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GBSS15.

GBSS Capacity Monitoring Guide


(BSC6910-Based)
Issue

01

Date

2013-05-04

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations
of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address:

Huawei Industrial Base


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Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website:

http://www.huawei.com

Email:

support@huawei.com

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About This Document

About This Document


Overview
This document provides guidelines for GBSS capacity monitoring and provides methods for
diagnosing network capacity problems. It helps maintenance engineers and network
optimization engineers monitor the usage of network resources in a timely manner, provides
data basis for adjusting, optimizing, and expanding network capacity, and prevents deterioration
in network quality and user experience due to insufficient network capacity.

Product Version
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.
Product Name

Product Version

BSC6910

V100R015C00

BTS3900

V100R008C00
The mapping single-mode
base station versions are:
l GBTS: V100R015C00
l eGBTS: V100R015C00

BTS3900A
BTS3900L
BTS3900AL
DBS3900

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:
l

Maintenance engineers

Network optimization engineers

Organization
1 Change in the GBSS Capacity Monitoring Guide (BSC6910-Based)
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About This Document

The section provides information about the changes in different document versions of GBSS
Capacity Monitoring Guide (BSC6910-Based).
2 System Capacity Data Collection
This section describes how to collect, monitor, and analyze measurement results of performance
counters related to GBSS capacity on the M2000 client.
3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem Locating Methods
This chapter describes key performance counters related to all capacity resources and provides
the methods for identifying and troubleshooting resource bottleneck.
4 Radio Resource Monitoring
Monitoring radio resources involves monitoring the loads of PCHs, SDCCHs, TCHs, and
PDCHs.
5 Equipment Resource Monitoring
Monitoring equipment resources involves monitoring the loads of EGPUa/EXPUa boards,
interface boards, and inter-subrack BSC communication resources.
6 Transmission Resource Monitoring
Monitoring transmission resources involves monitoring the loads of A, Gb, and Abis interface
transmission resources.

Conventions
Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol

Description
Indicates a hazard with a high level or medium level of risk
which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
Indicates a hazard with a low level of risk which, if not
avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not
avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance deterioration, or unanticipated results.
Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save
time.
Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement
important points of the main text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
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Convention

Description

Times New Roman

Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface

Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in


boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic

Book titles are in italics.

Courier New

Examples of information displayed on the screen are in


Courier New.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Boldface

The keywords of a command line are in boldface.

Italic

Command arguments are in italics.

[]

Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.

{ x | y | ... }

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected.

[ x | y | ... ]

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

{ x | y | ... }*

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all
items can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Boldface

Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles


are in boldface. For example, click OK.

>

Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">"


signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Keyboard Operations
The keyboard operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
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Format

Description

Key

Press the key. For example, press Enter and press Tab.

Key 1+Key 2

Press the keys concurrently. For example, pressing Ctrl+Alt


+A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently.

Key 1, Key 2

Press the keys in turn. For example, pressing Alt, A means


the two keys should be pressed in turn.

Mouse Operations
The mouse operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

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Action

Description

Click

Select and release the primary mouse button without moving


the pointer.

Double-click

Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and


quickly without moving the pointer.

Drag

Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the
pointer to a certain position.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii
1 Change in the GBSS Capacity Monitoring Guide (BSC6910-Based)..................................1
2 System Capacity Data Collection...............................................................................................3
3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem Locating Methods...........................4
3.1 Capacity Counter Categories..........................................................................................................................................5
3.2 Capacity Monitoring and Problem Locating Methods...................................................................................................9
3.2.1 Methods for Locating Capacity Problems...................................................................................................................9
3.2.2 Methods for Troubleshooting Capacity Problems.....................................................................................................10

4 Radio Resource Monitoring......................................................................................................13


4.1 PCH Load.....................................................................................................................................................................14
4.2 SDCCH Load................................................................................................................................................................15
4.3 TCH Load.....................................................................................................................................................................16
4.4 PDCH Load..................................................................................................................................................................16

5 Equipment Resource Monitoring.............................................................................................18


5.1 GSM CP Subsystem Resources....................................................................................................................................19
5.2 GSM UP Subsystem CS Resources..............................................................................................................................20
5.3 GSM UP Subsystem PS Resources..............................................................................................................................20
5.4 Interface Board Load....................................................................................................................................................21
5.5 Inter-Subrack BSC Communication Bandwidth and Load..........................................................................................22

6 Transmission Resource Monitoring........................................................................................24


6.1 A over IP (Signaling)....................................................................................................................................................25
6.2 A over IP (Traffic)........................................................................................................................................................26
6.3 Gb over IP.....................................................................................................................................................................27
6.4 Abis Interface...............................................................................................................................................................28
6.4.1 Abis over TDM .........................................................................................................................................................28
6.4.2 Abis over IP...............................................................................................................................................................29

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1 Change in the GBSS Capacity Monitoring Guide


(BSC6910-Based)

Change in the GBSS Capacity Monitoring


Guide (BSC6910-Based)
The section provides information about the changes in different document versions of GBSS
Capacity Monitoring Guide (BSC6910-Based).

