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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Pushover Analysis of RC structure


as per EC8:2004

DL

Program Version
Revision Date

SD

NC

Gen 2015 (v 1.1)


05 Nov 2014

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Overview

Pushover analysis is one of the performance-based design

Pushover Analysis Procedure


The pushover analysis procedure is as follows:

methods, recently attracting practicing structural engineers


engaged in the field of seismic design. The objective of a

Modeling & Design

performance-based design is achieved after the user and the

- Details of Building

designer collectively select a target performance for the

- Perform analysis

structure in question. The engineer carries out the conventional

- Check assigned rebar data

design and subsequently performs a pushover (elasto-plastic)


analysis to evaluate if the selected performance objective has
been met.
In midas Gen, pushover analysis as per EN1998:2004 is
provided. This tutorial explains the method and procedure for
pushover analysis of 2-dimensional RC structural as per
EN1998:2004. For this reason, the procedure for modeling and
analysis were not explained in detail. For the users who are not
familiar with the basic functions for modeling and analysis, it is
recommended to review Application 1 tutorial before

Pushover Analysis
- Pushover Global Control
- Pushover Load Cases
- Define Hinge Properties

- Assign Hinge Properties


- Perform Pushover Analysis
- Pushover Curve
- Pushover Hinge Status Results
- Safety Verification Table

following this tutorial.

MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Details of the example structure


G1

LB1

G1

C1

15@3,000 = 45,000

C1

unit : mm
4000

9000

1200

4000

9000

27200

Figure 1. Two-dimensional building model

Figure 2. Cross section

Column section

Beam section

Designation

Story

Section Number

Column Dimension

C1

12~15F
8~11F
4~7F
1~3F

104
103
102
101

600 x 600
700 x 700
800 x 800
900 x 900

Designation

Section Number

Section Dimension

G1

21

350 x 650

LBl

31

200 x 400

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Applied Design Code
Eurocode
Materials (Eurocode4:2004)
Column: C30/37
Beam: C25/30
Wall: C30/37

Applied Loads
Gravity loads
unit: kN/m2
Use : Residential
Static Wind Loads
Applied code: Eurocode1:2005
Terrain Category : II
Fundamental Basic Wind Velocity (Vb,o) : 26m/s
Static Seismic Loads
Applied code: Eurocode8:2004
Ground Type: B
Design Ground Acceleration: 0.08g
Behavior Factor (q): 1.5
Lower Bound Factor (b): 0.2
Importance Factor (I) : 1
4

Unit Load Cases


Load

Static
Load
Cases

Name

Details

DL

Dead Load

LL

Live Load

WX

Wind Load
(X-direction in the global coordinates)

XY

Wind Load
(Y-direction in the global coordinates)

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 1. Open the model file and perform analysis


1. Open Pushover_2D RC structure.mgb
2. Click

icon to perform analysis.

Pushover analysis is carried out in the post-processing mode

after completing elastic analysis.

MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials


1

Step 2: Check assigned rebar data

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6.

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Design > Design > RC Design > Modify Beam Section Data
Check on the section ID 21.
Check rebar data for Beam.
Design > Design > RC Design > Modify Column Section
Data
Check on the section ID 101.
Check rebar data for column.

In order to calculate the yield

strength for each member in


pushover analysis, rebar must be
assigned.

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 3: Check Concrete Design Code


1.
2.
3.
4.

Design > Design > RC Design > Design Code


Specify the code as Eurocode2:04.
Check [Apply EC8:04 Capacity Design].
Check [OK] button.

Design Code specified in the Concrete Design Code dialog is


applied to calculate the capacity of members in pushover
analysis.

MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 4: Pushover Global Control


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2.
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4.
5.

Pushover > Control > Global Control


Select DL in the combo box and click [Add] button.
Select LL in the combo box and enter the Scale Factor as 0.4.
Click [Add] button.
Click [OK] button.

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2

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 4: Pushover Global Control

Reference Design code (Eurocode 8:2004) option is displayed when


the design code (in the main menu, Design > Concrete Design

Parameter or Steel Design Parameter > Design code) is specified as


Eurocode and Design code in preferences (in the main menu, Tools >
Preferences) is specified as Eurocode.

Tools -> Setting -> Preferences -> Select Design in the General

Scale Factor for Ultimate Rotation


1) Wall : In calculating the total chord rotation capacity at ultimate , u, for wall , the value is
divided by 1.6 as per EN1998-3:2004 A.3.1.1.
2) Cold-worked brittle steel : If cold-worked brittle steel is used the total chord rotation capacity is
divided by 1.6 as per EN1998-3:2004 A.3.1.1.
3) Without Detailing for earthquake resistance : In members without detailing for earthquake
resistance the total chord rotation capacity is multiplied by 0.85 as per EN1998-3:2004 .
4) Smooth longitudinal bars : in members with smooth (plain) longitudinal bars without lapping in
the vicinity of the end region where yielding is expected, the total chord rotation capacity may be
multiplied by 0.575 as per EN1998-3:2004.

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

Step 4: Pushover Global Control

Secondary Seismic Elements


In order to calculate the total chord rotation capacity at ultimate, u, the factor el is used. Since el is differently applied for primary and
secondary seismic element (el = 1.5 for primary seismic elements, el = 1.0 for secondary seismic elements As per EN1998-3:2004

A.3.1.1), the user can define Secondary Seismic Elements group. If Secondary Seismic Elements are not defined, all the elements are
considered as Primary Seismic Elements.
In this tutorial, Secondary Seismic Elements are not defined since pushover hinge properties are assigned to primary elements only.

