x

ac c

ac

bc

b
x b
b

b
q
y

c
r .
z

2
2 2 2

4a b c .

c
2
c
x x a b c .
x c

Show that :

x
yz

(i)

(ii)

61.

bc

60.

c a
r p
z x

x a
a
a

a
c

ab

58.

b c
q r
y z
a

57.

Given

z y z z x x y yz zx xy .
xy

y
zx

If the points (a, b) (a, b) and (a a, b b) are collinear, show


that ab = ab.

2
If A
2
0
A
2

5
4
and B

1
2
1
2

3
verify that AB A B .
5

0
2
and B 1
0
1

1
0 . Find the product AB and
1

also find (AB)1.


62.

Solve the following equation for x.

a x
a x
a x

a x
a x
a x

a x
a x 0.
a x
[31]

[Class XII : Maths]

63.

0
If A
tan

2
that,

tan 2
and I is the identity matrix of order 2, show
w
0

cos
I A I A
sin
64.

sin
cos

Use matrix method to solve the following system of equations :


5x 7y = 2, 7x 5y = 3.

65.

66.

Obtain the inverse of the following matrix using elementary operations


2 1 4
4 0 2 .

3 2 7

1 1 0
2 2 4

If A 2 3 4 and B 4 2 4 are two square matrices, find AB


0 1 2
2 1 5
and hence solve the system of linear equations :
x y = 3, 2x + 3y + 4z = 17, y + 2z = 7.

67.

S olve the follow ing system of equations by m atrix m ethod, w here

x 0,

y 0, z 0

2 3 3
1 1 1
3 1 2
10,
10,
13.
x y z
x y z
x y z

68.

1
Find
where A 2
3
equations :
A1,

2
3
3

3
2 , hence solve the system of linear
4

x + 2y 3z = 4
2x + 3y + 2z = 2
3x 3y 4z = 11
[Class XII : Maths]

[32]

69.

The sum of three numbers is 2. If we subtract the second number from


twice the first number, we get 3. By adding double the second number and
the third number we get 0. Represent it algebraically and find the numbers
using matrix method.

70.

Compute the inverse of the matrix.

3
A 15
5

71.

1
6
2

1
If the matrix A 0
3

1
5 and verify that A1 A = I3.
5
1
2
2

2
1
1

3 and B 0
1
4

2
3
0

0
1 , then
2

compute (AB)1.
72.

Using matrix method, solve the following system of linear equations :


2x y = 4, 2y + z = 5, z + 2x = 7.

73.

0 1 1
A 2 3I
1 0 1 .
1
1
A
if
A

.
Find
Also
show
that

2
1 1 0

b
74.

Show that

c
ba
ca

75.

76.

a
a c
Show that
a b

ab
c

ac

a
cb

b c
b
b a

2 2 2

bc
2

a b

4a b c
2

c b
2
2
2
c a a b c a b c
c

cos sin 0
If A sin cos 0 , verify that A . (adj A) = (adj A) . A = |A| I3.

0
0
1

[33]

[Class XII : Maths]

77.

2 1 1
For the matrix A 1 2 1 , verify that A3 6A2 + 9A 4I = 0, hence
1 1 2
find A1.

78.

Find the matrix X for which

3 2
7 5 . X

79.

By using properties of determinants prove the following :

1 a2 b 2

2ab

2b

2ab

1 a2 b 2

2a

2b

2a

1 a2 b 2

y z 2
80.

81.

1 1 2 1
.

2 1 0 4

xy

zx
2

xy

x z

yz

xz

yz

x y 2

2xyz x y z .

a
ab
a b c
2a 3a 2b 4a 3b 2c a 3 .
3a 6a 3b 10a 6b 3c

x
82.

If x, y, z are different and y

z
83.

1 a 2 b 2 .

x2

1 x 3

y 2 1 y 3 0, show that xyz = 1.


z2

1 z 3

If x, y, z are the 10th, 13th and 15th terms of a G.P. find the value of

log x
log y
log z

[Class XII : Maths]

10 1
13 1 .
15 1

[34]

84.

Using the properties of determinants, show that :

1 a 1
1
1 1 1

1
1 b 1
abc 1 abc bc ca ab
a b c
1
1
1 c
85.

Using properties of determinants prove that

bc

b 2 bc c 2 bc

a 2 ac

ac

a 2 ab b 2 ab

86.

If

c 2 ac ab bc ca
ab

3 2 1
A 4 1 2 , find A1 and hence solve the system of equations
7 3 3

3x + 4y + 7z = 14, 2x y + 3z = 4, x + 2y 3z = 0.

1.

x = 2, y = 7

2.

0 1
1 0

3.

11.

4.

5.

9 6
0 29 .

6.

3 5
3 1 .

7.

AB = [26].

8.

x = 5

9.

x = 5

10.

0
1

11.

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2.

12.

x = 13

13.

14.

|A| = 1.

15.

46

16.

3
2

[35]

1
.
0

[Class XII : Maths]

5
.
3

18.

20.

54.

40.

22.

729

23.

9 sq. units

24.

x = 2

25.

26.

27.

28.

8 3
6 5 .

29.

1728

30.

|A| = 9

31.

100

32.

11

33.

|AB| = 11

34.

x = 1, y = 2, z = 3, w = 10

35.

3 3 2 5 2
4 5
2 .

7
5 6

36.

4
11
7 7
A
1 18
7
7

9
5
7
7
, B
4
4
7
7

40.

191
D
77

110
.
44

43.

3
7
A 1
.
12 5

17.

P = 8

19.

21.

7 13
, .
2 2

[Class XII : Maths]

2
7
12

1
7

5

7

41.

x = 2 or 14

44.

A 1

[36]

1 4 3
.
17 3 2

45.

x = 9, y = 14

46.

1 2
x
.
2 0

48.

Inconsistent

49.

Inverse does not exist.

50.

2 1
A 1
.
5 3

51.

2n

61.

1
AB
2

62

0, 3a

2
1
1
, AB
2
6

2
2

64.

2
.
1

11
24

65.

67.

68.

69.

71.

11

2
1
1
2

6 .

66.

, n z
3

, y

24

x = 2, y = 1, z = 4

1
1
1
, y , z
2
3
5

6 17 13
1

14 5 8 , x 3, y 2, z 1
67
15 9 1

x = 1, y = 2, z = 2

AB

1
16 12
1

21 11 7 .
19
10 2 3

2 0 1
5 1 0
0 1 3

70.

72.

x = 3, y = 2, z = 1.

[37]

[Class XII : Maths]

1 1 1
1
1 1 1 .
2
1 1 1

73.

78.

16 3
X
.
24 5

86.

x = 1, y = 1, z = 1.

[Class XII : Maths]

77.

83.

[38]

3
1

1
4
1

1
3
1

1
1 .
3

CHAPTER 5

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIATION

A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = c iff lim f x f c


x c

i.e., lim f x lim f x f c


x c

x c

f(x) is continuous in (a, b) iff it is continuous at x c c a, b .

f(x) is continuous in [a, b] iff


(i)
(ii)

(iii)

f(x) is continuous in (a, b)


lim f x f a ,

x a

lim f x f b

x b

Trigonometric functions are continuous in their respective domains.

Every polynomial function is continuous on R.

If f (x) and g (x) are two continuous functions and c R then at x = a

(i)

f (x) g (x) are also continuous functions at x = a.

(ii)

g (x) . f (x), f (x) + c, cf (x), | f (x)| are also continuous at x = a.

(iii)

f x
is continuous at x = a provided g(a) 0.
g x

f (x) is derivable at x = c in its domain iff

[39]

[Class XII : Maths]

lim

x c

f x f c
f x f c
lim
, and is finite
x c
x c
x c

The value of above limit is denoted by f(c) and is called the derivative of
f(x) at x = c.

d
dv
du
u v u v
dx
dx
dx

d u

dx v

If y = f(u) and u = g(t) then

du
dv
u
dx
dx
v2
dy
dt

If y = f(u),

dy
du

du

f u .g t

dt

Chain Rule

x = g(u) then,

dy
dy
du
f u

.
dx
du
dx
gu

d 1
sin x
dx

1
1 x

d 1
1
tan x
,
dx
1 x2

d
1
sec 1 x
,
dx
x x2 1
d x
e
dx

ex ,

d
cos1 x
dx

1
1 x2

d 1
1
cot x
dx
1 x2

d
1
cosec1x
dx
x x2 1
d
1
log x
dx
x

f (x) = [x] is discontinuous at all integral points and continuous for all x
R Z.

Rolles theorem : If f (x) is continuous in [ a, b ], derivable in (a, b) and


f (a) = f (b) then there exists atleast one real number c (a, b) such that
f (c) = 0.

[Class XII : Maths]

[40]

Mean Value Theorem : If f (x) is continuous in [a, b] and derivable in


(a, b) then there exists atleast one real number c (a, b) such that
f c

f b f a

b a

f (x) = logex, (x > 0) is continuous function.

1.

For what value of x, f(x) = |2x 7| is not derivable.

2.

Write the set of points of continuity of g(x) = |x 1| + |x + 1|.

3.

What is derivative of |x 3| at x = 1.

4.

What are the points of discontinuity of f x

5.

Write the number of points of discontinuity of f(x) = [x] in [3, 7].

6.

x 3 if x 2

f
x

4 if x 2 is a continuous function for all


The function,

2x if x 2

x 1 x 1
.
x 7 x 6

x R, find .
tan3x

7.

For what value of K, f x sin2x

, x 0

2K ,

x 0

is continuous x R .

8.

Write derivative of sin x w.r.t. cos x.

9.

If f(x) = x2g(x) and g(1) = 6, g(x) = 3 find value of f (1).

10.

Write the derivative of the following functions :


(i)
(iii)

log3 (3x + 5)

e 6 loge

x 1

(ii)

log 2 x

,x 1

[41]

[Class XII : Maths]

11.

12.

(iv)

sec 1 x cosec 1 x , x 1.

(v)

sin1 x 7 2

(vi)

logx 5, x > 0.

Discuss the continuity of following functions at the indicated points.

(i)

x x
, x 0

f x x
at x 0.

2,
x 0

(ii)

sin 2x
3x , x 0
g x
at x 0.
3
x 0
2

(iii)

x 2 cos 1 x x 0
f x
at x 0.
0
x 0

(iv)

f(x) = |x| + |x 1| at x = 1.

(v)

x x , x 1
f x
at x 1.
0
x 1

3x 2 kx 5,
For what value of k, f x
1 3x

0 x 2
is continuous
2 x 3

x 0, 3.
13.

For what values of a and b

f x

[Class XII : Maths]

x 2

a
x 2
a b
x 2
2b
x 2

if x 2
if x 2
is continuous at x = 2.

if x 2
[42]

14.

Prove that f(x) = |x + 1| is continuous at x = 1, but not derivable at


x = 1.

15.

For what value of p,

x p sin 1 x x 0
f x
is derivable at x = 0.
0
x0

1
2

2x
dy
1
1
2 tan1 , 0 x 1, find
.
tan
2

x
dx
1 x

16.

If y

17.

1 x
dy
?
If y sin 2 tan1
then
1 x
dx

18.

If 5x + 5y = 5x+y then prove that

19.

If x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 a then show that

20.

If

21.

If (x + y)m + n = xm . yn then prove that

22.

2x
2x
w.r.t. sin1
.
Find the derivative of tan1
1 x 2
1 x 2

23.

Find the derivative of loge(sin x) w.r.t. loga(cos x).

24.

If xy + yx + xx = mn, then find the value of

25.

If x = a cos3, y = a sin3 then find

dy
5y x 0 .
dx

dy
1 y 2

.
dx
1 x 2

1 x 2 1 y 2 a x y then show that

[43]

dy
1 y 2

.
dx
1 x 2

dy y
.
dx x

dy
.
dx

d 2y
.
dx 2

[Class XII : Maths]

26.

x = aet (sint cos t)

If

dy

at x is 1 .
dx
4

y = aet (sint + cost) then show that

27.

1
2
If y sin x 1 x x 1 x then find

28.

If y x loge x loge x then find

29.

x
Differentiate x

30.

Find

31.

1 sin x
If y tan1
1 sin x

dy
.
dx

dy
.
dx

w.r.t. x.

dy
y
x
, if cos x cos y
dx

Hint : sin

1 sin x

dy
where 2 x find dx .
1 sin x

x
x

cos for x , .
2
2
2

32.

If x sin loge y then show that (1 x2) y xy a2y = 0.


a

33.

Differentiate log x log x , x 1 w .r .t . x

34.

If sin y = x sin (a + y) then show that

35.

If y = sin1x, find

36.

If

37.

a cos
If y e

38.

If y3 = 3ax2 x3 then prove that

2
dy sin a y

.
dx
sin a

d 2y
in terms of y.
dx 2

d 2y
b 4
x2 y2

.
then
show
that

1,
dx 2 a 2 y 3
a2 b 2
1

[Class XII : Maths]

, 1 x 1, show that 1 x 2

d 2y
dy
x
a2 y 0
2
dx
dx

d 2 y 2a 2 x 2

.
dx 2
y5

[44]

39.

Verify Rolle's theorem for the function, y = x2 + 2 in the interval [a, b]


where a = 2, b = 2.

40.

Verify Mean Value Theorem for the function, f(x) = x2 in [2, 4]

7
.
2

1.

3.

5.

Points of discontinuity of f(x) are 4, 5, 6, 7 i.e. four points.

2.

4.

x = 6, 7

Note : At x = 3, f(x) = [x] is continuous. because lim f x 3 f 3 .


x 3

3
.
4

6.

7
.
2

7.

8.

cot x

9.

15

10.

(i)

(ii)

e log2

(iii) 6 (x 1)5

(iv)

7 x2 x
.
2 1 x 7

(vi)

(i) Discontinuous

(ii)

Discontinuous

(iv)

continuous

(v)
11.

3
log3 e
3x 5

(iii) Continuous

1
.log2 e.
x

loge 5
2

x loge x

(v) Discontinuous
12.

k = 11

13.

a = 0, b = 1.

15.

p > 1.

16.

22.

17.
23.

x
1 x 2

cot2x logea
[45]

[Class XII : Maths]

24.

x
y 1
y x log y
dy x 1 log x yx

.
dx
x y log x xy x 1

25.

d 2y
1

cosec sec 4 .
2
3a
dx

27.

dy
1
1

.
dx
1 x 2 2 x 1 x

28.

x log x

29.

x
dy
1

x x . x x log x 1 log x
.
dx

x log x

30.

dy y tan x logcos y

dx x tan y logcos x

31.

dy
1
.
dx
2

33.

log x log x

35.

sec2y tany.

2log x
x
log x
x

log x log log x .

1 log log x

, x 1
x
x

[Class XII : Maths]

[46]

CHAPTER 6

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES

Rate of Change : Let y = f (x) be a function then the rate of change of


y with respect to x is given by

dy
f x where a quantity y varies with
dx

another quantity x.

dy
or f x 0 represents the rate of change of y w.r.t. x at x = x0.
dx x x 0

If x = f (t) and y = g (t)


By chain rule
dy dy

dx dt

(i)

dx
dx
if
0.
dt
dt

A function f (x) is said to be increasing (non-decreasing) on an


interval (a, b) if x1 x2 in (a, b) f (x1) f (x2) x1, x2 (a, b).
Alternatively if f x 0 x a, b , then f (x) is increasing function
in (a, b).

(ii)

A function f(x) is said to be decreasing (non-increasing) on an


interval (a, b). If x1 x2 in (a, b) f (x1) f (x2) x1, x2
(a, b). Alternatively if f (x) 0 x (a, b), then f (x) is decreasing
function in (a, b).

The equation of tangent at the point (x0, y0) to a curve y = f(x) is given
by
dy
y y0
x x0 .

dx x 0 , y 0
[47]

[Class XII : Maths]

where

dy
slope of the tangent at the point x 0, y 0 .
dx x 0 ,y 0
dy
does not exist then tangent is parallel to y-axis at
dx x 0 , y 0
(x0, y0) and its equation is x = x0.

(i)

If

(ii)

If tangent at x = x0 is parallel to x-axis then

1
Slope of the normal to the curve at the point (x0, y0) is given by dy
.
dx x x 0
Equation of the normal to the curve y = f (x) at a point (x0, y0) is given by
y y0

dy
0
dx x x 0

If

1
dy
dx x 0 ,y 0

x x 0 .

dy
0.
dx x 0 ,y 0

then equation of the normal is x=x0 and equation of the tangent is y=y0

dy
If dx
does not exist, then the normal is parallel to x-axis and the
x 0 ,y 0
equation of the normal is y = y0.