01 (2013-05-04)
This is the first commercial release of GBSS14.0.
Compared with issue Draft A (2013-02-27) of GBSS14.0, this issue includes the following new
topics:
l

3.2 Capacity Monitoring and Problem Locating Methods

Compared with issue Draft A (2013-02-27) of GBSS14.0, this issue includes the following
incorporate changes:
Content

Description

3 Capacity Counter Categories and


Capacity Problem Locating Methods

Changed the name of this chapter from


Capacity Counter Categories and
Capacity Expansion Specifications to
Capacity Counter Categories and
Capacity Problem Locating Methods.

4.1 PCH Load

Added the description about monitoring


principles in the Related Counters.

4.2 SDCCH Load


4.3 TCH Load
4.4 PDCH Load
5.4 Interface Board Load
5.5 Inter-Subrack BSC Communication
Bandwidth and Load

Compared with issue Draft A (2013-02-27) of GBSS14.0, this issue excludes the following new
topics:
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1 Change in the GBSS Capacity Monitoring Guide


(BSC6910-Based)

Capacity Monitoring and Problem Location Methods

Draft A (2013-02-27)
This is the Draft A release of GBSS15.0.

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2 System Capacity Data Collection

System Capacity Data Collection

This section describes how to collect, monitor, and analyze measurement results of performance
counters related to GBSS capacity on the M2000 client.

Prerequisites
l

You have logged in to the M2000 client. The M2000 client communicates with NEs
properly.

You have been granted the performance management permission.

Context
For the ease of daily capacity load monitoring, collect measurement results of performance
counters on the M2000. The performance counters are measured in a 15-minute, 60-minute, or
24-hour measurement period. In normal cases, you are advised to analyze 60-minute traffic
statistics measured in peak hours every day and use an Excel file to make a graph of the capacity
load trend.
NOTE

l For details about how to collect performance counters and monitor the counters in real time, see
"Performance Management" in the M2000 online help.
l Peak hours in a day refer to the time when the BSC traffic volume reaches the maximum.

Procedure
Step 1 On the M2000 client, register a user-defined measurement task for collecting measurement
results of capacity-related counters.
Step 2 On the M2000 client, periodically collect the measurement results.
Step 3 Analyze and evaluate the measurement results by using the methods and standards provided in
this document. In addition, provide an analysis report on capacity monitoring.
----End

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3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem


Locating Methods

Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity


Problem Locating Methods

About This Chapter


This chapter describes key performance counters related to all capacity resources and provides
the methods for identifying and troubleshooting resource bottleneck.
3.1 Capacity Counter Categories
GBSS capacity resources are categorized into radio resources, equipment resources, and
transmission resources. This section describes key performance counters and capacity expansion
specifications for these resources.
3.2 Capacity Monitoring and Problem Locating Methods
This chapter describes the methods for monitoring capacity-related counters and locating
capacity problems during routine capacity maintenance.

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3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem


Locating Methods

3.1 Capacity Counter Categories


GBSS capacity resources are categorized into radio resources, equipment resources, and
transmission resources. This section describes key performance counters and capacity expansion
specifications for these resources.

CAUTION
l With the network development, network capacity is dynamically changing. Therefore, the
capacity expansion specifications for capacity-related counters are changeable. If a new
service is deployed or a new charging policy is used, the traffic model and number of
subscribers may change abruptly. This leads to a sudden change in the loads of network
capacity resources. In this situation, you are advised to predict and analyze the changes and
determine the capacity optimization solution for the network where traffic volume increases
rapidly, a new service needs to be deployed, or a new charging policy is used. Contact local
Huawei engineers if you require capacity evaluation and optimization services, including
capacity prediction, evaluation, adjustment, and expansion.
l The capacity expansion specifications described in this document are defined for the network
with a stable increase in the traffic volume and for reference only. These specifications can
be customized according to the actual situation.
l The capacity expansion specifications described in this section are lower than the actual alarm
generation thresholds so that capacity problems can be located in advance.

Table 3-1 Radio resources


Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

4.1 PCH Load

OVERLOAD rate of paging

2%

or
PCH load

70%

4.2 SDCCH Load

Congestion Rate on SDCCH


per CELL

2%

4.3 TCH Load

Congestion Rate on TCH

2%

4.4 PDCH Load

TBF congestion rate

3%

Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

5.1 GSM CP Subsystem


Resources

Average CPU Usage of the


CPU

70%

Table 3-2 Equipment resources

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Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

5.2 GSM UP Subsystem CS


Resources

TC load of UP subsystem

70%

5.3 GSM UP Subsystem PS


Resources

PDCH load of the UP


subsystem

70%

5.4 Interface Board Load

Average Forwarding Ratio of


Interface Boards

70%

5.5 Inter-Subrack BSC


Communication
Bandwidth and Load

Peak inter-subrack traffic


usage

60%

Average inter-subrack traffic 40%


usage
Inter-subrack packet loss rate

0.01%

Table 3-3 Transmission resources (TDM transmission mode)


Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

6.4.1 Abis over TDM

l Flex Abis:

3%

Congestion Rate of
Dynamic Resource
Assignment (16 kbit/s)
or
Congestion Rate of
Dynamic Resource
Assignment (8 kbit/s)
l Non-Flex Abis:

3%

Percentage of failed
application attempts of
Abis timeslots because of
no idle timeslot (in nonFlex Abis mode)

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Table 3-4 Transmission resources (IP transmission mode)


Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

A over IP (Signaling)

Receive bandwidth
requirement/Bandwidth
allocated by the transport
bearer network

70%

or
Transmit bandwidth
requirement/Bandwidth
allocated by the transport
bearer network
A over IP (Traffic)

Forward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network

70%

or
Backward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network
or
Mean Receive Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port
or
Mean Transmit Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port

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Locating Methods

Resource

Counter

Capacity Expansion
Specification

Gb over IP

Forward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network

70%

or
Backward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network
or
Mean Receive Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port
or
Mean Transmit Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port
6.4.2 Abis over IP

Forward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network

70%

or
Backward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport
Adjacent Node/Bandwidth
allocated by the bearer
network
or
Mean Receive Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port
or
Mean Transmit Rate of the
FEGE Ethernet Port/
Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port

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3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem


Locating Methods

3.2 Capacity Monitoring and Problem Locating Methods


This chapter describes the methods for monitoring capacity-related counters and locating
capacity problems during routine capacity maintenance.

3.2.1 Methods for Locating Capacity Problems


This section describes how to locate capacity problems.
In most cases, an abnormal KPI triggers the troubleshooting process. Determining the possible
top N problem cells facilitates follow-up troubleshooting. Figure 3-1 shows the general
troubleshooting process.
You are advised to analyze accessibility-related KPIs to identify the resource insufficiency that
causes access congestion. For details about resource insufficiency analysis and relevant
solutions, see3.2.2 Methods for Troubleshooting Capacity Problems.

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3 Capacity Counter Categories and Capacity Problem


Locating Methods

Figure 3-1 Flowchart for capacity problem location

NOTE

The analysis report on the capacity problem is provided after capacity data collection and analysis are
complete.

3.2.2 Methods for Troubleshooting Capacity Problems


This section describes how to troubleshoot capacity problems.
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Locating Methods

The BSS capacity resources are correlated because of resource sharing. Insufficiency in a certain
type of resource unnecessarily indicates resource insufficiency in the entire BSS. Some capacity
problems can be resolved by resource adjustment and optimization, and others require capacity
expansion. Before expanding capacity, you are advised to comprehensively analyze related
resources. Table 3-5 lists the recommended solutions to common capacity problems.
For example, TCHs, PDCHs, and SDCCHs can be mutually converted. Therefore, insufficiency
in TCHs, PDCHs, or SDCCHs unnecessarily requires capacity expansion. If SDCCHs are
insufficient, you can decrease the number of TCHs or enable the dynamic SDCCH conversion
function. If SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs are insufficient at the same time, comprehensively
analyze the three types of channels and determine whether the problem can be resolved by
channel optimization. If the problem persists, perform capacity expansion on the BSS.
Overall capacity evaluation is necessary especially for the networks where the traffic volume
increases rapidly and before a new charging policy is used. Based on the capacity evaluation,
formulate a feasible plan for monitoring network capacity and detecting resource insufficiency.
Table 3-5 Solutions to common capacity problems
If...

Then...

PCHs are
overloaded

1. Enable the dynamic CCCH conversion function.

SDCCHs are
congested

Enable the dynamic SDCCH conversion function.

TCHs are
congested

1. Enable TCHHs and lower the threshold for enabling TCHHs.

PDCHs are
congested

Check whether TCHs are congested.

2. Split location areas (LAs).

2. Add TRXs.

1. If TCHs are congested, add TRXs.


2. If TCHs are not congested, modify the PDCH proportion threshold.

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The control
plane (CP) is
overloaded

Expand EGPUa/EXPUa(Logical function type is set to GCUP) boards.

CS service
processing
boards are
overloaded

Expand EGPUa/EXPUa(Logical function type is set to GCUP) boards.

PS service
processing
boards are
overloaded

Expand EGPUa/EXPUa(Logical function type is set to GCUP) boards.

Transmission
resources are
overloaded

Expand the transmission resource capacity.

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Locating Methods

NOTE

If the BSC has been fully configured and board expansion is required, add a BSC.

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4 Radio Resource Monitoring

Radio Resource Monitoring

About This Chapter


Monitoring radio resources involves monitoring the loads of PCHs, SDCCHs, TCHs, and
PDCHs.
4.1 PCH Load
4.2 SDCCH Load
4.3 TCH Load
4.4 PDCH Load

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4 Radio Resource Monitoring

4.1 PCH Load


Related Counters
The PDCH load is indicated by the following counters:
l

RL3188: OVERLOAD rate of pagingThis counter provides the percentage of CS and


PS paging overload times over the PCH on the Abis interface to all paging times.

