HEAT TRANSFER

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HEAT TRANSFER

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13/348868/TK/41039

Natural, or free, convection is observed as a result of the motion of the fluid due to

density changes arising from the heating process

EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR FREE CONVECTION

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

For vertical surfaces, the Nusselt and Grashof numbers are formed with L, the

height of the surface as the characteristic dimension. If the boundary-layer

thickness is not large compared with the diameter of the cylinder, the heat transfer

may be calculated with the same relations used for vertical plates. The general

criterion is that a vertical cylinder may be treated as a vertical flat plate

Where D is the diameter of the cylinder. For vertical cylinders too small to meet this

criteria, the analysis of Reference [84] for gases with Pr =0.7 indicates that the flat

plate results for the average heat-transfer coefficient should be multiplied by a

factor F to account for the curvature, where

For isothermal surfaces, the values of the constants C andmare given in Table 7-1

with the appropriate references noted for further consultation

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

Constant-Heat-Flux Surfaces

free convection from vertical and inclined surfaces to water under constant-heatflux conditions. In such

experiments, the results are presented in terms of a modified Grashof number, Gr:

The local heat-transfer coefficients were correlated by the following relation for the

laminar range:

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

The values of the constantsC andmare given in Table 7-1. Amore complicated

expression for use over a wider range of Gr Pr is given by Churchill and Chu

Heat transfer from horizontal cylinders to liquid metals may be calculated from:

Isothermal Surfaces

The average heat-transfer coefficient from horizontal flat plates is calculated with

Equation

the constants given in Table 7-1. For calculate Gr the L value is different, we can

calculate it with equation:

Constant Heat Flux

correlations for constant heat flux on a horizontal plate. For the heated surface

facing upward,

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

In these equations all properties except are evaluated at a temperature Te defined

by

and Tw is the average wall temperature related, as before, to the heat flux by

Irregular Solids

There is no general correlation which can be applied to irregular solids. The

equation:

C=0.775 and m=0.208 for a vertical cylinder with height equal to diameter. Nusselt

and Grashof numbers are evaluated by using the diameter as characteristic length.

Lienhard [78] offers a prescription that takesthe characteristic length as the

distance a fluid particle travels in the boundary layer and uses values of C=0.52 and

m= untuk laminar

The angle that the plate makes with the vertical is designated , with positive

angles indicating that the heater surface faces downward, as shown in Figure For

the inclined plate facing downward with approximately constant heat flux, the

following correlation was obtained for the average Nusselt number

Te

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

defined by

evaluated at a temperature of Tling +0.50(Tw Tling). For almost-horizontal plates

facing downward,

that is, 88<<90, an additional relation was obtained as

For an inclined plate with heated surface facing upward the empirical correlations

become more complicated. For angles between 15 and 75 a suitable correlation

is

[7-46]

for the range 105 <Gre Pre cos<1011. The quantity Grc is a critical Grashof

relation indicating when the Nusselt number starts to separate from the laminar

relation of Equation and is given in the following tabulation

For Gre <Grc the first term of Equation (7-46) is dropped out

In the turbulent region with air, the following empirical correlation was obtained:

where the Grx is the same as for the vertical plate when the heated surface faces

upward. When the heated surface faces downward, Grx is replaced by Gr cos2

.For inclined cylinders that laminar heat transfer under constant-heat-flux

conditions may be calculated with the following relation

where is the angle the cylinder makes with the vertical; that is, 0 corresponds to

a vertical cylinder. Properties are evaluated at the film temperature except , which

is evaluated at ambient conditions.

SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS FOR AIR

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

relation for free-convection heat transfer from spheres to air:

This equation may be modified by the introduction of the Prandtl number to give

a fluid is contained between two vertical plates separated by the distance . As a

temperature difference _Tw =T1 T2 is impressed on the fluid, a heat transfer will

be experienced with the approximate flow regions shown

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

At very low Grashof numbers, there are very minute free-convection currents and

the heat transfer occurs mainly by conduction across the fluid layer. As the Grashof

number is increased, different flow regimes are encountered, as shown, with a

progressively increasing heat transfer as expressed through the Nusselt number

conditions. The empirical correlations obtained were:

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

The heat flux is calculated as

In the building industry the heat transfer across an air gap is sometimes expressed

in terms of the R values

dengan R=

Heat transfer in horizontal enclosed spaces involves two distinct situations. If the

upper plate is maintained at a higher temperature than the lower plate, the lowerdensity fluid is above the higher-density fluid and no convection currents will be

experienced. In this case

the heat transfer across the space will be by conduction alone and Nu =1.0, where

is still the separation distance between the plates. The second, and more

interesting, case is experienced when the lower plate has a higher temperature

than the upper plate. For values of Gr below about 1700, pure conduction is still

observed and Nu =1.0. As convection begins, a pattern of hexagonal cells is

formed as shown in Figure.Turbulence begins at about Gr =50,000 and destroys

the cellular pattern.

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

transient natural-convection heating or cooling in closed vertical or horizontal

cylindrical enclosures may be calculated with

for the range 0.75<L/d<2.0. The Grashof number is formed with the length of the

cylinder L.

the effective thermal conductivity for fluids between concentric spheres with the

relation

where now the gap spacing is =ro ri. The effective thermal conductivity given by

Equation is to be used with the conventional relation for steady-state conduction in

a spherical shell:

Experimental results for free convection in enclosures are not always in agreement,

but we can express them in a general form as

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

where L is the length of the annulus and the gap spacing is =ro ri.

the radiant transfer across a gap separating two large parallel planes may be

calculated with

where the temperatures are in degrees Kelvin and the _s are the respective

emissivities of the surfaces. Using the concept of the R-value discussed

with the R-value for the convection across the space, which could be obtained from

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

The total R-value for the combined radiation and convection across the space would

be written as

when the product Gr Pr is sufficiently small, usually less than about 2000, the fluid

layer behaves as if pure conduction were involved and ke/k1.0. This means that

the free-convection flow velocities are small.Asmall value of Gr can result from

either lowering the fluid pressure (density) or by reducing the spacing . If the

pressure of a gas is reduced sufficiently, we refer to the situation as a low-density

problem, which is influenced by the mean free path of the molecules and by

individual molecular impacts.

The mean free path is the distancea molecule travels, on the average, between

collisions. The larger this distance becomes, the greater the distance required to

communicate the temperature of a hot surface to a gas in contact with it. This

means that we shall not necessarily be able to assume that a gas in the immediate

neighborhood of the surface will have the same temperature as the heated surface,

as was done in the boundary-layer analyses. Evidently, the parameter that is of

principal interest is a ratio of the mean free path to a characteristic body dimension.

This grouping is called the Knudsen number,

According to the kinetic theory of gases, the mean free path may be calculated from

where r is the effective molecular radius for collisions and n is the molecular density.

An approximate relation for the mean free path of air molecules is given by

As a first example of low-density heat transfer let us consider the two parallel

infinite plates shown in Figure 7-11. The plates are maintained at different

temperatures and separated by a gaseous medium. Let us first consider a case

where the density or plate spacing is low enough that free convection effects are

negligible, but with a gas density sufficiently high so that 0 and a linear

temperature profile through the gas will be

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

experienced, as shown for the case of 1. As the gas density is lowered, the larger

mean free paths require a greater distance from the heat-transfer surfaces in order

for the gas to accommodate to the surface temperatures. The anticipated

temperature profiles are shown in Figure 7-11b. Extrapolating the straight portion of

the low-density curves to the wall produces a temperature jump _T, which may be

calculated by making the following energy balance:

the failure of the molecules to accommodate to the surface temperature when the

mean free path becomes of the order of a characteristic body dimension. The

Michael Irwin Rengkuan

13/348868/TK/41039

parameter that describes this behavior is called the accommodation coefficient ,

defined by

determine the temperature jump at a surface. The result of such an analysis is

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