Let

y = f (x)
x = the small increment in x and
y be the increment in y corresponding to the increment in x

Then approximate change in y is given by

dy
dy
x
dx

or

dy = f (x) x

The approximate change in the value of f is given by

f x x f x f x x
[Class XII : Maths]

[48]

Let f be a function. Let point c be in the domain of the function f at which


either f (x) = 0 or f is not derivable is called a critical point of f.

First Derivative Test : Let f be a function defined on an open interval I.


Let f be continuous at a critical point c I. Then if,

(i)

f (x) changes sign from positive to negative as x increases through


c, then c is called the point of the local maxima.

(ii)

f (x) changes sign from negative to positive as x increases through


c, then c is a point of local minima.

(iii)

f (x) does not change sign as x increases through c, then c is


neither a point of local maxima nor a point of local minima. Such
a point is called a point of inflexion.

Second Derivative Test : Let f be a function defined on an interval I and


let c I. Then
(i)

x = c is a point of local maxima if f (c) = 0 and f (c) < 0.


f (c) is local maximum value of f.

(ii)

x = c is a point of local minima if f (c) = 0 and f "(c) > 0. f (c) is


local minimum value of f.

(iii)

The test fails if f(c) = 0 and f(c) = 0.

1.

The side of a square is increasing at the rate of 0.2 cm/sec. Find the rate
of increase of perimeter of the square.

2.

The radius of the circle is increasing at the rate of 0.7 cm/sec. What is the
rate of increase of its circumference?

3.

If the radius of a soap bubble is increasing at the rate of

4.

A stone is dropped into a quiet lake and waves move in circles at a speed
of 4 cm/sec. At the instant when the radius of the circular wave is 10 cm,
how fast is the enclosed area increasing?

1
cm sec. At
2
what rate its volume is increasing when the radius is 1 cm.

[49]

[Class XII : Maths]

5.

T he total revenue in rupees received from the sale of x

units of a product

is given by
R(x) = 13x2 + 26x + 15. Find the marginal revenue when x = 7.
6.

Find the maximum and minimum values of function f (x) = sin 2x + 5.

7.

Find the maximum and minimum values (if any) of the function
f (x) = |x 1| + 7 x R .

8.

Find the value of a for which the function f (x) = x2 2ax + 6, x > 0 is
strictly increasing.

9.

Write the interval for which the function f (x) = cos x, 0 x 2 is


decreasing.

10.

What is the interval on which the function f x


increasing?

log x
, x 0, is
x

4 3
x is increasing?
3

11.

For which values of x, the function y x 4

12.

Write the interval for which the function f x

13.

Find the sub-interval of the interval (0, /2) in which the function
f (x) = sin 3x is increasing.

14.

Without using derivatives, find the maximum and minimum value of


y = |3 sin x + 1|.

15.

If f (x) = ax + cos x is strictly increasing on R, find a.

16.

Write the interval in which the function f (x) = x9 + 3x7 + 64 is increasing.

17.

What is the slope of the tangent to the curve f = x3 5x + 3 at the point


whose x co-ordinate is 2?

18.

At what point on the curve y = x2 does the tangent make an angle of 45


with positive direction of the x-axis?

19.

Find the point on the curve y = 3x2 12x + 9 at which the tangent is
parallel to x-axis.

[Class XII : Maths]

[50]

1
is strictly decreasing.
x

20.

What is the slope of the normal to the curve y = 5x2 4 sin x at x = 0.

21.

Find the point on the curve y = 3x2 + 4 at which the tangent is perpendicular
1
to the line with slope .
6

22.

Find the point on the curve y = x2 where the slope of the tangent is equal
to the y co-ordinate.

23.

If the curves y = 2ex and y = aex intersect orthogonally (cut at right


angles), what is the value of a?

24.

Find the slope of the normal to the curve y = 8x2 3 at x

25.

Find the rate of change of the total surface area of a cylinder of radius r
and height h with respect to radius when height is equal to the radius of
the base of cylinder.

26.

Find the rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius.
How fast is the area changing w.r.t. its radius when its radius is 3 cm?

27.

For the curve y = (2x + 1)3 find the rate of change of slope of the tangent
at x = 1.

28.

Find the slope of the normal to the curve


x = 1 a sin ;

y = b cos2 at

1
.
4

29.

If a manufacturers total cost function is C(x) = 1000 + 40x + x2, where x


is the out put, find the marginal cost for producing 20 units.

30.

Find a for which f (x) = a (x + sin x) is strictly increasing on R.

31.

A particle moves along the curve 6y = x3 + 2. Find the points on the curve
at which the y co-ordinate is changing 8 times as fast as the x co-ordinate.

32.

A ladder 5 metres long is leaning against a wall. The bottom of the ladder
is pulled along the ground away from the wall at the rate of 2 cm/sec. How
fast is its height on the wall decreasing when the foot of the ladder is 4
metres away from the wall?

[51]

[Class XII : Maths]

33.

A balloon which always remain spherical is being inflated by pumping in


900 cubic cm of a gas per second. Find the rate at which the radius of the
balloon increases when the radius is 15 cm.

34.

A man 2 metres high walks at a uniform speed of 6 metres per minute


away from a lamp post 5 metres high. Find the rate at which the length of
his shadow increases.

35.

Water is running out of a conical funnel at the rate of 5 cm3/sec. If the


radius of the base of the funnel is 10 cm and altitude is 20 cm, find the
rate at which the water level is dropping when it is 5 cm from the top.

36.

The length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 2 cm/sec and the


width y is increasing as the rate of 2 cm/sec when x = 12 cm and y = 5 cm.
Find the rate of change of
(a)

Perimeter

(b) Area of the rectangle.

37.

Sand is pouring from a pipe at the rate of 12c.c/sec. The falling sand forms
a cone on the ground in such a way that the height of the cone is always
one-sixth of the radius of the base. How fast is the height of the sand cone
increasing when height is 4 cm?

38.

The area of an expanding rectangle is increasing at the rate of 48 cm2/sec.


The length of the rectangle is always equal to the square of the breadth.
At what rate is the length increasing at the instant when the breadth is 4.5
cm?

39.

Find a point on the curve y = (x 3)2 where the tangent is parallel to the
line joining the points (4, 1) and (3, 0).

40.

Find the equation of all lines having slope zero which are tangents to the
curve y

1
.
x 2x 3
2

41.

Prove that the curves x = y2 and xy = k cut at right angles if 8k2 = 1.

42.

Find the equation of the normal at the point (am2, am3) for the curve
ay2 = x3.

43.

Show that the curves 4x = y2 and 4xy = k cut as right angles if k2 = 512.

44.

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y 3x 2 which is parallel


to the line 4x y + 5 = 0.

[Class XII : Maths]

[52]

45.

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve

x y a at the point

a2 a2
, .
4 4
16
.
3

46.

Find the points on the curve 4y = x3 where slope of the tangent is

47.

Show that

48.

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve given by x = 1 cos ,

x y
1 touches the curve y = bex/a at the point where the
a b
curve crosses the y-axis.

y = sin at a point where

49.

.
4

Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = log (1 + x)

x
, x 1
1 x

is increasing or decreasing.
50.

Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = x3 12x2 + 36x + 17 is


(a)

Increasing

(b)

Decreasing.

51.

Prove that the function f (x) = x2 x + 1 is neither increasing nor decreasing


in [0, 1].

52.

Find the intervals on which the function f x

53.

Prove that f x

54.

Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = sin4x + cos4x, 0 x

x
is decreasing.
x 1
2

x3
x 2 9x , x 1, 2 is strictly increasing. Hence find
3
the minimum value of f (x).

is
2

increasing or decreasing.
55.

Find the least value of 'a' such that the function f (x) = x2 + ax + 1 is strictly
increasing on (1, 2).

[53]

[Class XII : Maths]

56.

Find the interval in which the function f x 5x 2 3x 2 , x 0 is strictly


decreasing.

57.

Show that the function f (x) = tan1 (sin x + cos x), is strictly increasing on


the interval 0, .
4
58.

59.

Show that the function f x cos 2x is strictly increasing on

4
3

,
.
8 8
Show that the function f x


sin x
is strictly decreasing on 0, .
2
x

Using differentials, find the approximate value of (Q. No. 60 to 64).


1

60.

0.009 3 .

62.

0.0037 2 .

64.

25.02 .

61.

80 4 .

63.

0.037.

65.

Find the approximate value of f (5.001) where f(x) = x3 7x2 + 15.

66.

Find the approximate value of f (3.02) where f (x) = 3x2 + 5x + 3.

67.

Show that of all rectangles inscribed in a given fixed circle, the square has
the maximum area.

68.

Find two positive numbers x and y such that their sum is 35 and the
product x2y5 is maximum.

69.

Show that of all the rectangles of given area, the square has the smallest
perimeter.

70.

Show that the right circular cone of least curved surface area and given
volume has an altitude equal to

[Class XII : Maths]

[54]

2 times the radius of the base..

71.

Show that the semi vertical angle of right circular cone of given surface

1
area and maximum volume is sin1 .
3
72.

A point on the hypotenuse of a triangle is at a distance a and b from the


sides of the triangle. Show that the minimum length of the hypotenuse is

2
a3

3
2 2
b3

73.

Prove that the volume of the largest cone that can be inscribed in a sphere
8
of radius R is
of the volume of the sphere..
27

74.

Find the interval in which the function f given by f (x) = sin x + cos x,
0 x 2 is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

75.

Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = (x + 1)3 (x 3)3 is strictly
increasing or strictly decreasing.

76.

Find the local maximum and local minimum of f (x) = sin 2x x,

77.

Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = 2x3 15x2 + 36x + 1 is
strictly increasing or decreasing. Also find the points on which the tangents
are parallel to x-axis.

78.

A solid is formed by a cylinder of radius r and height h together with two


hemisphere of radius r attached at each end. It the volume of the solid is

x .
2
2

1
metre min. How fast
2
must h (height) be changing when r and h are 10 metres.

constant but radius r is increasing at the rate of

79.

Find the equation of the normal to the curve


x = a (cos + sin ) ; y = a (sin cos ) at the point and show
that its distance from the origin is a.

80.

For the curve y = 4x3 2x5, find all the points at which the tangent passes
through the origin.

81.

Find the equation of the normal to the curve x2 = 4y which passes through
the point (1, 2).

[55]

[Class XII : Maths]

82.

Find the equation of the tangents at the points where the curve 2y = 3x2
2x 8 cuts the x-axis and show that they make supplementary angles
with the x-axis.

83.

Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the hyperbola


at the point (x0, y0).

x2 y2

1
a2 b 2

84.

A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by an equilateral


triangle. Given that the perimeter is 16 metres. Find the width of the
window in order that the maximum amount of light may be admitted.

85.

A jet of an enemy is flying along the curve y = x2 + 2. A soldier is placed


at the point (3, 2). What is the nearest distance between the soldier and
the jet?

86.

Find a point on the parabola y2 = 4x which is nearest to the point (2,


8).

87.

A square piece of tin of side 24 cm is to be made into a box without top


by cutting a square from each corner and folding up the flaps to form the
box. What should be the side of the square to be cut off so that the volume
of the box is the maximum.

88.

A window in the form of a rectangle is surmounted by a semi circular


opening. The total perimeter of the window is 30 metres. Find the dimensions
of the rectangular part of the window to admit maximum light through the
whole opening.

89.

An open box with square base is to be made out of a given iron sheet of area
27 sq. meter, show that the maximum value of the box is 13.5 cubic metres.

90.

A wire of length 36 m is to be cut into two pieces. One of the two pieces
is to be made into a square and other into a circle. What should be the
length of two pieces so that the combined area of the square and the circle
is minimum?

91.

Show that the height of the cylinder of maximum volume which can be
inscribed in a sphere of radius R is

92.

2R
3

. Also find the maximum volume..

Show that the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that
4r
can be inscribed is a sphere of radius r is
.
3

[Class XII : Maths]

[56]

93.

Prove that the surface area of solid cuboid of a square base and given
volume is minimum, when it is a cube.

94.

Show that the volume of the greatest cylinder which can be inscribed in
a right circular cone of height h and semi-vertical angle is

4
h 3 tan2 .
27

95.

Show that the right triangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in a
circle is an isosceles triangle.

96.

A given quantity of metal is to be cast half cylinder with a rectangular box


and semicircular ends. Show that the total surface area is minimum when
the ratio of the length of cylinder to the diameter of its semicircular ends
is : ( + 2).

1.

0.8 cm/sec.

2. 4.4 cm/sec.

3.

2 cm3/sec.

4. 80 cm2/sec.

5.

Rs. 208.

6.

Minimum value = 4, maximum value = 6.

7.

Maximum value = 7, minimum value does not exist.

8.

a 0.

9.

[0, ]

10.

(0, e]

11.

x 1

12.

( , 0) U (0, )

13.


0, .
6

14.

Maximum value = 4, minimum valve = 0. 15. a > 1.

16.

17. 7

18.

1 1
, .
2 4

19. (2, 3)

20.

1
4

21. (1, 7)

[57]

[Class XII : Maths]

1
.
2

22.

(0, 0), (2, 4)

23.

24.

1
.
4

25. 8r

26.

2r cm2/cm, 6 cm2/cm

27. 72

28.

30.

a > 0.

31.

4, 11

33.

a
.
2b

29. Rs. 80.

32.

8
cm sec.
3

1
cm sec.

34.

4 metres/minute

35.

4
cm sec.
45

36.

(a) 0 cm/sec., (b) 14 cm2/sec.

37.

1
cm sec.
48

38.

7.11 cm/sec.

39.

7 1
, .
2 4

40.

42.

2x + 3my = am2 (2 + 3m2)

44.

48x 24y = 23

45.

2x + 2y = a2

46.

128
8 128 8
,
, ,
.
3 27 3
27

48.

49.

Increasing in (0, ), decreasing in (1, 0).

50.

Increasing in ( , 2) (6, ), Decreasing in (2, 6).

31

and 4, .

2 1 x y 2 2 1

[Class XII : Maths]

1
.
2

.
4

[58]

25
.
3

52.

( , 1) and (1, ).

53.

54.

Increasing in ,
4

55.

a = 2.

56.

Strictly decreasing in (1, ).

60.

0.2083

61.

2.9907

62.

0.06083

63.

0.1925

64.

5.002

65.

34.995

66.

45.46

68.

25, 10

74.

Strictly increasing in 0, , 2
4
4

Decreasing in 0,
2

.
4

5
Strictly decreasing in ,
.
4 4
75.

Strictly increasing in (1, 3) (3, )


Strictly decreasing in (, 1) (1, 1).

76.

Local maxima at x

Local max. value

2
6

Local minima at x

Local minimum value


77.

2
6

Strictly increasing in (, 2] [3, )


Strictly decreasing in (2, 3).

[59]

[Class XII : Maths]

Points are (2, 29) and (3, 28).


78.

3
metres min.

79.

x + y tan a sec = 0.

80.

(0, 0), (1, 2) and (1, 2).

81.

x + y = 3

82.

5x y 10 = 0 and 15x + 3y + 20 = 0

83.

xx 0
a

yy 0
b

1,

y y0
2

a y0

x x0
b 2x 0

0.

16
84.

6 3

85.

86.

(4, 4)

87.

4cm

88.

60
30
,
.
4 4

90.

144
36
m,
m.
4
4

91.

4R 3
3 3

[Class XII : Maths]

[60]

CHAPTER 7

INTEGRALS

Integration is the reverse process of Differentiation.

Let

These integrals are called indefinite integrals and c is called constant of


integration.

From geometrical point of view an indefinite integral is collection of family


of curves each of which is obtained by translating one of the curves
parallel to itself upwards or downwards along y-axis.

1.

2.

d
F x f x then we write
dx

x n 1

c
x dx n 1

log x c
n

f x dx F x c .

n 1
n 1

ax b n 1
c

a
n

1
ax b dx
1
log ax b c
a

3.

sin x dx

5.

tan x . dx

cos x c .

4.

n 1
n 1

cos x dx

sin x c.

log cos x c log sec x c .

[61]

[Class XII : Maths]

6.

cot x dx

8.

cosec x . dx

log sin x c .

cot x c .

10.

cosec x cot x dx

11.

sec x dx

12.

cosec x dx

13.

x
x
e dx e c .

15.

16.

1 x

17.

18.

19.

20.

1 x

sec x . tan x . dx

log cosec x cot x c .

14.

x c , x 1.

x c , x 1.

1
a

1
x

dx

log

2a

dx

[Class XII : Maths]

1
a

a x

c.

a x

log

2a

dx

x
a dx

x c.

dx sec

9.

x . dx tan x c .

cosec x c .

dx sin

1
x

sec

log sec x tan x c .

dx tan

7.

tan

x a

c.

x a
1

c.

[62]

ax
c
log a

sec x c .

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

1
a

1
2

a x

1
x

dx sin

c.

dx log x

a x

dx log x

a x dx

a x

2
2

a x dx

a dx

a x

c.

sin

2
2

c.

a x

log x

c.

c.