PCH loadThis counter is a calculation counter, which reflects the percentage of paging
times to the PCH paging capability. The formula for calculating the PCH load is as follows:
PCH load = (A330: Delivered Paging Messages for CS Service + A331: Delivered Paging
Messages for PS Service)/PCH paging capability x 100%
where, the PCH paging capability provides a basis for planning location areas (LAs)
because paging messages are sent on a basis of LA. The formula for calculating the PCH
paging capability is as follows:
PCH paging capability = [(Number of CCCH blocks - Number of CCCH blocks reserved
for AGCH) x Time for sending a BCCH multiframe] x Paging message combination
efficiency x Um interface usage between paging groups x 3600
NOTE

l Time for sending a BCCH multiframe: 0.2354s.


l Paging message combination efficiency: Efficiency for encapsulating paging messages on the Um
interface. (The efficiency is determined by the IMSI-based or TMSI-based paging policy.)
l Um interface usage between paging groups: The imbalance between paging groups and between
services imbalance regarding time decreases the Um interface usage.
For example, paging capability using common configurations in most scenarios is calculated as follows:
Paging capability = [(Number of CCCH blocks - Number of CCCH blocks reserved for AGCH) x Paging
message combination efficiency x Um interface usage between paging groups]/(51 x TDMA period)
Number of CCCH blocks: The number of message blocks for a non-combined CCCH is 9.
Number of CCCH blocks reserved for AGCH: 2
Paging message combination efficiency: 2.87 (The first paging adopts the TMSI-based paging policy and
the second paging adopts the IMSI-based paging policy.)
Um interface usage between paging groups: 80%
Therefore, the paging capability in this example is calculated as follows: Paging capability = (9-2)/0.2354
x 2.87 x 80% x 3600 = 245791 times/hour

Capacity Expansion Threshold


RL3188: OVERLOAD rate of paging > 2%
or
PCH load > 70%, and the network traffic volume is increasing constantly.

Impact on System
l

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Call MSs are paged on PCHs. In the GSM system, paging is performed on a basis of location
area (LA). If the actual paging volume in an LA exceeds the theoretical PCH paging
capacity, PCHs become congested and even overloaded. This decreases the paging success
rate and deteriorates user experience.
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4 Radio Resource Monitoring

The BSS reports ALM-21822 Cell PCH Congestion when PCHs in a cell are congested.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
l

Enable the GBFD-511503 Dynamic Multiple CCCH feature to expand the PCH capacity.

Split an LA to reduce its capacity.

4.2 SDCCH Load


Related Counters
GSM signaling services are carried on SDCCHs. An MS needs to occupy an SDCCH each time
the MS initiates an SMS, performs a location update, or sets up a call. If SDCCHs are insufficient,
an MS cannot perform services. In this situation, the BSS considers SDCCHs as congested and
increments the number of SDCCH congestion occurrences by 1. Causes for insufficient SDCCHs
include inappropriate network planning and service surge during regional events.
The SDCCH load is indicated by the following counter:
RR370: Congestion Rate on SDCCH per CELL This counter provides the percentage of
times that all requested SDCCHs are occupied to all SDCCH request times. It indicates the
SDCCH congestion due to insufficient resources.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


RR370: Congestion Rate on SDCCH per CELL > 2%

Impact on System
GSM signaling services are carried on SDCCHs. An MS needs to occupy an SDCCH each time
the MS initiates an SMS, performs a location update, or sets up a call. If SDCCHs are insufficient,
an MS fails to initiate SMS, a calling MS cannot access the network, and a called MS cannot
respond. SDCCHs are vital to process services, and therefore normal operation of SDCCHs
needs to be preferentially ensured. In normal cases, enable the dynamic SDCCH conversion
function to ensure that SDCCHs are sufficient.

Relationship with Other Counters


SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs need to be analyzed comprehensively because Huawei GBSS has
implemented dynamic conversions among SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs.

Recommended Measures
l

Enable the dynamic SDCCH conversion function.

Expand TRX capacity if SDCCHs, TCHs and PDCHs are all congested at the same time
or SDCCHs are still congested after the dynamic SDCCH conversion function is enabled.

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4.3 TCH Load


Related Counters
CS services are carried on TCHs. If TCHs are insufficient, an MS cannot perform CS services.
In this situation, the BSS considers TCHs as congested and increments the number of TCH
congestion occurrences by 1.
The TCH load is indicated by the following counter:
K3045: Congestion Rate on TCH This counter provides the TCH congestion rate. It
indicates the percentage of TCH request failures due to no idle TCHs to all TCH requests.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


K3045: Congestion Rate on TCH > 2%

Impact on System
If TCHs are insufficient, CS services have difficulties accessing the network. This greatly
deteriorates user experience.

Relationship with Other Counters


SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs need to be analyzed comprehensively because Huawei GBSS has
implemented dynamic conversions among SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs.

Recommended Measures
l

Enable TCHHs and lower the threshold for enabling TCHHs. Note that the voice quality
of TCHHs is a little poorer than that of TCHFs.

Expand TRX capacity.