1.

k .f x dx k f x dx .

2.

k f x g x dx k f x dx k g x dx .

2.

x
x
e f x f ' x dx e f x c .

1.

f x dx

2.

log x

f x

c.

log f x c .

n
f x f x dx

f x n 1

c.

n 1
[63]

[Class XII : Maths]

3.

f x

f x

f x n 1

dx

c.

n 1

f x . g x dx

f x . g x dx

f x . g x dx dx .

f x dx

F b F a , where F x

f x dx .

f x dx
a

where

f a f a h f a 2h

lim h

..... f a n 1 h
h0

b a

or

1.

2.

f x dx

f t dt .
a

f x dx f x dx f x dx .
a

4.

f x dx f x dx .

3.

f x dx lim h
f a rh
h0

r 1

(i)

f x dx

[Class XII : Maths]

f a b x dx .

(ii)

f x dx f a x dx .
0

[64]

5.

f x 0; if f x is odd function.
a

6.

f x dx 20 f x dx ,

if f(x) is even function.

2a

7.

2a f x dx , if f 2a x f x

f x dx 0
0,
if f 2a x f x

Evaluate the following integrals

1.

3.

1
sin

x cos

x dx .

1 sin2 x dx .

2.

dx .

x8

6.

x log x log log x dx .


e

5.

99

cos4 x dx .

7.

4 3 sin x
log
dx .
4 3 cos x

8.

9.

cos 2x 2sin2 x
dx .

cos2 x

10.

11.

10 4x x 2 dx .

8 x
dx .
x 8

4.

a log x

e x log a dx .

2
7

sin

x dx .

12.

[65]

d
f x dx .
dx

[Class XII : Maths]

13.

sin2 x cos2 x dx .

15.

log e
dx .
e

17.

e x dx .

dx .
2

19.

x 1

21.

cos

23.

sec x .log sec x tan x dx .

dx .

14.

16.

ex
a x dx .

18.

x x 1

x
x 1
e

dx .

dx .

dx .

20.

22.

x cos 1 dx .

24.

cos x sin dx .

25.

cot x .log sin x

dx .

26.

x x dx .

27.

x 2 3 log x dx .

28.

x cos x dx .

29.

30.

32.

ax ax dx .

1 cos x
dx .
sin x

x 1

33.

34.

0 x dx

x e 1 e x 1
dx .
xe ex
2

x log x dx .

31.

1 sin x

cos x dx .

where [ ] is greatest integer function.

[Class XII : Maths]

[66]

dx

35.

36.

a f x f a b x dx .

38.

1x x dx .

39.

If

40.

a f x dx b f x dx .

42.

sin2x dx .

9 4x 2

f x

37.

0 1 x 2

, then what is value of a.


4
a

41.

sin x

43.

log x 1 log x

sin x dx .

45.

dx .

sin x sin2x dx .
b

44.

2 x dx .

f x dx f a b x dx .

46.

1
sec x tan x dx .

47.

sin2 x
1 cos x dx .

48.

1 tan x
1 tan x dx .

49.

ax b x
c x dx .

50.

(i)

(iii)

x cosec

tan1x 2

1 x

dx .

sin x a sin x b dx .
[67]

(ii)

(iv)

x 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

dx .

cos x a

cos x a dx .
[Class XII : Maths]

(v)

cos x cos 2x cos 3x dx .


2

(vii)

sin

(ix)

x cos x dx .

sin x cos x
2

(vi)

cos

(viii)

cot

x dx .

x cosec

x dx .

dx .

a sin x b cos x

[Hint : put a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x = t or t2]


(x)

dx . [Hint : Take sec2 x as numerator]

cos x cos x a
6

(xi)
51.

sin x cos x
2

dx .

(xii)

sin x cos x

sin x cos x

dx .

sin 2x

Evaluate :
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(v)

(vi)

(viii)

x
4

x 6 log x
dx

1 x x

1
2

7 log x 2

x a x b
5x 2
2

4x x

[Hint : put log x = t]

1
9 8x x

dx .

dx .

dx .

(vii)

2x 1

x 2

[Class XII : Maths]

dx .

(iv)

3x

[Hint : put x2 = t]

dx .

(ix)

dx .

[68]

x
x

x
2

dx .

6x 12
2

1 x x dx .

(x)

3x 2

x 1 dx .

(xi)

sec x 1 dx .

[Hint : Multiply and divide by


52.

sec x 1 ]

Evaluate :

dx

(i)

x x

(ii)

1 cos x 2 3 cos x dx .

(iii)

cos

(iv)

sin x

sin cos
2

d .

cos 2

x 1

x 1 x 2 x 3 dx .
x

x 2

(v)

x 2 x 1 dx .

(vi)

x 2 1 x 2 2
x 3 3 x 2 4 dx .

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

dx

2x 1 x
x

tan x dx .

[Hint : x2 = t ]

dx .

[69]

[Class XII : Maths]

53.

Evaluate :
5

(i)

(ii)

sec

sin x dx .
3

x dx .

[Hint : Write sec3x = sec x . sec2 x and take sec x as first function]
(iii)

ax

cos bx c dx .

(iv)

sin

6x

1 9x

dx .

[Hint : put 3x = tan ]


(v)

cos

x dx .
1 sin 2x

dx .
1 cos 2x

(vii)

2x

(ix)

2ax x dx .

(xi)

(xii)

log log x log x

(xiii)

6x 5

(xiv)

dx .

6 x x dx .

dx .

(xv)

2x 5

(xvi)

[Class XII : Maths]

(viii)

(x)

tan

x dx .

x 1
dx .

2
2x

x 2

x 12

dx .

2 sin 2x
dx .
1 cos 2x

(vi)

4x 3 dx .

4x 8 dx .

[70]

[Hint : put log x = t x = et ]

54.

Evaluate the following definite integrals :

(i)

sin x cos x

9 16 sin 2x

dx .

(ii)

(iii)

cos 2x log sin x dx .

1 x
1 x

[Hint : put

1 2

2
2

sin

(iv)

dx .

1 x 2 3 2

x2

dx .

= t]

(v)

sin

sin 2x
4

dx .

(vi)

x cos x

5x
2

dx .

4x 3

(vii)

x sin x

1 cos x dx .
0

x sin x
x
sin x

as

Hint : Write

1 cos x
1 cos x
1 cos x

55.

Evaluate :
3

(i)

x 1 x 2 x 3 dx . (ii)

(iii)

1 sin x dx .

tan

1 x x 2

1 x 2

dx .

(iv)

x sin x

1 cos
0

dx .
x

2x x 3 when 2 x 1

3
f x dx where f x x 3x 2
when 1 x 1

3x 2
when 1 x 2.

2
2

(v)

Hint :

f x dx

[71]

f x dx

f x dx

f x dx

[Class XII : Maths]

(vi)

x sin x cos x

sin

(vii)

dx .

x cos x

x
2

dx .

cos x b sin x

Hint : Use

56.

f a x dx

Evaluate the following integrals


(i)

(iii)

e
cos x

(iv)

dx

(ii)

tan x

cos x

x tan x

dx .

(v)

59.

Evaluate

(i)

dx .

sin1 x cos 1 x

sin

[Class XII : Maths]

x cos 1 x

x 2 x 4 x 5 dx
log x log sin x

2x
dx .

2
1 x

dx .

cos x

sec x cosec x

58.

sin
0

57.

f x dx

dx , x 0, 1

[72]

a x
a x

dx .

(ii)

(iii)

dx

x 2 1 log x 2 1 2 log x

x4
x2

(iv)

x sin x cos x

(v)

sin

(vi)

dx

x
dx
a x

sin x cos x
sin 2x

dx

dx

(vii)

sin

x cos x dx

2
3
2

(viii)

x sin x dx .

60.

Evaluate the following integrals :

(i)

(iii)

5
5

dx .

(ii)

x
2x

dx

x 1 x

x 1 x 3

dx

(iv)

[73]

x
4

dx

dx

16

[Class XII : Maths]

(v)

cot x dx .

tan x

(vi)

(vii)

x tan

1 x

2 2

61.

1
4

dx .

dx .

Evaluate the following integrals as limit of sums :


4

(i)

2x 1 dx .

(ii)

2
3x

3 dx .

2x

4 dx .

(iv)

3x

2x

dx .

(v)

(iii)

3x dx .

62.

Evaluate
1

(i)

cot

x x 2 dx

(ii)

dx

sin x 2 cos x 2 sin x cos x


1

(iii)

63.

log 1 x
1 x2

sin x sin2x dx .

[Class XII : Maths]

dx

(iv)

2 log sin x

log sin 2x dx .

64.

[74]

3 sin 2 cos

5 cos2 4 sin d .

65.

0 x tan

67.

1.

/2

x dx

66.

2x

cos 3x dx .

log sin x dx

x c.

2.

2e 2

2
3.

tan x + c.

4.

8x
x9
x2

8log x
c.
log8 9
16

5.

6.

log log log x

8.

x a 1
ax

c
a 1 log a

7.

9.

tan x + c

11.

10.

x 2 x 2 4x 10
2

3log x 2 x 2 4x 10 c

12.

f (x) + c

13.

tan x cot x + c

14.

2 32 2
32
x x 1 c
3
3

15.

log |x| + c

16.

e

a

17.

2x e x
c
log 2e

18.

2
x 13 2 2 x 11 2 c .
3

19.

log x 1

20.

2e

21.

x cos2 + c

22.

log x cos 1
c.
cos

1
c.
x 1

[75]

log e a c

[Class XII : Maths]

23.

log sec x tan x 2 c

24.

log cos x sin


c
sin

25.

log sin x 2 c

26.

x4
1
3x 2
2
3 log x c.
4 2x
2

27.

1
log 2 3log x c .
3

28.

log |x + cos x | + c

29.

2 log |sec x/2| + c.

30.

1
log x e e x c .
e

31.

x log x 2 c

32.

33.

34.

35.

1 1 2x
sin c
3
2

36.

b a
2

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

x + log x + c.

42.

1
log sec x tan x c .
2

43.

1 sin3x
2


sin x c or sin3 x c

2
3
3

44.

2 2

45.

46.

log |1 + sin x| + c

47.

x sin x + c

48.

log |cos x + sin x| + c

49.

a c x
log a c

b c x
log b c

[Class XII : Maths]

c1.

[76]

x 2 log x

2x c .
2
a

50.

(i)

1
1

log cosec tan 1 x 2 2 c .


2

(ii)

1 2
1
x x x 2 1 log x x 2 1 c .
2
2

(iii)
(iv)

(v)

1
sin a b

sin x a
sin x b

x cos 2a sin 2a log |sec (x a)| + c.

12x 6 sin 2x 3 sin 4x 2 sin 6x c .

48
2

sin x

(vi)

sin x

(vii)

1
1
1
1

2x sin 2x sin 4x sin 6x c .


32
2
2
6

(viii)

4
cot6 x
cot x

c.
6
4

(ix)

51.

log

a b

sin x c .

a sin x b cos x c

(x)

2 cosec a cos a tan x . sin a c .

(xi)

tan x cot x 3x + c.

(xii)

sin1 (sin x cos x) + c.

(i)

1
3

(ii)

log

tan

2x 2

2 log x 1

1
c.

3 log x 2

[77]

[Class XII : Maths]

(iii)

5 1 2x

log

(iv)

x 4
sin1
c.
5

(v)

2 log

5
(vi)

5 1 2x

x a

x b c

log 3 x 2 x 1

11

tan

3 2
2

3 x 1

c
2
1

(vii)

x 3 log x 6 x 12 2 3 tan

(viii)

4x x

(ix)

1 x

4 sin
3
2 2
x

x 3

c
3

x 2

c
2

2x 1 1 x x 2

5
16

52.

3
2

(x)

x 2

(xi)

log cos x

(i)

x 1

log

[Class XII : Maths]

2x 1

c
5

2x 1

x x 1
7
4
c

1
2
2 3
x x 1
log x
2
8

cos x cos x c

sin

c
1

[78]

(ii)

(iii)

1 cos x

log

2 3 cos x
2

log cos 2

3
(iv)

log 1 cos c .

3
1

log x 1

(v)

log x 2

15

x 4 log

log x 3 c

x 2 2

x 1
(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(i)

(ii)

17
1

x
x

tan

log x

x 1

tan

34

x 1

1
tan x
tan x 1
log


2 tan x
2 2
tan x

2 tan x 1

2 tan x 1

1 3
3
3
x cos x sin x c
3
1

sec x tan x
e

log sec x tan x

ax

a b

(iv)

1
17

log

2
(iii)

1 x
x

3 tan c
3
2

log 2x 1

53.

(ix)

tan

2x tan

a cos bx

3x

c b sin bx c c1

log 1 9x

3
[79]

[Class XII : Maths]

(v)

2 x sin x cos x c

(vi)

3
x 4 1
x
x
1
tan
x

c.

4
12
4

1
(vii)

(ix)

2x

tan x c .

(viii)

2
x a

2ax x

sin

(x)

x x 1
e
c.
x 1

(xi)

ex tan x + c.

(xii)

x log log x

c.

2x

x a

c
a

c.

log x
(xiii)

2 6 x x

2 32

25
2x 1
2
1 2x 1
8
6 x x
sin
c
5
8
4

1
(xiv)

(xv)

log x 1

x 1

4x 3

log x

log x 2

tan

3
3

x 2

2
x

2x 1

c
3

4x 3

4x 3 c

(xvi)

x 2

[Class XII : Maths]

4x 8 2 log x 2

[80]

4x 8 c

1
54.

(i)

(iii)

(v)

log 3.

(ii)

20

(iv)

/2.

log 2.

25

6
log .
5
2

5.

(ii)

(iii)

(v)

29
4

(i)

15
8

56.

(vii)

(vii)

5 10 log

(i)

(vi)

55.

(iv)

(vi)

16

2ab

(ii)

12

(iii)

/2.

(v)

a.

57.

13
2

58.

x cos x + sin x + c.

(iv)

[81]

log 2.

[Class XII : Maths]

59.

60.

(i)

2 2x 1
2 x x2
sin1 x
x c

(ii)

2 1 x cos 1 x

(iii)

(iv)

sin x x cos x
c
x sin x cos x

(v)

x a tan1 x ax c

(vi)

2 sin1

(vii)

(viii)

3
1
2.

(i)

1
1
1 2
3
x

3 2

x x2 c

1
2

log 1 2 c
3
x

3 1
2

x 4 log x

log x 1

log x 1

4
log x

1
2

(ii)

(iii)

log x 1

2x

(v)

10

log

81
8

x 2
x 2

tan

log x 3

tan

x
c .
2

2.

[Class XII : Maths]

1
10

log x 1

(iv)

log x

[82]

x
c .
2

27
2 x 3

c.

tan

x c.

(vi)

61.

tan

2 2

x2

2x

1
4 2

log

x
x

2
2

2x 1

2x 1

(vii)

/8.

(i)

14.

(ii)

(iii)

26.

(iv)

(v)

62.

(i)

(iii)

141

26

3
1

127 e

log 2
2

(ii)

1
tan x 2
log
c
5
2 tan x 1

log 2.
8

(iv)

1
log .
2
2

63.

1
1
2
log 1 cos x log 1 cos x log 1 2cos x c .
6
2
3

64.

3log 2 sin

65.

2 1
log 2
16 4 2

66.

e 2x
2cos 3x 3 sin3x c .
13

67.

log 2
2

4
c.
2 sin

[83]

[Class XII : Maths]

CHAPTER 8

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS

Area bounded by the curve y = f(x), the x axis and between the ordinates,
x = a and x = b is given by
b

Area =

f x dx
a

y
y = f(x )

y = f(x )

Area bounded by the curve x = f(y) the y-axis and between abscissas,
y = c and y = d is given by
d

Area =

f y

dy

y
d

d
x = f(y )

x = f(y )
c

c
x

O
[Class XII : Maths]

[84]

Area bounded by two curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) such that 0 g(x) f(x)
for all x [a, b] and between the ordinate at x = a and x = b is given by

Y
y = f( x )
B

A
y = g (x )
a

Area =

f x g x dx
a

Required Area
k

f x dx f x dx .
a

Y
y = f(x )
A2

O A

A1

B (k , 0 ) x = b

x= a

1.

Find the area enclosed by circle x2 + y2 = a2.

2.

Find the area of region bounded by x , y : x 1 y

3.

Find the area enclosed by the ellipse

x
a

[85]

2
2

y
b

2
25 x .

2
2

[Class XII : Maths]

4.

Find the area of region in the first quadrant enclosed by xaxis, the line
y = x and the circle x2 + y2 = 32.

5.

Find the area of region {(x, y) : y2 4x, 4x2 + 4y 2 9}

6.

Prove that the curve y = x2 and, x = y2 divide the square bounded by


x = 0, y = 0, x = 1, y = 1 into three equal parts.

7.

Find smaller of the two areas enclosed between the ellipse

x
a

and the line

2
2

y
b

2
2

bx + ay = ab.
8.

Find the common area bounded by the circles x 2 + y 2 = 4 and


(x 2)2 + y2 = 4.

9.

Using integration, find the area of the region bounded by the triangle
whose vertices are
(a)

10.

(1, 0), (1, 3) and (3, 2)

(b)

(2, 2) (0, 5) and (3, 2)

Using integration, find the area bounded by the lines.


(i)

x + 2y = 2, y x = 1 and 2x + y 7 = 0

(ii)

y = 4x + 5,

y = 5 x

and 4y x = 5.

11.

Find the area of the region {(x, y) : x2 + y2 1 x + y}.

12.

Find the area of the region bounded by


y = |x 1| and y = 1.

13.

Find the area enclosed by the curve y = sin x between x = 0 and x

and x-axis.
14.

Find the area bounded by semi circle y

15.

Find area of region given by {(x, y) : x2 y |x|}.

16.

Find area of smaller region bounded by ellipse

25 x

9
line 2x + 3y = 6.

[Class XII : Maths]

[86]

and x-axis..

1 and straight

17.

Find the area of region bounded by the curve x 2 = 4y and line


x = 4y 2.

18.

Using integration find the area of region in first quadrant enclosed by

3 y and the circle x2 + y2 = 4.

x-axis, the line x


19.

Find smaller of two areas bounded by the curve y = |x| and x2 + y2 = 8.

20.

Find the area lying above x-axis and included between the circle
x2 + y2 = 8x and inside the parabola y2 = 4x.

21.

Using integration, find the area enclosed by the curve y = cos x,

y = sin x and x-axis in the interval 0, .


2

22.

Sketch the graph y = |x 5|. Evaluate

x 5 dx .

23.

Find area enclosed between the curves, y = 4x and x2 = 6y.

24.

Using integration, find the area of the following region :

x , y :

x 1 y

1.

a2 sq. units.

2.

1
25 sq . units.
4
2

3.

ab sq. units

5.

8.
10.

2
6

9
8

9
4

5 x2

4.

sin

1
sq. units
3

2 3 sq. units

3
(a) 6 sq. units

7.

4 sq. units

2 ab

sq. units

9.

(a) 4 sq. units (b)

15
sq. units
2

[Hint. Coordinate of vertices are (0, 1) (2, 3) (4, 1)]

[87]

[Class XII : Maths]

(b)

15

sq. units

2
[Hint

: Coordinate of vertices are ( 1, 1) (0, 5) (3, 2)]

11.

sq. units
4
2

12.

13.

3 sq. units

14.

1 sq. units

25

sq. units

15.

17.

1
3
9

sq. units

16.

2 sq. units

18.

sq. units

sq. units

19.

2 sq. units.

20.

4
8 3 sq. units
3

21.

22.

13 sq. units.

23.

384 sq. units.

24.

1
5
sq. units

4
2

2 sq. units.

[Class XII : Maths]

[88]

CHAPTER 9

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Differential Equation : Equation containing derivatives of a dependant


variable with respect to an independent variable is called differential
equation.

Order of a Differential Equation : The order of a differential equation is


defined to be the order of the highest order derivative occurring in the
differential equation.

Degree of a Differential Equation : Highest power of highest order


derivative involved in the equation is called degree of differential equation
where equation is a polynomial equation in differential coefficients.

Formation of a Differential Equation : We differentiate the family of


curves as many times as the number of arbitrary constant in the given
family of curves. Now eliminate the arbitrary constants from these equations.
After elimination the equation obtained is differential equation.

Solution of Differential Equation


(i)

Variable Separable Method


dy
f x, y
dx
We separate the variables and get
f(x)dx = g(y)dy
Then

(ii)

f x dx

g y dy

c is the required solutions..

Homogenous Differential Equation : A differential equation of


the form

dy
dx

f x, y
g x, y
[89]

where f(x, y) and g(x, y) are both

[Class XII : Maths]

homogeneous functions of the same degree in x and y i.e., of the


form

dy

y
F is called a homogeneous differential equation.
x
dx

For solving this type of equations we substitute y = vx and then

dy

v x

dx
method.
(iii)

dv

. The equation can be solved by variable separable

dx

Linear Differential Equation : An equation of the from

dy

Py Q where P and Q are constant or functions of x only


dx
is called a linear differential equation. For finding solution of this
type of equations, we find integrating factor (I .F .) e
Solution is y I .F .

Q. I.F . dx

P dx .

dx
Similarly, differential equations of the type dy Px Q where P
and Q are constants or functions of y only can be solved.

1.

Write the order and degree of the following differential equations.

(i)

dy

dy
(ii)
dx

cos y 0.

dx
5

(iii)

d y
dx

(v)

(vii)

d 2y
sin x 2 .
dx

d 2y
1
2
dx
dx

[Class XII : Maths]

d 2y
2
dx

(iv)

dx

13

dy

d 3y
3
dx

(vi)

d y
5

d y
dx

4.

dy
log
0.
dx

dy
1

dx

32

sin x .
[90]

(viii)

dy

dy
tan
0
dx
dx

d y
dx

2.

Write the general solution of following differential equations.


(i)

dy

(ii)

x .

(iv)

dx

(iii)

dy

dx

(v)

dy

x y

1 cos 2x

(vi)

dy
dx

1 cos 2y

1 2y

3x 1

Write integrating factor of the following differential equations


(i)

dy
y cos x sin x
dx

(ii)

dy
2
y sec x sec x tan x
dx

(iii)

(v)

(vii)
4.

dy
dx

dx
3.

(ex + ex) dy = (ex ex)dx

dy
4
y x .
dx

dy
3y x
dx

dy
1

dx
1 x

dy
y log x x y
dx

(iv)

(vi)

dy
y tan x sec x
dx

y sin x

Write order of the differential equation of the family of following curves


(i)
(iii)

(v)

y = Aex + Bex + c

(ii)

Ay = Bx2

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = 9

(iv)

Ax + By2 = Bx2 Ay

(vi)

y = a cos (x + b)

x
a

(vii)

2
2

y
b

2
2

0.

y = a + bex+c

[91]

[Class XII : Maths]

5.

(i)

Show that y e

1 x 2 d

dx

(ii)

y
2

m sin

is a solution of

dy
2
m y 0.
dx

Show that y = sin(sin x) is a solution of differential equation


2

d y
dx

tan x

dy
2
y cos x 0.
dx
2

(iii)

x d y
dy
B
x
y 0.
Show that y Ax
is a solution of
2
dx
x
dx

(iv)

Show that y = a cos (log x) + b sin (log x) is a solution of

d y
dx

(v)

dy
y 0.
dx

x 2 a2

Verify that y log x


equation :

a2
(vi)

x2

d 2y
dx

satisfies the differential

dy
0.
dx

Find the differential equation of the family of curves


y = ex (A cos x + B sin x), where A and B are arbitrary constants.

6.

(vii)

Find the differential equation of an ellipse with major and minor


axes 2a and 2b respectively.

(viii)

Form the differential equation representing the family of curves


(y b)2 = 4(x a).

Solve the following differential equations.


(i)

dy

y cot x sin 2x .

dy
dx

dx

[Class XII : Maths]

(ii)

[92]

2y x log x .

(iii)

dy

dx
(iv)

. y cos x

sin x

x
3

cos x

x 0.

dy

cos x sin x .

dx

7.

(v)

ydx x y

(vi)

ye dx y

dy

2xe

dy

Solve each of the following differential equations :

dy

dy
2
2y
.

dx
dx

(i)

y x

(ii)

cos y dx + (1 + 2ex) sin y dy = 0.

(iii)

x 1 y dx y 1 x dy 0.

1 x 2 1

(iv)
(v)
(vi)

dy

xy dx 0.

(xy2 + x) dx + (yx2 + y) dy = 0; y(0) = 1.

dy

y sin x cos x xy e .

dx
(vii)
8.

tan x tan y dx + sec2 x sec2 y dy = 0

Solve the following differential equations :


(i)

x2 y dx (x3 + y3) dy = 0.

(ii)

dy

xy y .

dx
(iii)

x 2 y 2 dx

2xy dy 0, y 1 1.

[93]

[Class XII : Maths]

x
x

y sin
dx x sin y dy .

y
y

(iv)

dy

(vi)

dy

(viii)

2xy

9.

10.

1 y

dx

1 x

3xy

(ix)

dy
dx

y
tan .
x
x

v
y

Put

dx

(v)

(vii)

dy

x y

2 y

x e .

dx

2
2

dx x 2 xy dy

(i)

Form the differential equation of the family of circles touching


y-axis at (0, 0).

(ii)

Form the differential equation of family of parabolas having vertex


at (0, 0) and axis along the (i) positive y-axis (ii) positive x-axis.

(iii)

Form differential equation of family of circles passing through origin


and whose centre lie on x-axis.

(iv)

Form the differential equation of the family of circles in the first


quadrant and touching the coordinate axes.

Show that the differential equation

dy

dx

x 2y
x y

is homogeneous and

solve it.
11.

Show that the differential equation :


(x2 + 2xy y2) dx + (y2 + 2xy x2) dy = 0 is homogeneous and solve it.

12.

Solve the following differential equations :


(i)

dy

2y cos 3x .

dx
(ii)

sin x

[Class XII : Maths]

dy

2

y cos x 2 sin x cos x if y 1
2
dx

[94]

(iii)
13.

3e tan y dx 1 e
x

sec2 y dy

Solve the following differential equations :


(i)

(x3 + y3) dx = (x2y + xy2)dy.

(ii)

x dy y dx

(iii)

y
y
y x cos y sin dx
x
x

y dx .

y
y
x y sin x cos dy 0.

x
x

(iv)

x2dy + y(x + y) dx = 0 given that y = 1 when x = 1.


y

(v)

xe

y x

dy

0 if y(e) = 0

dx
(vi)
(vii)
14.

(x3 3xy2) dx = (y3 3x2y)dy.


dy

dx

y
cosec 0 given that y 0 when x 1
x
x

Solve the following differential equations :


2

dy
tan x y .
dx

(i)

cos x

(ii)

x cos x

dy
y x sin x cos x 1.
dx

(iii)

x
x

1 e y dx e y 1 x dy 0.

(iv)

(y sin x) dx + tan x dy = 0, y(0) = 0.

[95]

[Class XII : Maths]

15.

Solve the following differential equations :

y
y
y dx y sin y dx x dy x cos
x
x

(i)

x dy

(ii)

3ex tan y dx + (1 ex) sec2 y dy = 0 given that y

, when
4

x = 1.
dy
y cot x 2x x 2 cot x given that y(0) = 0.
dx

(iii)

1.(i)

order = 1,

degree = 1

(ii)

order = 2, degree = 1

(iii)

order = 4,

degree = 1

(iv)

order = 5, degree is not defined.

(v)

order = 2,

degree = 2

(vi)

order = 2, degree = 2

(vii)

order = 3,

degree = 2

(viii)

2.(i)

3.(i)

(iv)

5x + 5 y = c

2(y x) + sin 2y + sin 2x = c.

(vi)

2 log |3x + 1| + 3log |1 2y| = c.

esin x

(ii)

etan x

2 log x c

(v)

e 1

c.

e 1

e1/x
1
x

log x 2

(iii)

y loge e e

4
(v)

(ii)

6
(iii)

order = 1, degree is not defined

[Class XII : Maths]

[96]

(iv)

(vi)

sec x

tan

(vii)

4.(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(vii)

dy
x
dx

5.(vi)

d y
dx

d y

dx

2y 0

dx

(viii)

dy

dy

dx

(ii)

= y

4 loge

x 1

(iv)

y = tan x 1 + cetan x

(vi)

x = y2ey + cy2

cy x 2 1 2y

(ii)

e x

y sin x

dy
dx

16

(iii)

dx

2 sin x

y sin x

xy

d y

6.(i)

, x 0

c
x

(v)

7.(i)
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

xy

1 x

log

x 2

1 y

1 y
1 y

1 y

2
2

2 sec y c

1 x

1 y

1 2

[97]

[Class XII : Maths]

(vi)

log y

cos x

cos x xe

log tan y

cos 2x

1 cos 2x
x

cos 2x x 1 e c

16
3

(vii)

4
8.(i)

x
3y

3
3

(iii)

x2 + y2 = 2x

(iv)

y ce

(v)

y
sin cx
x

(vii)

(ix)

9.(i)

2xy

(vi)

c x

(viii)

sin

y
log x c
x

10.

log x

11.

2xy

2xy

[Class XII : Maths]

c
x

x c

dy

dy

y '

xy y

y sin

(ii)

2y x

dy
dx

dx
(iv)

dx
(iii)

c
x

tan

cos x y

3
2

(ii)

log y c

x yy '
1

2 3 tan

x 2y

c
3x

[98]

y 2x

dy
dx

3 sin 3x

2 cos 3x

2x

(ii)

y x log c x y

(ii)

cx

(iii)

y
xy cos c
x

(iv)

3x y y 2x

(v)

y x log log x , x 0

(vi)

c x y

(ii)

(iv)

2y = sin x

12.(i)

13
(iii)
13.(i)

(vii)

sin x

13

tan y k 1 e

cos

ce

cosec x

x 3

x y .

log x 1

x
14.

(i)

y = tan x 1 + ce tan x

sin x
cos x
c
x
x

(iii)

15.

x ye y c

(i)

y
c xy sec
x

(ii)

(1 e)3 tan y = (1 ex)3

(iii)

y = x2.

[99]

[Class XII : Maths]

CHAPTER 10

VECTORS

A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector. It is


denoted by a directed line segment.

Two or more vectors which are parallel to same line are called collinear
vectors.

Position vector of a point P(a, b, c) w.r.t. origin (0, 0, 0) is denoted by OP ,

where OP ai b j c k and OP a 2 b 2 c 2 .

If A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) be any two points in space, then

AB x 2 x 1 i y 2 y 1 j z 2 z 1 k and

AB

x 2

x 1

y 2 y 1

z 2 z 1 .

If two vectors a and b are represented in magnitude and direction by the

two sides of a triangle taken in order, then their sum a b is represented


in magnitude and direction by third side of triangle taken in opposite order.
This is called triangle law of addition of vectors.

If a is any vector and is a scalar, then a is a vector collinear with

a and a

a .

If a and b are two collinear vectors, then a b where is some


scalar.

Any vector a can be written as a a a , where a is a unit vector in

the direction of a .

[Class XII : Maths]

[100]

If a and b be the position vectors of points A and B,, and C is any point

which divides AB in ratio m : n internally then position vector c of point

mb na
C is given as c
. If C divides AB in ratio m : n externally,,
m n

mb na
then c
.
m n

The angles , and made by r ai b j ck with positive direction


of x, y and z-axis are called direction angles and cosines of these angles

are called direction cosines of r usually denoted as l = cos , m = cos ,


n = cos .
a
b
c
Also l , m , n and l2 + m2 + n2 = 1.
r
r
r

The numbers a, b, c proportional to l, m, n are called direction ratios.


Scalar product of two vectors a and b is denoted as a.b and is defined


as a.b a b cos , where is the angle between a and b (0 ).


Dot product of two vectors is commutative i.e. a b b a.

a b 0 a o, b o or

2
a a a , so i l j j

a b.
k k 1.

If a a 1i a 2 j a 3 k and b b 1l b 2 j b 3 k, then

a b = a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2.

a . b
Projection of a on b
and projection vector of

a . b

a along b

b.
b

Cross product or vector product of two vectors a and b is denoted as


a b and is defined as a b a b sin n . were is the angle between


[101]

[Class XII : Maths]

a and b (0 ) and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both a and b



such that a , b and n form a right handed system.



Cross product of two vectors is not commutative i.e., a b b a ,


but a b b a .



a b o a = o , b = o or a || b .

i i j j k k o .

i j k, j k i, k i j and j i k, k j i, i k j

If a a1i a2 j a3 k and b b1i b2 j b3 k , then


i

a b a1
b1

k
a3
b3


a b

Unit vector perpendicular to both a and b .


a b

a b is the area of parallelogram whose adjacent sides are

a and b .
1

a b is the area of parallelogram where diagonals are a and b .


2

If a , b and c forms a triangle, then area of the triangle..

j
a2
b2

1
1
a b
b c =
c a .
2
2
2

Scalar triple product of three vectors a , b and c is defined as




a . b c and is denoted as a b c

[Class XII : Maths]

[102]

Geometrically, absolute value of scalar triple product a b c represents


volume of a parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are a , b and c .


a , b and c are coplanar a b c 0




a b c b c a c a b

If

^
^
^
^
^
^
a a1 i a2 j a3 k ,
b b1 i b2 j b3 k &

^
^
^
c c1 i c 2 j c 3 k , then
a1

a b c b1
c1

a2
b2
c2

a3
b3
c3

The scalar triple product of three vectors is zero if any two of them are
same or collinear.