4.4 PDCH Load


Related Counters
PS signaling and data are carried on PDCHs. A PDCH can be shared by a maximum of 16 MSs
in the downlink. PDCHs can be preempted by CS services. Therefore, TCHs and PDCHs need
to be analyzed comprehensively.
The PDCH load is indicated by the counters related to the temporary block flow (TBF)
congestion rate. TBFs are data blocks transmitted over PDCHs. The TBF congestion rate consists
of the uplink TBF congestion rate and the downlink TBF congestion rate. In normal cases, the
downlink PS data throughput is higher than the uplink PS data throughput. Therefore, the
downlink TBF congestion rate is the primary focus of PDCH load monitoring.
l

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Uplink TBF Congestion Rate: This counter provides the percentage of TBF establishment
failures on the uplink due to insufficient resources.
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Downlink TBF Congestion Rate: This counter provides the percentage of TBF
establishment failures on the downlink due to insufficient resources.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


Uplink TBF Congestion Rate > 3%
Or
Downlink TBF Congestion Rate > 3%

Impact on System
If PDCHs are insufficient, the GPRS/EDGE service rate decreases, and even some MSs cannot
process PS services.

Relationship with Other Counters


SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs need to be analyzed comprehensively because Huawei GBSS has
implemented dynamic conversions among SDCCHs, TCHs, and PDCHs.

Recommended Measures
l

Take measures based on specific causes for insufficient PDCHs.


1.

The PDCH proportion threshold for a cell is set to a small value, and therefore few
TCHs can be converted to PDCHs. As a result, PDCHs are insufficient but some TCHs
are idle during peak hours. In this situation, increase the PDCH proportion threshold.

2.

The channels in a cell are insufficient, and therefore TCHs and PDCHs are insufficient
for processing services during peak hours. In this situation, optimize related
parameters or expand TRX capacity.

Check the following counters to determine the root causes for insufficient PDCHs:
Percentage of PDCH application failures due to the limited PDCH proportion threshold
= R9395: Number of PDCH Application failures For CELL PDCH Ratio Thresh/R9393:
Number Of PDCH Application Attempts
Percentage of PDCH application failures due to no TCH available = R9394: Number
of PDCH Application Failures due to no Convertable TCHs/R9393: Number Of PDCH
Application Attempts
If the PDCH proportion threshold is set to a value that is too small, increase the threshold.
If TCHs and PDCHs in a cell are insufficient during peak hours, expand TRX capacity.

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5 Equipment Resource Monitoring

Equipment Resource Monitoring

About This Chapter


Monitoring equipment resources involves monitoring the loads of EGPUa/EXPUa boards,
interface boards, and inter-subrack BSC communication resources.
5.1 GSM CP Subsystem Resources
5.2 GSM UP Subsystem CS Resources
5.3 GSM UP Subsystem PS Resources
5.4 Interface Board Load
5.5 Inter-Subrack BSC Communication Bandwidth and Load

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5.1 GSM CP Subsystem Resources


Related Counters
For BSC6910, the load of control plane (CP) and user plane (UP) subsystems is indicated by the
load of the EGPUa or EXPUa board that functions as the GCUP. Specifically, the load of the
CP subsystem is indicated by the following counter:
AR9720: Average CPU Usage of the CPU This counter provides the mean CPU usage of
a board in a measurement period. It indicates the load and operating performance of the CPU
on the board in a measurement period.
NOTE

The EGPUa or EXPUa board is used to process services on the GSM BSC control plane and user plane.
For details about the functions of the EGPUa or EXPUa board, see Technical Specifications of the EGPUa
Board and Technical Specifications of the EXPUa Board, respectively.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[AR9720: Average CPU Usage of the CPU] > 70%

Impact on System
l

When the CPU becomes overloaded, the BSC triggers the flow control during which paging
messages or channel request messages are discarded. This results in access problems. If
the CPU is severely overloaded, a large number of subscribers cannot access the network.
When this occurs, the BSS automatically forbids maintenance activities such as collecting
logs and obtaining traffic statistics files.

If the CPU of the EGPUa or EXPUa board becomes overloaded, the BSS reports
ALM-20256 CPU Overload.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Monitor the CPU load on the EGPUa or EXPUa board based on the value of the AR9720:
Average CPU Usage of the CPU counter during peak hours of a day. You are advised to:
l

Expand EGPUa or EXPUa boards when the value of this counter exceeds 70% during peak
hours for successive three or more days on a network with slow service growth.

Analyze capacity requirements and formulate a capacity expansion solution when the value
of this counter exceeds 50% on a network with rapid service growth.