1.

What are the horizontal and vertical components of a vector

a of

magnitude 5 making an angle of 150 with the direction of x-axis.


2.

What is a R such that a x 1, where x i 2 j 2k ?

3.

When is

4.

What is the area of a parallelogram whose sides are given by


2i j and i 5k ?

x y x y ?

5.

What is the angle between a and b , If




a b 3 and a b 3 3.

6.

Write a unit vector which makes an angle of

7.

z-axis and an acute angle with y-axis.

If A is the point (4, 5) and vector AB has components 2 and 6 along


x-axis and y-axis respectively then write point B.
[103]

with x-axis and


with
4
3

[Class XII : Maths]

8.

9.

10.

11.
12.

What is the point of trisection of PQ nearer to P if positions of P and Q


are 3i 3 j 4k and 9i 8 j 10k respectively?
Write the vector in the direction of 2i 3 j 2 3 k , whose magnitude is
10 units.
What are the direction cosines of a vector equiangular with co-ordinate
axes?
What is the angle which the vector 3i 6 j 2k makes with the x-axis?
Write a unit vector perpendicular to both the vectors
3i 2 j k and 2i j 2k .

13.

What is the projection of the vector i j on the vector i j ?

14.

If

15.

For what value of ,

b 2i 6 j 3k ?

16.

What is

17.
18.


a 2, b 2 3 and a b , what is the value of a b ?

a i j 4k

is per pendicular to

a , if a b . a b 3 and 2 b a ?

What is the angle between a and b , if a b a b ?

In a parallelogram ABCD, AB 2i j 4k and AC i j 4k.


What is the length of side BC ?

19.

What is the area of a parallelogram whose diagonals are given by vectors


2i j 2k and i 2k ?

20.

Find

21.


If a and b are two unit vectors and a b is also a unit vector then

what is the angle between a and b ?

22.

23.

x if for a unit vector a , x a . x a 12 .

If i, j , k are the usual three mutually perpendicular unit vectors then what

is the value of i . j k j . i k k . j i ?

What is the angle between x and y if x . y x y ?

[Class XII : Maths]

[104]

24.

25.

26.

27.

Write a unit vector in xy-plane, making an angle of 30 with the +ve


direction of xaxis.

If a , b and c are unit vectors with a b c 0 , then what



is the value of a . b b . c c . a ?

If a and b are unit vectors such that a

5 a 4 b , then what is the angle between

2 b is perpendicular to

a and b ?

If ABCDEF is a regular hexagon then using triangle law of addition prove


that :

AB AC AD AE AF 3 AD 6 AO
O being the centre of hexagon.
28.

29.

Points L, M, N divides the sides BC, CA, AB

1 : 4, 3 : 2, 3 : 7 respectively. Prove that AL

parallel to CK where K divides AB in ratio 1

of a ABC in the ratios



BM CN is a vector
: 3.

The scalar product of vector i j k with a unit vector along the sum
of the vectors 2i 4 j 5k and i 2 j 3k is equal to 1. Find the

30.

value of .

a , b and c are three mutually perpendicular vectors of equal

magnitude. Show that a b + c makes equal angles with

31.

1 1
a , b and c with each angle as cos
.
3

If 3i j and 2i j 3k then express in the form of

1 2 , where 1 is parallel to and 2 is perpendicular

to .

32.


If a , b ,

that a

c are three vectors such that a b c 0 then prove


ve



b b c c a.

[105]

[Class XII : Maths]

33.

34.

35.

36.

a 3, b 5, c 7 and a b c 0 , find the angle

between a and b .
If

Let a i j , b 3 j k and c 7i k , find a vector d which


is perpendicular to a and b and c . d 1.

If a i j k , c j k are the given vectors then find a vector


b satisfying the equation a b c ,
a . b 3.
Find a unit vector perpendicular to plane ABC, when position vectors of A,
B, C are 3i j 2k ,

37.

i j 3k and 4i 3 j k respectively..

For any two vector, show that a b a b .

38.

Evaluate

39.

If a and b are unit vector inclined at an angle than prove that :


(i)

40.
41.

42.
43.

44.

sin

2 a

2 a

2
2 a b

(ii)

For any two vectors, show that

tan


a b

if a is a unit vector..

2
a
2

a b

b
.
b

2
b .

a i j k , b i j 2k and c xi x 2 j k^ . If c

lies in the plane of a and b , then find the value of x.


Prove that angle between any two diagonals of a cube is cos

1 .
3

Let a, b and c are unit vectors such that


a
b
a
c 0 and the angle

c .
between b and c is , then prove that
a 2 b
6
Prove that the normal vector to the plane containing three points with

position vectors a , b and c lies in the direction of vector


b c c a a b.

[Class XII : Maths]

[106]

45.

46.

47.


a , b , c are position vectors of the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC

1
then show that the area of ABC is
a b b c c a .
2

If a b c d and a c b d , then prove that

a d is parallel to b c provided a d and b c .


If

Dot product of a vector with vectors i j 3k, i 3j 2k

and 2i j 4k is 0, 5 and 8 respectively. Find the vectors..


48.


If a 5i j 7k, b i j k, find such that a b and

a b are orthogonal.

49.

Let

50.

If a 2, b 5 and a b 2i j 2k, find the value of



a b.

51.

52.
53.

54.

55.

56.

a and b be vectors such that



then find a b .


a b a b 1,


are three vectors such that
a, b, c
b c a and

a b c . Prove that a , b and c are mutually perpendicular to

each other and b 1, c a .

If a 2i 3 j, b i j k and c 3i k find a b c .
Find volume of parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are given by

vectors a 2i 3 j 4k, b i 2 j k, and c 3i j 2k.

Find the value of such that a i j k, b 2i j k and

c i j k are coplanar..
Show that the four points (1, 4, 3), (3, 2, 5) (3, 8, 5) and (3, 2, 1)
are coplanar.


For any three vectors a , b and


a b
b c
[107]

c , prove that


c a 2 a b c
[Class XII : Maths]

57.


For any three vectors a , b and c , prove that a b , b c and

c a are coplanar..

5 3

3.

x and y are like parallel vectors..

1
3

2. a

1.

4.

126 sq units.

5.

6.

1 1
1
i j k
2
2
2

7. (6, 11)

8.

10.

12.

14

5, 3 , 6
1

1
3

3i 4 j k
26

9.

1
3

11.

4 i 6 j 4 3
k.

cos

3 .
7

13. 0

14.

15. 9

16.

17.

.
2

18.

19.

3
sq. units.
2

20.

13

21.

2
3

[Class XII : Maths]

[108]

22.

3
1
i j
2
2

24.

23.

25.

3
2

26.

29.

= 1

31.

3
1
1
3
i j i j 3k .
2

2 2
2

33.

60

34.

35.

5 2
2
i j k.
3
3
3

36.

38.

41. x = 2

47.

i 2 j k

48.

73

50.

91

49.

52.

54.

= 1

1
1
3
i j k.
4
4
4

1
165

10i 7 j 4k .

53. 37

[109]

[Class XII : Maths]

CHAPTER 11

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

Distance between points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) is

PQ
(i)

x 2

x 1

y 2 y 1

z 2 z 1 .

The coordinates of point R which divides line segment PQ where


P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) in the ratio m : n internally are

mx 2 nx 1 my 2 ny 1 mz 2 nz 1 .
,
m n ,
m n
m n
(ii)

The co-ordinates of a point which divides join of (x1, y1, z1) and
(x2, y2, z2) in the ratio of m : n externally are

mx 2 nx 1 my 2 ny 1 mz 2 nz 1 .
,
m n ,
m n
m n

Direction ratios of a line through (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) are x2 x1,
y2 y1, z2 z1.

Direction cosines of a line whose direction ratios are a, b, c are given by


a

l
a

(i)

(ii)

, m
a

, n
a

Vector equation of a line through point a and parallel to vector

b is r a b .
Cartesian equation of a line through point (x1, y1, z1) and having
direction ratios a, b, c is
x x1
y y1
z z1

.
a
b
c

[Class XII : Maths]

[110]

(i)

Vector equation of line through two points having position vectors


a and b is r a b a .

(ii)

C artesian equation of a line through tw o points (x1,

y1, z1) and

x x1
y y1
z z1
(x2, y2, z2) is x x y y z z .
2
1
2
1
2
1

Angle between lines r a 1 b 1 and r a 2 b 2 is given



b b
by cos 1 2 .
b1 b 2
x x2
x x1
y y1
z z1
and

a2
a1
b1
c1

Angle between lines

y y2
z z2

is given by
y
b2
c2
cos

a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2
2
a1

2
b1

2
c1

2
a2

2
b2

2
c2

Two lines are perpendicular to each other if


b 1 b 2 0 or a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.

Equation of plane :
(i)

At a distance of p unit from origin and perpendicular to n is

y + nz = p
r n p and corresponding Cartesian form is lx + my
when l, m and n are d.c.s of normal to plane.

(ii)

(iii)


Passing through a and normal to n is r a . n 0 and
corresponding Cartesian form is a(x x 1) + b (y y 1) +
c(z z1) = 0 where a, b, c are d.r.s of normal to plane and
(x1, y1, z1) lies on the plane.
Passing through three non collinear points is



r a b a c a 0

[111]

[Class XII : Maths]

x x1
or x 2 x 1
x3 x1

(iv)
(v)

y y1
y2 y1
y3 y1

x
y
z

1.
a
b
c
Planes passing through the line of intersection of planes


r n 1 d 1 and r n 2 d 2 is


r n 1 d 1 r n 2 d 2 0.


Angle between planes r n 1 d 1 and r n 2 d 2 is

n n
given by cos 1 2 .
n1 n 2
H aving intercepts

a, b and c on co-ordinate axis is

(i)

(ii)

(iv)

Angle between a1x + b1y + c1z = d1 and a2x + b2y + c2z = d2 is


given by
cos

(iii)

z z1
z 2 z1 0
z 3 z1

a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2

.
2
2
2
2
2
b1 c1 a2 b 2 c 2

Two planes are perpendicular to each other iff n 1 . n 2 0 or
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.
2
a1

Two planes are parallel iff

n 1 n 2 for some scaler

(i)

a1
b
c
1 1.
a2
b2
c2

Distance of a point a

a n d
.

(ii)

Distance of a point (x1, y1, z1) from plane ax + by + cz = d is

0 or

from plane

ax 1 by 1 cz 1 d

.
2
2
b c

Two lines r a 1 b 1 and r a 2 b 2 are coplanar..




iff a 2 a 1 b 1 b 2 0 . Equation of plane containing


these lines is r a 1 b 1 b 2 0.
a

12.

(i)


n d is

[Class XII : Maths]

[112]

(ii)

x x1
y y1
z z1

and
a1
b1
c1
y y2
z z2

are coplanar Iff


b2
c2

Two lines

x x2
a2

x2 x1
a1
a2

y2 y1
b1
b2

z2 z1
c1
0
c2

and equation of plane containing them is


x x1 y y1 z z1
a1
b1
c1
0
.
a2
b2
c2

(i)


The angle between line r a b and plane r n d

b n
is given as sin .
b n
b

90

(ii)

The angle between line

x x1
y y1
z z1

and plane
a1
b1
c1

a2x + b2y + c2 z = d is given as


sin

(iii)

a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2
2
a1

b1 c1 a2 b 2 c 2


r a b is parallel to plane r . n d

b n 0 or a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.

A line

r = a +b

r .n =d

[113]

[Class XII : Maths]

1.

W hat is the distance of point (a,

2.

What is the angle between the lines 2x = 3y = z and 6x = y = 4z?

3.

Write the equation of a line passing through (2, 3, 5) and parallel to line
x 1
y 2
z 1

.
3
4
1

4.

Write the equation of a line through (1, 2, 3) and perpendicular to

r i j 3 k 5.

5.

b, c) from x-axis?

What is the value of for which the lines

x 1
y 3
z 1

and
2
5

x 2
y 1
z

are perpendicular to each other..


3
2
2
6.

7.

If a line makes angle , , and with co-ordinate axes, then what is the
value of
sin2 + sin2 + sin2 ?

Write line r i j 2 j k

into Cartesian form.

8.

If the direction ratios of a line are 1, 2, 2 then what are the direction
cosines of the line?

9.

Find the angle between the planes 2x 3y + 6z = 9 and xy plane.

10.

Write equation of a line passing through (0, 1, 2) and equally inclined to


co-ordinate axes.

11.

What is the perpendicular distance of plane 2x y + 3z = 10 from origin?

12.

What is the y-intercept of the plane x 5y + 7z = 10?

13.

What is the distance between the planes 2x + 2y z + 2 = 0 and


4x + 4y 2z + 5 = 0.

14.

What is the equation of the plane which cuts off equal intercepts of unit
length on the coordinate axes.

15.

Are the planes x + y 2z + 4 = 0 and 3x + 3y 6z + 5 = 0 intersecting?

16.

What is the equation of the plane through the point (1, 4, 2) and parallel
to the plane 2x + y 3z = 7?

[Class XII : Maths]

[114]

17.

Write the vector equation of the plane which is at a distance of 8 units from
the origin and is normal to the vector 2i j 2k .

18.

What is equation of the plane if the foot of perpendicular from origin to this
plane is (2, 3, 4)?

19.

Find the angles between the planes

r 3i 6j 2k 0.

20.

What is the angle between the line

22.

plane 2x + y 2z + 4 = 0?
21.

x 1

r i 2j 2k 1 and

2y 1
4

2 z

and the

If O is origin OP = 3 with direction ratios proportional to 1, 2, 2 then


what are the coordinates of P?

What is the distance between the line r 2i 2 j 3k i j 4k

from the plane r . i 5 j k 5 0.

23.

Write the line 2x = 3y = 4z in vector form.

24.

The line

x 4
2y 4
k z
lies exactly in the plane

1
2
2

2x 4y + z = 7. Find the value of k.


25.

Find the equation of a plane containing the points (0, 1, 1), (4, 4, 4)
and (4, 5, 1). Also show that (3, 9, 4) lies on that plane.

26.

Find the equation

r 5i 3 j 6k

of the planes r

27.

of the plane which is perpendicular to the plane


the line of intersection
8 0 & which is containing

i 2j 3k 4 and r 2i j k 5 0.

If l1, m1, n1, and l2, m2, n2 are direction cosines of two mutually perpendicular
lines, show that the direction cosines of line perpendicular to both of them
are
m1n2 n1m2, n1l2 l1n2, l1m2 m1l2.

[115]

[Class XII : Maths]

28.

Find vector and Cartesian equation of a line passing through a point with
position vector 2i j k and which is parallel to the line joining the
points with position vectors i 4 j k and i 2 j 2k.

29.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, 4, 2) and
(7, 0, 6) and is perpendicular to the plane 2x 5y = 15.

30.

Find equation of plane through line of intersection of planes

r 2i 6 j 12 0 and r 3i j 4k 0 which is at a unit


distance from origin.

31.

Find the image of the point (3, 2, 1) in the plane 3x y + 4z = 2.

32.

Find the equation of a line passing through (2, 0, 5) and which is parallel
to line 6x 2 = 3y + 1 = 2z 2.

33.

Find image (reflection) of the point (7, 4, 3) in the line

y 1

z 2

34.

Find equations of a plane passing through the points (2, 1, 0) and


(3, 4, 5) and parallel to the line 2x = 3y = 4z.

35.

Find distance of the point ( 1, 5, 10) from the point of intersection of

x 2

line

y 1
4

z 2

and the plane x y + z = 5.

36.

Find equation of the plane passing through the points (2, 3, 4) and
(1, 1, 3) and parallel to the xaxis.

37.

Find the distance of the point (1, 2, 3) from the plane x y + z = 5,


measured parallel to the line

y
3

38.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of two
plane 3x 4y + 5z = 10, 2x + 2y 3z = 4 and parallel to the line
x = 2y = 3z.

39.

Find the distance between the planes 2x + 3y 4z + 5 = 0 and

r . 4 i 6 j 8
k 11.

40.

Find the equations of the planes parallel to the plane x 2y + 2z 3 = 0


whose perpendicular distance from the point (1, 2, 3) is 1 unit.

[Class XII : Maths]

[116]

41.

Show that the lines

x 1
y 3
z 5

and
3
5
7
z 6
intersect each other. Find the point of
5

x 2
y 4

1
3
intersection.
42.

Find the shortest distance between the lines

r l 2j 3k 2i 3j 4k and

r 2i 4 j 5k 3i 4 j 5k .

43.

Find the distance of the point (2, 3, 4) from the line

x 2

2y 3
3z 4

measured parallel to the plane 4x + 12y 3z + 1 = 0.


4
5
44.

Find the equation of plane passing through the point (1, 1, 2) and
perpendicular to each of the plane

r 2i 3 j 3k 2 and r 5i 4 j k 6.

45.

x
y
z
x 2
y 1
z 1

.
and
1
2
3
3
2
5

Show that the plane r i 3 j 5k 7

r i 3 j 3k 3i j .

47.

Find the equation of a plane passing through (1, 3, 2) and parallel to each
of the line

46.

contains the line

Check the coplanarity of lines

r 3i j 5k 3i j 5k

r i 2 j 5k i 2 j 5k
If they are coplanar, find equation of the plane containing the lines.

48.

Find shortest distance between the lines :


x 8
y 9
z 10
x 15
y 29
z 5

and

.
3
16
7
3
8
5
[117]

[Class XII : Maths]

49.

Find shortest distance between the lines :

r 1 i 2 j 3 2 k

r 1 i 2 1 j 2 1 k .

50.

51.

52.

A variable plane is at a constant distance 3 p

from the origin and meets the


coordinate axes in A, B and C. If the centroid of ABC is ( ), then
show that 2 + 2 + 2 = p2.

A vector n of magnitude 8 units is inclined to xaxis at 45, y axis at


60 and an acute angle with z-axis. If a plane passes through a point

2, 1, 1 and is normal to n , find its equation in vector form.


m.
Find the foot of perpendicular from the point 2i j 5k on the line

r 11i 2 j 8k 10i 4 j 11k . Also find the length of the


perpendicular.

53.

A line makes angles , , , with the four diagonals of a cube. Prove that
4
2
2
2
2
cos cos cos cos .
3

54.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of planes
2x + 3y z = 1 and x + y 2z + 3 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane
3x y 2z = 4. Also find the inclination of this plane with xy-plane.

1.
3.

2.

90

x 2
y 3
z 5

.
3
4
1

4.

r i 2 j 3k i j 3k

5.

= 2

6.

7.

x 1
y 1
z

.
0
2
1

8.

[Class XII : Maths]

[118]

1
2
2
, ,
3
3
3

9.
10.

11.

cos1 (6/7).

x
y 1
z 2

, a R 0
a
a
a

10
14

12.

13.

1
6

14.

x + y + z = 1

15.

No

16.

2x + y 3z = 8

17.

r 2i j 2k 24

18.

2x + 3y + 4z = 29

19.

cos

20.

0 (line is parallel to plane)

21.

(1, 2, 2)

23.

r o 6i 4j 3k

24.

k = 7

26.

r 51 i 15 j 50k 173

28.

r 2i j k 2i 2 j k and

29.

5x + 2y 3z 17 = 0

30.

r 8i 4 j 8k 12 0 or r 4i 8 j 8k 12 0

31.

(0, 1, 3)

32.

x 2
y
z 5

.
1
2
3

33.

18 43
51
7 , 7 , 7

34.

29x 27y 22z = 85

35.

13

36.

7y + 4z = 5

11
21

22.

25.

10
3 3

5x 7y + 11z + 4 = 0.

[119]

x 2
y 1
z 1

.
2
2
1

[Class XII : Maths]

37.

1 unit

21
39.

2 29

38.

x 20y + 27z = 14

units.

40.

x 2y + 2z = 0 and x 2y + 2z = 6

41.

1
3
1
2 , 2 , 2

42.

43.

17
units..
2

44.

r 9i 17 j 23k 20

45.

2x 7y + 4z + 14 = 0

47.

x 2y + z = 0

48.

14 units.

51.

49.

8
29

52.

1,

2, 3 ,

54.

7x 13 y 4z 9, cos

14

[Class XII : Maths]

.
234

[120]

1
6

2 i j k 2

CHAPTER 12

LINEAR PROGRAMMING

Linear programming is the process used to obtain minimum or maximum


value of the linear objective function under known linear constraints.

Objective Functions : Linear function z = ax + by where a and b are


constants, which has to be maximized or minimized is called a linear
objective function.

Constraints : The linear inequalities or inequations or restrictions on the


variables of a linear programming problem.

Feasible Region : It is defined as a set of points which satisfy all the


constraints.

To Find Feasible Region : Draw the graph of all the linear inequations
and shade common region determined by all the constraints.

Feasible Solutions : Points within and on the boundary of the feasible


region represents feasible solutions of the constraints.

Optimal Feasible Solution : Feasible solution which optimizes the objective


function is called optimal feasible solution.

1.

Solve the following L.P.P. graphically


Minimise and maximise

z = 3x + 9y

Subject to the constraints

x + 3y 60
x + y 10
x y
x 0, y 0
[121]

[Class XII : Maths]

2.

Determine graphically the minimum value of the objective function


z = 50x + 20 y, subject to the constraints
2x y 5
3x + y 3
2x 3y 12
x 0, y 0

3.

Two tailors A and B earn Rs. 150 and Rs. 200 per day respectively. A can
stitch 6 shirts and 4 pants per day, while B can stitch 10 shirts and 4 pants
per day. How many days shall each work if it is desired to produce atleast
60 shirts and 32 pants at a minimum labour cost? Solve the problem
graphically.

4.

There are two types of fertilisers A and B. A consists of 10% nitrogen and
6% phosphoric acid and B consists of 5% nitrogen and 10% phosphoric
acid. After testing the soil conditions, a farmer finds that he needs at least
14 kg of nitrogen and 14 kg of phosphoric acid for his crop. If A costs Rs.
6 per kg and B costs Rs. 5 per kg, determine how much of each type of
fertiliser should be used so that nutrient requirements are met at minimum
cost. What is the minimum cost? What values are being promoted here?

5.

A man has Rs. 1500 to purchase two types of shares of two different
companies S1 and S2. Market price of one share of S1 is Rs 180 and S2
is Rs. 120. He wishes to purchase a maximum of ten shares only. If one
share of type S1 gives a yield of Rs. 11 and of type S2 yields Rs. 8 then
how much shares of each type must be purchased to get maximum profit?
And what will be the maximum profit?

6.

A company manufactures two types of lamps say A and B. Both lamps go


through a cutter and then a finisher. Lamp A requires 2 hours of the
cutters time and 1 hours of the finishers time. Lamp B requires 1 hour of
cutters and 2 hours of finishers time. The cutter has 100 hours and
finishers has 80 hours of time available each month. Profit on one lamp A
is Rs. 7.00 and on one lamp B is Rs. 13.00. Assuming that he can sell all
that he produces, how many of each type of lamps should be manufactured
to obtain maximum profit?

7.

A dealer wishes to purchase a number of fans and sewing machines. He


has only Rs. 5760 to invest and has space for almost 20 items. A fan and
sewing machine cost Rs. 360 and Rs. 240 respectively. He can sell a fan

[Class XII : Maths]

[122]

at a profit of Rs. 22 and sewing machine at a profit of Rs. 18. Assuming


that he can sell whatever he buys, how should he invest his money to
maximise his profit?
8.

If a young man rides his motorcycle at 25 km/h, he has to spend Rs. 2 per
km on petrol. If he rides at a faster speed of 40 km/h, the petrol cost
increases to Rs. 5 per km. He has Rs. 100 to spend on petrol and wishes
to cover the maximum distance within one hour. Express this as L.P.P. and
then solve it graphically.

9.

A producer has 20 and 10 units of labour and capital respectively which


he can use to produce two kinds of goods X and Y. To produce one unit
of X, 2 units of capital and 1 unit of labour is required. To produce one unit
of Y, 3 units of labour and one unit of capital is required. If X and Y are
priced at Rs. 80 and Rs. 100 per unit respectively, how should the producer
use his resources to maximise the total revenue?

10.

A factory owner purchases two types of machines A and B for his factory.
The requirements and limitations for the machines are as follows:
Machine
A
B

Area Occupied

Labour Force

Daily Output (In units)

1000

m2

12 men

50

1200

m2

8 men

40

He has maximum area of 7600 m2 available and 72 skilled labourers who


can operate both the machines. How many machines of each type should
he buy to maximise the daily output.
11.

A manufacturer makes two types of cups A and B. Three machines are


required to manufacture the cups and the time in minutes required by each
in as given below :
Types of Cup

Machine
I

II

III

12

18

Each machine is available for a maximum period of 6 hours per day. If the
profit on each cup A is 75 paise and on B is 50 paise, find how many cups
of each type should be manufactured to maximise the profit per day.

[123]

[Class XII : Maths]

12.

A company produces two types of belts A and B. Profits on these belts are
Rs. 2 and Rs. 1.50 per belt respectively. A belt of type A requires twice as
much time as belt of type B. The company can produce almost 1000 belts
of type B per day. Material for 800 belts per day is available. Almost 400
buckles for belts of type A and 700 for type B are available per day. How
much belts of each type should the company produce so as to maximize
the profit?

13.

An Aeroplane can carry a maximum of 200 passengers. A profit of Rs. 400


is made on each first class ticket and a profit of Rs. 300 is made on each
second class ticket. The airline reserves at least 20 seats for first class.
However atleast four times as many passengers prefer to travel by second
class than by first class. Determine, how many tickets of each type must
be sold to maximize profit for the airline.

14.

A diet for a sick person must contain atleast 4000 units of vitamins, 50
units of minerals and 1400 units of calories. Two foods A and B are
available at a cost of Rs. 5 and Rs. 4 per unit respectively. One unit of food
A contains 200 unit of vitamins, 1 unit of minerals and 40 units of calories
whereas one unit of food B contains 100 units of vitamins, 2 units of
minerals and 40 units of calories. Find what combination of the food A and
B should be used to have least cost but it must satisfy the requirements
of the sick person. What is balanced diet and what is the importance of
balanced diet in daily life?

1.

Min z = 60 at x = 5, y = 5.
Max z = 180 at the two corner points (0, 20) and (15, 15).

2.

No minimum value.

3.

Minimum cost = Rs. 1350 at 5 days of A and 3 days of B.

4.

100 kg. of fertiliser A and 80 kg of fertilisers B; minimum cost Rs. 1000.


Values promoted are keeping the productivity of the soil so that vegetables
and fruits are free from chemicals.

5.

Maximum Profit = Rs. 95 with 5 shares of each type.

6.

Lamps of type A = 40, Lamps of type B = 20.

[Class XII : Maths]

[124]

7.

Fan : 8; Sewing machine : 12, Max. Profit = Rs. 392.

8.

At 25 km/h he should travel 50/3 km, At 40 km/h, 40/3 km. Max. distance
30 km in 1 hr.

9.

X : 2 units; Y : 6 units; Maximum revenue Rs. 760.

10.

Type A : 4;

Type B : 3

11.

Cup A : 15; Cup B : 30

12.

Maximum profit Rs. 1300, No. of belts of type A = 200 No. of bells of type
B = 600.

13.

No. of first class tickets = 40, No. of 2nd class tickets = 160.

14.

Food A : 5 units, Food B : 30 units.


A diet containing all the nutrients in appropriate quantity is called balanced
diet. It is important to have all the nutrients in our diet to keep the body
healthy.

[125]

[Class XII : Maths]

CHAPTER 13

PROBABILITY

Conditional Probability : If A and B are two events associated with any


random experiment, then P(A/B) represents the probability of occurrence
of event-A knowing that event B has already occurred.
P A B
P A B
, P B 0
P B
P(B) 0, means that the event should not be impossible.
P(A B) = P(A and B) = P(B) P(A/B)
Similarly

P(A B C) = P(A) P(B/A) P(C/AB)

Multiplication Theorem on Probability : If the events A and B are


associated with any random experiment and the occurrence of one depends
on the other then
P(A B) = P(A) P(B/A) where P(A) 0

When the occurrence of one does not depend on the other then these
events are said to be independent events.
Here

P(A/B) = P(A) and P(B/A) = P(B)


P(A B) = P(A) P(B)

Theorem on total probability : If E1, E2, E3..., En be a partition of sample


space and E1, E2... En all have non-zero probability. A be any event
associated with sample space S, which occurs with E1 or E2,...... or En,
then
P(A) = P(E1) . P(A/E1) + P(E2) . P(A/E2) + .... + P(En) . P(A/En).

[Class XII : Maths]

[126]

Bayes' theorem : Let S be the sample space and E1, E2 ... En be n


mutually exclusive and exhaustive events associated with a random
experiment. If A is any event which occurs with E1, or E2 or ... En, then.

P Ei P A Ei

P Ei A

P E P A E
i

i 1

Random variable : It is real valued function whose domain is the sample


space of random experiment.

Probability distribution : It is a system of number of random variable (X),


such that
X:

x1

x2

x3...

xn

P(X):

P(x1)

P(x2)

P(x3)...

P(xn)

Where

P xi 0 and

P x 1
i

i 1

Mean or expectation of a random variables (X) is denoted by E(X)


n

E X

P xi

i 1

Variance of X denoted by var(X) or x2 and


n

var(X) = x2

xi

P xi

i 1

2
i

x P x

i 1

var X is called standard deviation of

The non-negative number x


random variable X.

Bernoulli Trials : Trials of random experiment are called Bernoulli trials if:
(i)

Number of trials is finite.

(ii)

Trials are independent.

(iii)

Each trial has exactly two outcomes-either success or failure.

(iv)

Probability of success remains same in each trial.


[127]

[Class XII : Maths]

Binomial Distribution :

P(X = r) = nCr qnr pr, where r = 0, 1, 2, ... n


p = Probability of Success
q = Probability of Failure
n = total number of trails
r = value of random variable.

1.

Find P (A/B) if P(A) = 0.4, P(B) = 0.8 and P(B/A) = 0.6

2.

Find P(A B) if A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.6
and P(A B) = 0.8

3.

A soldier fires three bullets on enemy. The probability that the enemy will
be killed by one bullet is 0.7. What is the probability that the enemy is still
alive?

4.

What is the probability that a leap year has 53 Sundays?

5.

20 cards are numbered 1 to 20. One card is drawn at random. What is the
probability that the number on the card will be a multiple of 4?

6.

Three coins are tossed once. Find the probability of getting at least one
head.

7.

The probability that a student is not a swimmer is

1
. Find the probability
5

that out of 5 students, 4 are swimmers.


8.

Find P(A/B), if P(B) = 0.5 and P(A B) = 0.32

9.

A random variable X has the following probability distribution.


X

P(X)

1
15

15k 2
15

Find the value of k.

[Class XII : Maths]

[128]

15k 1

15

15

10.

A random variable X, taking values 0, 1, 2 has the following probability


distribution for some number k.

P X 2k
3k

if X 0
if X = 1 , find k .
if X = 2

11.

A problem in Mathematics is given to three students whose chances of


1 1
1
,
and . What is the probability that the problem is
solving it are
2 3
4
solved.

12.

A die is rolled. If the outcome is an even number, what is the probability


that it is a prime?

13.

If A and B are two events such that


1
1
1
P A , P B
and P A B . Find P (not A and not B).
4
2
8

14.

In a class of 25 students with roll numbers 1 to 25, a student is picked up


at random to answer a question. Find the probability that the roll number
of the selected student is either a multiple of 5 or of 7.

15.

A can hit a target 4 times in 5 shots B three times in 4 shots and C twice
in 3 shots. They fire a volley. What is the probability that atleast two shots
hit.

16.

Two dice are thrown once. Find the probability of getting an even number
on the first die or a total of 8.

17.

A and B throw a die alternatively till one of them throws a 6 and wins the
game. Find their respective probabilities of winning, if A starts the game.

18.

If A and B are events such that P A

1
3
and P(B) = p
, P A B
2
5

find p if events
(i)

are mutually exclusive,

(ii)

are independent.

[129]

[Class XII : Maths]

19.

A man takes a step forward with probability 0.4 and backward with probability
0.6. Find the probability that at the end of eleven steps he is one step away
from the starting point.

20.

Two cards are drawn from a pack of well shuffled 52 cards one by one with
replacement. Getting an ace or a spade is considered a success. Find the
probability distribution for the number of successes.

21.

In a game, a man wins a rupee for a six and looses a rupee for any other
number when a fair die is thrown. The man decided to throw a die thrice
but to quit as and when he gets a six. Find the expected value of the
amount he wins/looses.

22.

Suppose that 10% of men and 5% of women have grey hair. A grey haired
person is selected at random. What is the probability that the selected
person is male assuming that there are 60% males and 40% females.

23.

A card from a pack of 52 cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the
pack, two cards are drawn. What is the probability that they both are
diamonds?

24.

Ten eggs are drawn successively with replacement from a lot containing 10%
defective eggs. Find the probability that there is at least one defective egg.

25.

Find the variance of the number obtained on a throw of an unbiased die.

26.

In a hurdle race, a player has to cross 8 hurdles. The probability that he


4
will clear a hurdle is , what is the probability that he will knock down in
5
fewer than 2 hurdles?

27.