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5.2 GSM UP Subsystem CS Resources


Related Counters
For BSC6910, the load of CP and UP subsystems is indicated by the load of the EGPUa or
EXPUa board that functions as the GCUP. Specifically, the CS load of the UP subsystem is
indicated by the CS load of the EGPUa or EXPUa board during peak hours.
CS load of the UP subsystem = [ZK3014: Traffic Volume on TCH (Traffic Channel) per BSC]/
[Maximum traffic volume supported by the EGPUa or EXPUa board Number of EGPUa or
EXPUa boards that function as the GCUP]
NOTE

l If the EGPUa or EXPUa board functions as the GCUP, the maximum traffic volume supported by an
EGPUa or EXPUa board is 6250 Erl.
l If the EGPUa or EXPUa board functions as the GCUP and works in resource pool mode, you are
advised to configure at least two EGPUa or EXPUa boards for a BSC6910.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[CS load of UP subsystem] > 70%

Impact on System
Insufficient CS resources cause call setup failures, severely deteriorating user experience. This
is because CS resources of the UP subsystem are used to process speech coding and decoding.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Expand EGPUa or EXPUa boards.

5.3 GSM UP Subsystem PS Resources


Related Counters
For BSC6910, the load of CP and UP subsystems is indicated by the load of the EGPUa or
EXPUa board that functions as the GCUP. Specifically, the PS load of the UP subsystem is
indicated by the PDCH load of the EGPUa or EXPUa board during peak hours.
PS load of the UP subsystem = [AS9204: AverageNumber of PDCHs Occupied per BSC]/
[Maximum number of PDCHs supported by the EGPUa or EXPUa board x Number of EGPUa
or EXPUa boards that function as the GCUP]

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NOTE

l If the EGPUa or EXPUa board functions as the GCUP, the maximum number of PDCHs supported by
an EGPUa or EXPUa board is 3000.
l If the EGPUa or EXPUa board functions as the GCUP and works in resource pool mode, you are
advised to configure at least two EGPUa or EXPUa boards for a BSC6910.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[PS load of the UP subsystem] > 70%

Impact on System
If EGPUa or EXPUa boards which processes PS services are insufficient, some PDCHs cannot
be activated. This causes a decrease in PS service rate and difficult access.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Expand EGPUa or EXPUa boards.

5.4 Interface Board Load


Related Counters
When monitoring the load of interface boards, check whether the forwarding rate of data flow
exceeds the designed maximum forwarding rate and whether the CPU of the interface board is
overloaded.
The user-plane interface board load is indicated by the following counters:
AR9705a: Average Forwarding Ratio of Interface BoardsThis counter provides the average
forwarding load of an interface board within a measurement period. The forwarding load refers
to the percentage of the actual forwarding rate to the designed maximum forwarding rate of an
interface board. It indicates the load and operating performance of an interface board within a
measurement period.
AR9720: Average CPU Usage of the CPUThis counter provides the mean CPU usage of a
board in a measurement period. It indicates the load and operating performance of the CPU on
the board in a measurement period.
NOTE

Interface boards are A, Abis, Gb interface boards on the BSC.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[AR9705a: Average Forwarding Ratio of Interface Boards] > 70%
or
[AR9720: Average CPU Usage of the CPU] > 70%
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Impact on System
l

If the forwarding load over an interface is too high, the BSS may discard some messages.
This deteriorates the quality of service (QoS) of CS and PS services.

If the forwarding load of an interface board is too high, the BSS reports ALM-20275
Forwarding Overload of An Interface Board.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Expand the capacity of interface boards.

5.5 Inter-Subrack BSC Communication Bandwidth and


Load
Related Counters
Messages are forwarded between subracks in a BSC. If the forwarding load is too high, the SCU
board may become overloaded and discard some messages.
Inter-subrack BSC communication bandwidths are as follows:
l

The inter-subrack BSC communication bandwidth is 40 Gbit/s when active and standby
SCUb boards are configured.

The preceding bandwidths are halved when a standalone SCUb is running.

Inter-subrack BSC communication is monitored by using the following counters:


l

Peak inter-subrack traffic usage:


Peak inter-subrack traffic usage = [HR9732a: Peak Inter-Subrack Transmitting Traffic]/
Inter-subrack bandwidth x 100%

Average inter-subrack traffic usage:


Average inter-subrack traffic usage = [AR9732a: Average Inter-Subrack Transmitting
Traffic]/Inter-subrack bandwidth x 100%

Inter-subrack packet loss rate


Inter-subrack packet loss rate = [R9732a: Number of Discarded Inter-Subrack Packets]/
[R9732b: Number of Sent Inter-Subrack Packets] x 100%

Capacity Expansion Threshold


l

Peak inter-subrack traffic usage > 60% (Prewarning and analysis is required.)

Average inter-subrack traffic usage > 40% (Prewarning and analysis is required.)

Inter-subrack packet loss rate > 0.01% (Prewarning and analysis is required.)

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Impact on System
l

If the forwarding load over an interface is too high, the BSS may discard some messages.
This deteriorates the quality of service (QoS) of CS and PS services. The Main Processing
Subrack (MPS) is connected to the Extended Processing Subrack (EPS) using the port trunk
group on the SCU panel. When the inter-subrack BSC communication capacity is close to
the overload threshold, the QoS of CS and PS services and network KPIs deteriorate, and
the BSS becomes unstable.