Bag A contains 4 red, 3 white and 2 black balls. Bag B contains 3 red, 2
white and 3 black balls. One ball is transferred from bag A to bag B and
then a ball is drawn from bag B. The ball so drawn is found to be red. Find
the probability that the transferred ball is black.

28.

If a fair coin is tossed 10 times, find the probability of getting.

29.

(i)

exactly six heads,

(iii)

at most six heads.

(ii) at least six heads,

A doctor is to visit a patient. From the past experience, it is known that the
probabilities that he will come by train, bus, scooter by other means of

[Class XII : Maths]

[130]

3 1 1
2
, ,
and . The probabilities that he
10 5 10
5
1 1
1
, , and
will be late are
if he comes by train, bus and scooter
4 3
12
respectively but if comes by other means of transport, then he will not be
late. When he arrives, he is late. What is the probability that he comes by
train?
transport are respectively

30.

A man is known to speak truth 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and


reports that it is six. Find the probability that it is actually a six. What is the
importance of "Always Speak the Truth"?

31.

An insurance company insured 2000 scooter drivers, 4000 car drivers and
6000 truck drivers. The probability of an accident is 0.01, 0.03 and 0.15
respectively. One of the insured persons meets with an accident. What is
the probability that he is a scooter driver? Which mode of transport would
you suggest to a student and why?

32.

Two cards from a pack of 52 cards are lost. One card is drawn from the
remaining cards. If drawn card is heart, find the probability that the lost
cards were both hearts.

33.

A box X contains 2 white and 3 red balls and a bag Y contains 4 white and
5 red balls. One ball is drawn at random from one of the bags and is found
to be red. Find the probability that it was drawn from bag Y.

34.

In answering a question on a multiple choice, a student either knows the


3
answer or guesses. Let
be the probability that he knows the answer and
4
1
be the probability that he guesses. Assuming that a student who guesses
4
1
at the answer will be incorrect with probability . What is the probability
4
that the student knows the answer, given that he answered correctly?

35.

Suppose a girl throws a die. If she gets 5 or 6, she tosses a coin three
times and notes the number of heads. If she gets 1, 2, 3 or 4 she tosses
a coin once and notes whether a head or tail is obtained. If she obtained
exactly one head. What is the probability that she throws 1, 2, 3 or 4 with
the die?

36.

In a bolt factory machines A, B and C manufacture 60%, 30% and 10%


of the total bolts respectively, 2%, 5% and 10% of the bolts produced by

[131]

[Class XII : Maths]

them respectively are defective. A bolt is picked up at random from the


product and is found to be defective. What is the probability that it has
been manufactured by machine A?
37.

Two urns A and B contain 6 black and 4 white, 4 black and 6 white balls
respectively. Two balls are drawn from one of the urns. If both the balls
drawn are white, find the probability that the balls are drawn from urn B.

38.

Two cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find the mean
and variance for the number of face cards obtained.

39.

Write the probability distribution for the number of heads obtained when
three coins are tossed together. Also, find the mean and variance of the
number of heads.

40.

Two groups are competing for the position on the Board of Directors of a
corporation. The probabilities that the first and the second groups will win
are 0.6 and 0.4 respectively. Further if the first group wins, the probability
of introducing a new product is 0.7 and the corresponding probability is 0.3
if the second group wins. Find the probability that the new product introduced
was by the second group.

1.

0.3

2.

3
10

3.

(0. 3)3

4.

2
7

5.

1
4

6.

7
8

7.

4
5

8.

16
25

9.

10.

4
15

11.

3
4

12.

1
3

13.

3
8

14.

8
25

[Class XII : Maths]

[132]

1
6

15.

5
6

17.

6 5
,
11 11

18.

(i) p

19.

0.3678 or

16.

5
9

1
1
, (ii) p
10
5
11C (0.4)5
5

(0.6)5

20.
X

P(X)

81/169

72/169

16/169

91
54

21.

23.

1
17

25.

var X

26.

12 4
5 5

28.

(i)

22.

3
4

24.

9
1
10

27.

6
31

35
.
12

105
512

(ii)

193
512

(iii)

29.

1
2

30.

3
By speaking truth, integrity of character develops..
8

31.

10

53
64

1
Cycle should be promoted as it is good for (i) Health (ii) No pollution
52
(iii) Saves energy.

[133]

[Class XII : Maths]

32.

22
425

33.

25
52

34.

12
13

35.

8
11

36.

12
37

37.

5
7

38.

Mean

6
974
, Variance
13
2873

39.
X

P(X)

40.

2
9

[Class XII : Maths]

[134]

Mean

3
2

Variance

3
4

Note : This is a CBSE Question Paper of the Session 2013-14. This contains 29
questions. However, from the Session 2014-15, number of questions have been
reduced to 26.

Time allowed : 3 hours

Maximum marks : 100

General Instructions
1.

All questions are compulsory.

2.

The question paper consists of 29 questions divided into three sections A,


B and C. Section A comprises of 10 questions of one mark each, Section
B comprises of 12 questions of four marks each and Section C comprises
of 7 questions of six marks each.

3.

All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence


or as per the exact requirement of the question.

4.

There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in


4 questions of four marks each and 2 questions of six marks each. You
have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.

5.

Use of calculators is not permitted.

Question numbers 1 to 10 carry one mark each.


1.

Let * be a binary operation, on the set of all non zero real numbers given
ab
by a * b =
for all a, b R{0} .
5
Find the value of x, given that 2 * (x * 5) = 10.

2.

If sin sin1 cos 1 x 1, then find the value of x.

3.

3
If 2
5

4 1

x 0

y
7

1
10

0
, find (x y).
5
[135]

[Class XII : Maths]

4.

Solve the following matrix equation for x :

1
[x, 1] 2

0
0
0

5.

2x
If 8

5
6

x
7

6.

Write the antiderivative of 3 x

x
3

7.

Evaluate

2
3 , write the value of x.

dx

9 x2
0

8.

Find the projection of the vector i 3 j 7k on the vector 2i 3 j 6k

9.

If a and b are two unit vectors such that a + b is also a unit vector, then

find the angle between a and b .

10.

Write the vector equation of the plane, passing through the point (a, b, c)


and parallel to the plane r . (i j k ) 2

Question numbers 11 to 22 carry 4 marks each.


11.

Let A = {1, 2, 3.........9} and R be the relation in AA defined by (a, b) R


(c, d) if a + d = b + c for (a, b), (c, d) in A A prove that R is an
equivalence relation.
Also obtain the equivalence class [(2, 5)]

12.

Prove that cot

1 sin x

1 sin x

1 sin x
x

2 ; x 0, 4
1 sin x

OR
Prove that 2 tan

[Class XII : Maths]

1 5 2
1 1
1
5 sec 7 2 tan 8 4

[136]

13.

Using properties of determinants, prove that


2y
2z
x y z

14.

y z x
2z
2x

Differentiate tan

cos

2y
3
z x y (x y z )
2x

1 x

with respect to

2x 1 x , when x 0
2

d y

1 dy
y dx

15.

If y = xx, prove that

16.

F ind the intervals in w hich the function

dx

y
0
x

f(x) = 3x4 4x3 12x2 + 5

is (a) Strictly Increasing


(b) Strictly Decreasing
OR
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve

3
3
x a sin and y a cos at
4
6

17.

Evaluate :

sin x cos x
2

dx

sin x cos x
OR

Evaluate :
18.

(x

3) x

3x 18 dx

Find the particular solution of the differential equation

1 y

dx

y
dy 0 , given that y = 1 when x = 0
x

[137]

[Class XII : Maths]

19.

Solve the following differential equation :

20.

dy
2
2xy 2
dx
x 1

Prove that, for any three vectors a, b , c
(x

1)


a b , b c , c a 2 a, b , c

OR

Vectors a , b and c are such that a b c 0 and a 3, b 5

and c 7 find the angle between a and b .

21.

Show that the lines

x 1
y 3
z 5

and
3
5
7

x 2
y 4
z 6

intersect. Also find their point of intersection.


1
3
5
22.

Assume that each born child is equally likely to be a boy or a girl. If a


family has two children, what is the conditional probability that both are
girls? Given that
(i)

the youngest is a girl

(ii)

at least one is a girl.

Question numbers 23 to 29 carry 6 marks each.


23.

Two Schools P and Q want to award their selected students on the values
of discipline, politeness and punctuality. The school P wants to award
Rs. x each, Rs. y each and Rs. z each for the three respective values to
its 3, 2 and 1 students with a total award money of Rs. 1000. School Q
wants to spend Rs. 1500 to award its 4, 1 and 3 students on the respective
values (By giving the same award money for the three values as before).
If the total amount of awards for one prize on each value is Rs. 600, using
matrices, find the award money for each value.
Apart from the above three values, suggest one more value for awards.

[Class XII : Maths]

[138]

24.

Show that the semi-vertical angle of the cone of the maximum volume and
1 1
of given slant height is cos
.
3
/3

25.

Evaluate :

/6

dx
1

cot x

26.

Find the area of the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the x-axis, the
line y = x and circle x2 + y2 = 32

27.

Find the distance between the point (7, 2, 4) and the plane determined by
the points A(2, 5, 3), B(2, 3, 5) and C(5, 3, 3).
OR
Find the distance of the point (1, 5, 10) from the point intersection of
the line


r 2i j 2k (3i 4 j 2k ) and the plane r . (i j k ) 5 .

28.

A dealer in rural area wishes to purchase a number of sewing machines.


He has only Rs. 5760 to invest and has space for at most 20 items for
storage. An electronic sewing machine costs him Rs. 360 and a manually
operated sewing machine Rs. 240. He can sell an electronic sewing machine
at a profit of Rs. 22 and a manually operated sewing machine at a profit
of Rs. 18. Assuming that he can sell all the items that can buy, how should
he invest his money in order to maximise his profit? Make it as a LPP and
Solve it graphically.

29.

A card from a pack of 52 playing cards is lost. From the remaining cards
of the pack three cards are drawn at random (without replacement) and
are found to be all spades. Find the probability of the lost card being a
spade.
OR
From a lot of 15 bulbs which include 5 defectives, a sample of 4 bulbs is
drawn one by one with replacement. Find the probability distribution of
number of defective bulbs.
Hence find the mean of the distribution.

[139]

[Class XII : Maths]

SECTION A
Q. No.

Marks

1-10. 1. x = 25, 2. x =

3/2

6.

2x

7.

,
12

10.

1
, 3. 10, 4. x = 2, 5. x 6 ,
5

2 x c,
8. 5,

r (ai

9.

2
3

bj ck ) . (i j k ) 0
or


r . (i j k ) a b c

110=10 m

SECTION B
11.

(a, b ) A A
a + b = b + a (a, b) R (a, b) R is reflexive
e

1m

For (a, b), (c, d) A A


If (a, b) R (c, d) i.e. a + d = b + c

c + b = d + a

then (c, d) R (a, b) R is symmetric

1m

For (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) A A


If (a, b) R (c, d) & (c, d) R (e, f) i.e. a + d = b + c & c + f = d + e
Adding, a + d + c + f = b + c + d + e a + f = b + e
then (a, b) R (e, f) R is transitive
e
e
R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive
[Class XII : Maths]

[140]

1m

12.

hence R is an equivalence relation

[(2, 5)] = {(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7), (5, 8), (6, 9)}

cot

1 sin x

1 sin x

1
cot

cot

1 sin x

1 sin x

x
x

cos 2 sin 2

x
x

cos 2 sin 2

2 cos 2

2 sin x

x
x

cos 2 sin 2

x
x

cos 2 sin 2

x
x
1
cot cot
2
2

2m

1m

OR
1 1
1 1
1 5 2

LHS 2 tan
tan
sec

5
8

2 tan

2 tan

tan

13.

1
1

5
8 tan 1 1

1
7
1

40

1
1
tan
3

1+m

1
2.

1
3 tan 1 1

2
7
7

1
1
3

1 1
1 25
1
tan
tan
tan (1)
RHS
4
7
25
4

2y
LHS =
2z
x y z

y z x
2z
2x

1m

1m

2y
z x y
2x

[141]

[Class XII : Maths]

x y z
2z
=
x y z

x y z
2z
2x

x y z
z x y R1 R1 R 2 R 3
2x

1m

x y z
2z
x y z

0
0
x y z

0
C 2 C 2 C1
(x y z ) ;
C 3 C 3 C1
x y z

2m

= (x + y + z) {0 . (x + y + z) + (x + y + z)2} = (x + y + z)3

14.

Let u tan

1 x

x cos cos

u tan

and v cos

1
2
, v cos 2x 1 x ,

1 cos
1
1

tan (tan ) cos x


cos

cos 2 2

1
2
2 cos x
2
2

du

dx

du

dv

1m

2 cos 1 cos

cos (sin 2 ) cos

1m

1
1 x

1
1 x

dv

dx

1m
2

1 x

1 x
2

1
2

1m

1m

(In case, If x = sin then answer is )


15.

y x

log y = x log x,

[Class XII : Maths]

Taking log of both sides


[142]

1 dy
log x 1,
y dx

1 d y
1 dy
2

2
y dx
y dx

d y
dx

16.

1 dy

y dx

1
,
x

Diff. w.r.t. x

1m

Diff. w.r.t. x

1m

y
0
x

f'(x) = 12x3 12x2 24x = 12 x (x + 1) (x + 2)

f '(x ) 0, x (1, 0) (2, )

1+m
+

-1 0

+
2

f '(x ) 0, x ( , 1) (0, 2)

1m

f (x) is strictly increasing in (1, 0) (2, )


and strictly decreasing in ( , 1) (0, 2)

OR

a
a

,
Point at 4 is

2 2 2 2

dy
dx
2
2
3a cos sin ;
3a sin cos
d
d

1m

2
dy
3a cos sin

2
slope of tangent at 4 is dx
3a sin cos
4

cot

1
4

1m

Equation of tangent at the point :

a
a

1 x
0
x y

2 2
2 2
2

[143]

1m

[Class XII : Maths]

Equation of normal at the point :

1 x
x y 0

2 2
2 2
6

17.

sin x cos x

dx

sin x . cos x

2
2
2
2
sin x cos x sin x cos x

2
2
3 sin x cos x
dx 1m

sin x . cos x

dx
sin 2 x . cos 2 x

sin 2 x cos 2 x

dx

3
sin 2 x . cos 2 x

sec

x cos ec x 3 dx

= tan x cot x 3x + c

1m

(Accept 2 cot2x 3x + c also)


OR

3 x

3x 18 dx

1
2x 3 x
2

1 2
. (x
2 3

1
(x
3

3x 18 dx

3x 18)

3x 18)

x
2
9

2
2

3/2

9
2

9
2

x 2

3x 18 dx
9

2

1m

dx

1m

3/2

3x 18

81
3
log x

8
2

3 x 18 c

1m
[Class XII : Maths]

[144]

1
x
3

or

18.

3x 18

3/2

9
2x 3 x
8

y
x
dy xe dx
x

1 y dx

3x 18

81
3
log x

2
2
y
1 y

3x 18 c

1m

dy

Integrating both sides

xe

dx

xe

1
2

2y

dy

1 y

1 y

1+1m

c
x

For x = 0 y = 1, c = 1 solution is : e (x 1)
19.

1 y

1 +m

Given differential equation can be written as

dy
2x
2
y
dx
x 1
(x

Integrating factor =

Solution is y . x

y x

y x

1 2

1 log

2
2

1)

2x
2 dx
x 1

1
x

1m

log( x

1)

x
. x

1
1 dx c

1m

1m

dx c

x 1
c
x 1

[145]

1m

[Class XII : Maths]

20.

a b , b c ,

= a b b

c a a b .


c b a c c

b c c a

c a

m
1m

a . b c a . b a a . c a b . b c

b . b a b . c a

1m



a . b a a . c a b . b c b . b a 0


2 a . b c 2 a, b , c

1m
OR


a b c 0

a b

a b c

2
2
c c
2

2a .b c

m
2

1m


.9 25 2 a b cos 49, being angle between a & b

cos

21.

Let

15
1


2.3.5
2
3

1m
1m

x 1
y 3
z 5
x 2
y 4
z 6

u;

v
3
5
7
1
3
5

General points on the lines are


(3u 1, 5u 3, 7u 5) & (v + 2, 3v + 4. 5v + 6)

1m

lines intersect if
3u 1 = v + 2, 5u 3 = 3v + 4, 7u 5 = 5v + 6 for some u & v 1m
or 3u v = 3.........(1), 5u 3v = 7............(2), 7u 5v = 11.............(3)

1
3
,v
2
2

1
3
5 11 lines intersect
2
2

Solving equations (1) and (2), we get u

Putting u & v in equation (3), 7.


[Class XII : Maths]

[146]

1
Point of intersection of lines is : 2 ,

22.