If the actual link bandwidth usage of the port trunk group on the SCU panel exceeds the
congestion threshold (70%) or the packet loss rate over a link exceeds the congestion
threshold (0.02%) for 5 minutes or longer, the BSS reports ALM-20277 Communication
Congestion Between Subracks.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
The inter-subrack BSC communication capacity seldom becomes overloaded. If this occurs,
contact Huawei maintenance engineers for in-depth analysis and troubleshooting.

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6 Transmission Resource Monitoring

Transmission Resource Monitoring

About This Chapter


Monitoring transmission resources involves monitoring the loads of A, Gb, and Abis interface
transmission resources.
6.1 A over IP (Signaling)
6.2 A over IP (Traffic)
6.3 Gb over IP
6.4 Abis Interface
The Abis interface is between the BSC and the BTS, carries CS and PS services, radio signaling
links (RSLs) and operation and maintenance links (OMLs). The Abis interface can use either
the TDM or IP transmission.

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6 Transmission Resource Monitoring

6.1 A over IP (Signaling)


Related Counters
In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or
1000 MHz transmission bandwidth. This basically meets the actual bandwidth requirements.
Therefore, monitor the transmission resource load from two perspectives in IP transmission
mode: transmission load of ports on the BSC or the BTS, and transmission load allocated by the
bearer network.
The load of SS7 links over the A interface is indicated by the following counters:
T7263: Average Transmit Rate of an SCTP Link IP LayerThis counter provides the transmit
rate of an SCTP link at the IP layer within a measurement period.
T7268: Average Receive Rate of an SCTP Link IP LayerThis counter provides the receive
rate of an SCTP link at the IP layer within a measurement period.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[T7263: Average Transmit Rate of an SCTP Link IP Layer]/Bandwidth allocated by the
transmission bearer network > 70%
Or
[T7268: Average Receive Rate of an SCTP Link IP Layer]/Bandwidth allocated by the
transmission bearer network > 70%
NOTE

l SCTP links have no bandwidth configurations. Therefore, when STCP links are used, monitor the
bandwidth resources occupied by SCTP links and check whether the transmission resources on the
bearer network meet the bandwidth requirements.

Impact on System
l

SS7 link overload causes congestion and packet loss. This affects the signaling procedure
and CS service processing.

If SCTP links are congested, the BSS reports ALM-21542 SCTP Link Congestion.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Add SCTP links. To ensure the control plane reliability, configure SCTP links in load sharing
mode. The configuration rule is as follows:
1.

At least two SCTP links are configured.

2.

At least one SCTP link is configured for each pair of EGPUa/EXPUa boards.

3.

A maximum of one SCTP link is configured for each subsystem on a EGPUa/EXPUa board.

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6.2 A over IP (Traffic)


Related Counters
In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or
1000 MHz transmission bandwidth. This basically meets the actual bandwidth requirements.
Therefore, whether the transmission resources allocated by the bearer network meet
requirements is the focus of capacity monitoring in IP transmission mode.
In A over IP mode, the BSC6910 uses the resource pool networking in which multiple pairs of
interface boards form a transmission pool and share the A interface transmission resources.
The traffic load of A interface transmission resources is indicated by the load of the bearer
network and the load of the Ethernet port.
l

Load of the bearer network = [T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport


Adjacent Node]/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network, or [T6520: Backward
Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node]/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer
network

Load of the Ethernet port = [T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port]/
Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet port, or [T7128: Mean Transmit Rate of the FEGE
Ethernet Port]/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet port
NOTE

l In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or 1000
MHz transmission bandwidth.
l The bandwidth allocated by the bearer network refers to the bandwidth allocated by the A interface
backbone network.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


Load of the bearer network > 70%
Or
Load of the Ethernet port > 70%

Impact on System
l

Insufficient circuit transmission resources on the A interface lead to circuit assignment and
call setup failures. This deteriorates user experience.

If the load of physical ports exceeds the alarm threshold, the BSS reports ALM-21583 Port
Congestion.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
l

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Ask the bearer network vendor to increase the network capacity when the load of the bearer
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Expand interface boards when the load of the Ethernet port exceeds 70%.

6.3 Gb over IP
Related Counters
In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or
1000 MHz transmission bandwidth. This basically meets the actual bandwidth requirements.
Therefore, whether the transmission resources allocated by the bearer network meet
requirements is the focus of capacity monitoring in IP transmission mode.
The load of Gb transmission resources is indicated by the following counters:
l

T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node

T6520: Backward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node

T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port This counter provides the
receive rate of an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer within a measurement period.
It indicates the data flow on an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer.

T7128: Mean Transmit Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port This counter provides the
transmit rate of an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer within a measurement
period. It indicates the data flow on an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


l

[T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet
port] > 70%

[T7128: Mean Transmit Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth of the physical
Ethernet port] > 70%

[T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node]/Bandwidth


allocated by the bearer network > 70%

[T6520: Backward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node]/Bandwidth


allocated by the bearer network > 70%
NOTE

l In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or 1000
MHz transmission bandwidth.

Impact on System
l

Insufficient transmission resources on the Gb interface lead to a low GPRS or EDGE service
rate and even network access failures.

If the load of physical ports exceeds the alarm threshold, the BSS reports ALM-21583 Port
Congestion.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

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Recommended Measures
In Gb over IP mode, the BSC interface board capacity is generally sufficient. Therefore, focus
on the transmission resources allocated by the bearer network on the Gb interface. You are
advised to:
l

Expand Gb interface boards when the following condition is met: [T7123: Mean Receive
Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port]/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet port > 70%, or [T7128:
Mean Transmit Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port]/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet port
> 70%.

Ask the bearer network vendor to increase the network capacity when the following
condition is met: [T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/
Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network] > 70%, or [T6520: Backward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network] >
70%.

Apply for a license for the Gb over IP mode and ensure that license resources are sufficient.

6.4 Abis Interface


The Abis interface is between the BSC and the BTS, carries CS and PS services, radio signaling
links (RSLs) and operation and maintenance links (OMLs). The Abis interface can use either
the TDM or IP transmission.

6.4.1 Abis over TDM


Flex Abis
l

Related Counters
In Flex Abis mode, all Abis TDM timeslots on the BTS can be dynamically allocated. When
the BTS receives a CS or PS service request, Abis timeslots are allocated based on the
actual requirements in real time. In this mode, the load of Abis transmission resources is
indicated by the following counters:
RR2752: Congestion Rate of Dynamic Resource Assignment (16 kbit/s)This counter
provides the congestion rate of dynamic allocation of 16 kbit/s Abis resources.
RR2751: Congestion Rate of Dynamic Resource Assignment (8 kbit/s)This counter
provides the congestion rate of dynamic allocation of 8 kbit/s Abis resources.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[RR2752: Congestion Rate of Dynamic Resource Assignment (16 kbit/s)] > 3%
Or
[RR2751: Congestion Rate of Dynamic Resource Assignment (8 kbit/s)] > 3%

Impact on System
Insufficient transmission resources on the Abis interface lead to network access failures.
This deteriorates user experience.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Expand transmission resources over the Abis interface.

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Non-Flex Abis Mode


l

Related Counters
In non-Flex Abis mode, Abis timeslots, except idle Abis timeslots, bear one-to-one mapping
with the TCHs and PDCHs. Therefore, Abis timeslot capacity expansion is required if TCH
and PDCH capacity expansion is performed. In this mode, the usage of idle Abis timeslots
is indicated by the following counters:
Percentage of Abis timeslot application failures due to no idle timeslot (in non-Flex Abis
mode) = [R9109: Number of Unsuccessful Application Attempts of Abis Timeslot Because
of No Idle Timeslot]/[R9101: Number of Application Attempts of Abis Timeslot]

Capacity Expansion Threshold


[Percentage of Abis timeslot application failures due to no idle timeslot (in non-Flex Abis
mode)] > 3%

Impact on System
Insufficient transmission resources on the Abis interface lead to difficulties in improving
the PS service rate.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
Expand transmission resources over the Abis interface.

6.4.2 Abis over IP


Related Counters
The BTS in IP transmission mode is typically configured with FE ports and uses 100 MHz
transmission bandwidth. This basically meets the GSM service requirements. Therefore, monitor
the transmission resource load of a BTS from two perspectives in Abis over IP mode: bandwidth
usage of physical Abis interface boards on the BSC, and whether the transmission resources
allocated by the bearer network meet Abis transmission bandwidth requirements. The load of
IP transmission resources over the Abis interface is indicated by forward or backward bandwidth
allocated to IP transport adjacent node and transmit or receive rate of the FE/GE Ethernet port.
l

T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node

T6520: Backward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node

T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port This counter provides the
receive rate of an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer within a measurement period.
It indicates the data flow on an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer.

T7128: Mean Transmit Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port This counter provides the
transmit rate of an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer within a measurement
period. It indicates the data flow on an FE or GE Ethernet port at the data link layer.

Capacity Expansion Threshold


l

[T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet
port] > 70%

[T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth of the physical Ethernet
port] > 70%

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[T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/Bandwidth


allocated by the bearer network] > 70%

[T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/Bandwidth


allocated by the bearer network] > 70%
NOTE

l In IP transmission mode, the BSC and BTS are configured with FE or GE ports and use 100 or 1000
MHz transmission bandwidth.

Impact on System
l

Insufficient transmission resources on the Abis interface decrease PS service rate, degrade
voice quality and even lead to network access failures.

If the load of physical ports exceeds the alarm threshold, the BSS reports ALM-21583 Port
Congestion.

Relationship with Other Counters


None

Recommended Measures
l

Expand Abis interface boards when the following condition is met: [T7123: Mean Receive
Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network] > 70%, or
[T7123: Mean Receive Rate of the FEGE Ethernet Port/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer
network] > 70%

Focus on checking whether the bandwidth allocated by the IP bearer network is sufficient.
Ask the bearer network vendor to increase the network capacity when the following
condition is met: [T6519: Forward Bandwidth Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/
Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network] > 70%, or [T6520: Backward Bandwidth
Allocated to IP Transport Adjacent Node/Bandwidth allocated by the bearer network] >
70%.

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