1
,
2

3
2

1m

Let b2, g2 be younger boy and girl


and b1, g1 be elder, then, sample space of two children is
S = {(b1, b2), (g1, g2), (b1, g2), (g1, b2)}

1m

A = Event that younger is a girl = {(g1, g2), (b1, g2)}


B = Event that at least one is a girl = {(g1, g2), (b1, g2), (g1, b2)}
E = Event that both are girls = {(g1, g2)}
(i)

P (E / A)

P (E A)
1

P (A )
2

1m

(ii)

P (E / B )

P (E B )
1

P (B )
3

1m

SECTION - C
23.

Here

3x + 2y + z = 1000
4x + y + 3z = 1500
x + y + z

3
4

2
1
1

1
3

= 600

1m

x
1000
y 1500 or A . X B

z
600
1

A 3(2) 2(1) 1(3) 5 0 X A B

Co-factors are
A11 = 2,

A12 = 1,

A13 = 3

A21 = 1,

A22 = 2,

A23 = 1

A31 = 5,

A32 = 5,

A33 = 5

[147]

1m

[Class XII : Maths]

x
2
1

y
1

5
z
3

1 5 1000
2 5 1500

1 5 600

x = 100, y = 200, z = 300

1m

i.e. Rs. 100 for discipline, Rs. 200 for politeness & Rs. 300 for punctuality

24.

One more value like sincerity, truthfulness etc.

1m

For correct figure

Let radius, height and slant height of cone be r, h & l


2

+ h

= l 2, l (constant)

2
2
h l h
3

dv
2
2

l 3h
dh
3

3 l

dv
0 h
dh
d v
dh

cos

l
3

/6

[Class XII : Maths]

1m

3
l
3

cos

dx
1

2 l
3

1m

, volume is maximum

/3

25.

h h

1m

2h 2 .

at h

1
2
r h
3

Volume of cone (V)

cot x

/3

/6

3
sin x

sin x

[148]

cos x

1m

dx

1m

sin
x
6
3

/3

sin
x
6
3

/6

/3

/6

cos x
cos x

sin x

1m

dx

1m

/3

Adding we get, 2 I

dx

cos
x
6
3

/3

dx x / 6

3
6
6

2m

/6

12

1m
-axis

26.

Correct Figure

1m
2

x +y =32

The line and circle intersect

-axis

each other at x 4

1m
4 2

Area of shaded region


4 2

x dx

4 2

dx

1m

x 2
x 32 x

2
2
0

4 2

16 sin

4 2
4

1m

8 4 8 4 sq. units
27.

1m

Equation of plane through points A, B and C is


x 2
4
3

y 5
8
2

z 3
8
0 16x 24 y 32z 56 0
0
i .e. 2x 3 y 4z 7 0

Distance of plane from (7, 2, 4)

[149]

2(7) 3(2) 4(4) 7


9 16 4
29

] 3+1m

1m
1m

[Class XII : Maths]

OR

General point on the line is 2 3 i 1 4 j 2 2 k 1m


Putting in the equation of plane; we get

1. 2 3 1. 1 4 1. 2 2 5

1m

1m

Point of intersection is 2i j 2k or (2, 1, 2)

Distance =
28.

2 1 2

1 5

2 10

1m

169 13

1m

Let x and y be electronic and manually operated sewing machines


purchased respectively
Y

24
20

B(8,12)

16

C 16

20

24

+ = 20

3 +2 = 48

L.P.P. is : Maximise P = 22x + 18y


Subject to

360 x 240 y 5760


or
3x 2y 48

x y 20
x 0, y 0

For correct graph

2m

2m

vertices of feasible region are

[Class XII : Maths]

[150]

A (0,20), B (8, 12), C (16, 0) & O (0, 0,)


P (A) = 360, P (B) = 392, P (C) = 352

For maximum P, Electronic machines = 8,


Manual Machines = 12
29.

Let

1m

E1 : Event that lost card is a spade


E2 : Event that lost card is a non spade

A : Event that three spades are drawn without replacement


from 51 cards

P (E 1)

13
1
1
3
, P (E 2 ) 1

52
4
4
4
12

P ( A / E 1)

13

C3

, P (A / E 2 )

51

C3

1
.
4
P (E 1 / A )

1
.
4

12

C3

51

C3

12

1m

C3

1m

51

C3

C3

51

C3

3
.
4

13

1+1m

C3

51

C3

10
49

1m
OR

X = No. of defective bulbs out of 4 drawn = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4


Probability of defective bulb

5
1

15
3

Probability of a non defective bulb = 1

[151]

1m
m

1
2

3
3

[Class XII : Maths]

Probability distribution is :

X:

P (X ) :

16
81
0

X P (X ) :

Mean

32 24
81 81

8
81

1
81

32 48
81 81

24
81

4
81

X P (X )

[Class XII : Maths]

108
81

or

2+m

4
3

[152]

1m

Time allowed : 3 hours

Maximum marks : 100

General Instructions
1.

All questions are compulsory.

2.

The question paper consists of 26 questions divided into three sections A,


B and C. Section A comprises of 6 questions of one mark each, Section
B comprises of 13 questions of four marks each and Section C comprises
of 7 questions of six marks each.

3.

All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence


or as per the exact requirement of the question.

4.

There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided.


You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.

5.

Use of calculators is not permitted.

Question number 1 to 6 carry one mark each.


1.

k 3
If A a

5
0 is skew symmetric matrix,

then write the value of k.


2.

Find the slope of normal to the curve,


y = x2 3x + 7

at point

P (1, 5)

sin x

3.

Evaluate,

cos 3 x dx
[153]

[Class XII : Maths]

4.

5.

15

If a 3, b 5 and a . b
then
2

write the angle between a and b .

What is the area of a parallelogram whose adjacent

sides are given by vectors c j

6.

and 2i 3k

x 1
y 1
1 z

and r i 2i j 3pk are


4
2
2
perpendicular, then write the value of p.
If the lines

Question number 7 to 19 carry 4 marks each.


7.

Using elementary transformations find the inverse of the matrix

8
A
5
8.

3
2

Two schools A and B decided to award prizes to their students for two
values honesty and punctuality. School A decided to award a total of Rs.
18000 for two values to 2 and 3 students respectively while School B
decided to award Rs. 22000 for two values to 6 and 1 students respectively.
What is the amount given for honesty and for punctuality. Solve using
matrix method.
Which value you prefer to be rewarded most and why?

9.

If

x 7
x 8
x 9

18
25
32

y a
y b 0 and a + c 2b
y c

then find the value of x.


10.

Prove that
cos

[Class XII : Maths]

1 4
1 63
12
13 sin 5 tan 16

[154]

OR
1
1
2b
1 a
1 a

Prove that cot 4 2 cos b cot 4 2 cos b a

11.

3ax 1
x 1
2
5x 7 , 1 x 3
If f(x) =
is a continuous function, find the value of
x 3
2bx 8
a and b.

12.

If xy + xx =1, find

13.

Find the intervals in which the function,

dy
.
dx

f(x) = 2x3 9x2 + 12x + 25 is (a) increasing (b) decreasing.


OR
Prove that the curves x = y2 and x y = k cut at right angle if 8k2=1.
1

14.

Evaluate,

log(1 x )

1 x

. dx
OR

Find

x
x

6 x
2

tan

dx

x dx

15.

Evaluate

16.

Form the differential equation of the family of curves y = A e2x B ex

17.

If a 7,

18.

Find the perpendicular distance of the point (1, 0, 0) from the line

b 13,


a . b 35, find the value of


a b .

x 1
y 1
z 10

2
3
8

[155]

[Class XII : Maths]

19.

A coin is biased so that the tail is 3 times as likely to occur as head. If the
coin is tossed twice, find the probability distribution of number of tails.

Question numbers 20 to 26 carry 6 marks each.


20.

Let f : R {3} R {2} be a function defined by f (x )

2x 3
. Show
w
x 3

that f is a bijective function. Also find inverse of f.


21.

22.

A triangular poster with slogan SAVE GIRL CHILD is to be made on


womans day from a circular sheet of radius r cm. Find the dimensions of
triangular poster so that the wastage of paper is minimum.
(i)

Write steps to stop the wastage of paper.

(ii)

Write the importance of woman empowerment in our society.

Find the area of the region bounded by


R =

x , y : 6x y

16 x

Find the area bounded by the parabolas y2 = 4x and x2 = 2y


23.

Solve the differential equation,

1 e dx e
x /y

24.

x /y

1 y dy 0, given that y (o) = 2

Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (1, 2, 3) and

containing the line r 2i j k i 2 j 4k .


OR
Find the foot of perpendicular and the length of perpendicular drawn from

the point P (5, 4, 2) to the line r i 3 j k 2i 3 j k . Also


find the image of P in this line.

25.

A speaks truth 8 times out of 10 times. A die is rolled. He reports that it


was 5. What is the probability that it was actually 5. What can you say
about truthfulness of a person.

[Class XII : Maths]

[156]

26.

If a person rides his motor cycle at 25 km/h, he has to spend Rs. 2 per
km on petrol. If he rides at a faster speed of 40 km/h, the petrol cost
increases to Rs. 5 per km. He has Rs. 100 to spend on petrol and wishes
to cover the maximum distance within one hour. Express this as L.P.P. and
solve it graphically. What values are being promoted here?

Section A
1.

k = 3

2.

3.

1
1
2
2
sec x c or
tan x c
2
2

4.

2
3

6.

p = 1

5.

22 sq. units

Section - B
1

2

5

3
8

7.

8.

Amount given for honesty = Rs. 3000


Amount given for punctuality = Rs. 4000

9.

x = 31/7

11.
x

a = 1/3, b = 23/3

y 1

12.

dy
x (1 log x ) yx

y
dx
x log x

13.

Increasing in (, 1] [2, ), Decreasing in [1, 2].

14.

log 2
2

OR

[157]

[Class XII : Maths]

15.

3
2
x
1x
1
1
tan x
log x
3
3 2
2

16.

2y

dx

18.
19.

d y

dy
dx

1 c

a b 84

17.

24 units

P(X) 1/16

3/8

9/16
Section - C

(x )

3x 3
x 2

20.

22.

32
4 3
3 3 sq. units.

23.

x y .e

24.

Equation of plane is 8x 6y + z = 23

x /y

21.

OR

Each side is r 3 cm.

8
sq. units..
3

OR
(1, 6, 0), 2 6 unit & image is (3, 8, 2)
25.

4/9, If a person speaks truth then integrity and character develops & he/
she rises in life.

26.

30 km in 1 hr. (

50
40
km at 25 km/hr and
km at 40 km/hr) The values
3
3
promoted are the safety of life and saving petrol (energy).

[Class XII : Maths]

[158]

Time allowed : 3 hours

Maximum marks : 100

General Instructions
1.

All questions are compulsory.

2.

The question paper consists of 26 questions divided into three sections A,


B and C. Section A comprises of 6 questions of one mark each, Section
B comprises of 13 questions of four marks each and Section C comprises
of 7 questions of six marks each.

3.

All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence


or as per the exact requirement of the question.

4.

There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided.


You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.

5.

Use of calculators is not permitted.

Question number 1 to 6 carry one mark each.


1.

Solve for x :

2
x
1

1 1
0
2 3
2
6
in
1

2.

Find the cofactor of a12

3.

Find x if for unit vector a,

3
0
5

5
4
7

a . x a 15.

[159]

[Class XII : Maths]

4.

If a 7i j 4k and b 2i 6 j 3k find the projection of a on b .

5.

Find

6.

x
e

dx

Find the value of i . ( j k ) j . (i k ) k . (i j)

Question number 7 to 19 carry 4 marks each.


7.

If y cot

sin y tan

cos x

tan 1

cos x , then prove that

x
2
OR

If tan
8.

1 x 1
x 1
x 2 tan x 2 4 , then find the value of x.

Using properties of determinants, prove the following :

ab
ac

9.

ab
b

cb

0
If A
tan /2
that

ac
bc
c

1 a

tan /2
w
and I is the identity matrix of order 2, show
0

cos
I A (I A)
sin

sin
cos

OR

3 1
If A
, show that A2 5A + 7 I = 0.

1 2
Hence find A1.

[Class XII : Maths]

[160]

10.

Show that f (x ) x 3 V x R is continuous but not differentiable at


x = 3.
OR
Find the value of a and b such that the function defined by
5

f (x ) ax b
21

if

if x 2
2 x 10
if x 10

is a continuous function.
2

2
dy
y
y

a , then prove that


2
dx
x
y

11.

x
If tan
x

12.

Find the interval in which the function f given by f (x ) x

1
x

(a) strictly increasing


13.

is

(b) strictly decreasing.

Evaluate

cos(x

1
dx
a ) cos(x b )
OR

Evaluate

x2 1
dx

2
(x 1)

14.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (1, 2, 1) and
perpendicular to the line joining the points (1, 4, 2) and (2, 3, 5). Also find
the perpendicular distance of the plane from the origin.

15.

A director of selection committee is biased so that he selects his relatives


for a job two times as likely as others. If there are two posts for a job, find
the probability distribution for selection of his relatives. Is the presence of
such type of people in selection committee reasonable? Which type of
values will be demolished here?

[161]

[Class XII : Maths]

16.
17.

2
2

1 x 1 x w.r.t. cos1 x2.


2
2

1 x 1 x
Find the general solution of the differential equation,

Differentiate tan

dy
x y
2 y
e
x e
dx
18.

The scalar product of the vector i j k with a unit vector along the
sum of vectors 2i 4 j 5k and i 2 j 3k is equal to one. Find the
value of .

19.

Show that x = 1 is a root of the equation.


x
2
3

6
3x
2x

1
x 3 0 and solve it completely..
x 2

Question number 20 to 26 carry 6 marks each.


20.

Of the students in a college, it is known that 60% reside in hostel and 40%
are day scholars. Previous year results report that 30% of all the students
who resided in hostel attained A grade and 20% of day scholars attained
A grade in their annual exam. At the end of year, one student is chosen
at random from the college and he has A grade, what is the probability that
the student is a hostler?
What main values are developed in hostel life?

21.

Let * be a binary operation defined on set Q of rational numbers as


ab
a *b
a, b Q . Check whether * is commutative & associative?
4
Find the identity element in Q w.r.t. * . Also, find the inverse of 8.

22.

A manufacturer considers that men and women workers are equally efficient
and so pays them at the same rate. He has 30 workers and 17 units of
capital, which he uses to produce two types of goods A and B. To produce
one unit of A, 2 workers and 3 units of capital are required while 3 workers

[Class XII : Maths]

[162]

and 1 unit of capital is required to produce one unit of B. If A and B are


sold at Rs. 100 and Rs. 200 per unit respectively, how should he use his
resources to maximise the total revenue? Form the above as LPP and
solve it graphically.
Do you agree with the view of the manufacturer that men and women
workers are equally efficient and so should be paid at the same rate?
23.

In a house, a window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semi


circular opening. The total perimeter of the window is 10m. Find the
dimensions of the window such that it admits maximum light and air in the
house. Why are such windows necessary for a house?
OR
Prove that the volume of the largest cone, that can be inscribed in a
8
sphere of radius R is
of the volume of the sphere..
27

24.

Draw a rough sketch of the region enclosed between the circles x2+y2=4
and (x 2)2 + y2 = 4. Using integration, find the area of the enclosed
region.
OR
Find the area of the region bounded by the parabola y = x2 and y x

25.

Find the image of the point (1, 6, 3) on the line

x
y 1
z 2

1
2
3
/2

26.

Show that

log tan cot d log 2.

OR
4

Evaluate :

x dx as limit of sums..

[163]

[Class XII : Maths]

Section - A
1.

1
7

2.

+46

3.

x 4

4.

8/7 units

5.

6.

1 x 2
e
c
2

Section - B

7.

9.

1 2
7 1

1
3

10.

a = 2, b = 1

12.

Increasing in , 1 1, , Decreasing in (1, 1)

13.

1
sec( x a )
. log
c
sec( x b )
sin a b

14.

x y + 3z = 2,

15.

X = the number of selected relatives = 0, 1, 2


X
P (X )

0
1
9

OR

x 1 x
x 1 e c

2
11

1
4
9

2
4
9

No. Such persons who are biased should be avoided in the committee.
Honesty and integrity are the values being demolished.
16.

1/2

[Class XII : Maths]

[164]

18.

19.

x = 1, 2, 15

c
3

17.

Section - C
20.

9
13

21.

* is commutative and associative. Identity element is 4, Inverse of 8 is


2.

22.

Units of type A = 3, Units of type B = 8


Maximum Revenue = Rs. 1900
Yes. We all should give equal rights to men and women.

23.

20
10
length 4 m, breadth
m
4

24.

3 2 3 sq. units..

OR

1
sq. units..
3
25.

(1, 0, 7)

26.

OR

27
2

[165]

[Class XII : Maths]