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MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 4: Pushover Load Case


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Pushover > Load Case > Pushover Load Cases


Click [Add] button.
Enter the pushover load case name as PL.
Enter the Increment Steps as 20.
Check on Consider P-Delta Effect option.
Check on Use Initial Load option.
Select Displacement Control in the Increment Method.
Select Mater Node option.
Click the entry field and click the node no. 93 with the
mouse in the model view.
Enter the Max. Displacement as 0.12m.
Uncheck the Limit Inter-Story Deformation Angle in the
Analysis Stopping Condition
Specify the Load Case as EX in the combo box and
click [Add] button.
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Click [OK] button.

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12

13

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 5: Define Pushover Hinge Properties Moment Hinge

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5.

Pushover > Assign > Assign Hinge Properties > Define Pushover
Hinge Properties
Click [Add] button.
Enter the pushover hinge properties name as Beam.
Check on Fz & My component.
Click [Apply] button.

In order to check or modify the hinge properties, click [Properties]


3

button of the desired component.

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MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 6: Define Pushover Hinge Properties PMM (Axial-Moment interaction) Hinge for Column

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2.
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4.

Enter the pushover hinge properties name as Column.


Select P-M-M in Status Determination option for Interaction
Type.
Check on Fz & My component.
Click [Apply] button.

Coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior is reflected by


calculating the flexural yield strength of a hinge considering the
effect of axial force.

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MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 7: Define Pushover Hinge Properties PMM (Axial-Moment interaction) Hinge for Wall

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Enter the pushover hinge properties name as Wall.


Select the Element Type as Wall(CRB).
Select the Interaction Type as P-M-M in Status Determination.
Check on Fz & My component.
Click [Apply] button.
Click [Close] button.

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials


Pushover Hinge Properties
Yield strength of RC structures
M={As2*fsc*(d-d2)}+M
Where, As2= area of compression steel
M=Kbd2fck
fsc=700(xu-d2)/xu fyd
d2=effective depth to compression steel
xu=(-0.4)d
fyd=design yield strength of reinforcement

Flexural
Hinge

Shear strength of reinforcement, VRd,S is the smaller value of:

Eurocode2:2004, Equation(6.8) and (6.9)

Shear strength of concrete, VRd,C is given by:

Shear
Hinge
Eurocode2:2004, Equation(6.2a) and (6.2b)

Therefore, Shear strength, VRd is


FY = max (VRd,s ; VRd,c)
Where, cw=1.0
cc =1.0

fcd=cc fck/C
C=1.0

RC structures (Eurocode8-3:2004, Annex A.3.1)


DY
Eurocode8-3:2004, Equation(A.10b)

Flexural
Hinge
DU

Eurocode8-3:2004, Equation(A.1)
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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 8: Assign Pushover Hinge Properties for Beams


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2.
3.
4.
5.

Select Girder members (Section ID 21:G1) from the Tree Menu.


Pushover > Assign > Assign Hinge Properties > Assign Pushover
Hinge Properties
Select Hinge Properties Type as Beam in the combo box.
Click [Apply] button.
Click [Close] button.

Right-click

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4

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 9: Assign Pushover Hinge Properties for Columns


1.
2.

Select column members from the Tree Menu.


Drag and drop the Column hinge property from the Tree Menu to
the Model Window .

Pushover hinge properties can be simply assigned to the


selected elements by Drag & Drop.

1 Right-click

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 10: Assign Pushover Hinge Properties for Walls


1.
2.

Select column members from the Tree Menu.


Drag and drop the Wall hinge property from the Tree Menu to the
Model Window .

Pushover hinge properties can be simply assigned to the


selected elements by Drag & Drop.

1 Right-click

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

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Step 11: Perform pushover analysis


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2.
3.

Click Task Pane.


Click icon and select Analysis.
Click Perform Pushover Analysis.

Task Pane displays work procedure for


advanced

analysis

functions

and

description on input items so as to enable


the user to work more easily.
midas program provides 4 types of
advanced analysis features - Pushover
2

Analysis,
3

Nonlinear

Time

History

Analysis, Time History Analysis and


Material Nonlinear Analysis.
In addition, Task Pane data can be
saved in html format in the User Folder,
so that the user can directly write or add
the required input items for analysis.

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MIDAS Information Technology Co., Ltd.

Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 12: Pushover Curve


Click Pushover Curve in the Task Pane.
Select For Target Displacement
(EC8/OPCM).
Enter the Ref. Peak Ground Acc. (Ag) as 0.08.
Click [Draw] button.

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For the detailed formula of the Target Displacement, refer to ANNEX B DETERMINATION OF THE

TARGET DISPLACEMENT FOR NONLINEAR STATIC (PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS, EN 1998-1:2004. The


target displacement, which is obtained from the above, corresponds to the seismic demand of the Limit State of
Significant Damage (SD). Target displacement of the Limit State of Near Collapse (NC) is taken equal to that
of SD multiplied by 1.5. Target displacement of the Limit State of Damage Limitation (DL) is taken equal to
that of SD divided by 2.5.

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 13: Hinge Status Results


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Click Hinge Status Results in the Task Pane.


Select Status of Yielding (EC8:2004).
Select the Components as Ry.
Check on Legend and Deform.
Specify the desire step in the combo box.

Clicking and scrolling

Clicking on the graph

The user can also check hinge status results for


each step by clicking on the step box and scroll
or clicking on the pushover graph which is

displayed in the black background.


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1

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Step 13: Safety Verification Table


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Click Safety Verification Table in the Task Pane.


Select Show All Elements.
Click [OK] button.
Select Significant Damage (SD).
Check on My and Fz.
Click [OK] button.

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Safety Verification Table displays the comparison results between the demand and
capacities of the elements as per EN1998-3:2004 Table 4.3. Safety verification shall be
conducted of both ductile and brittle elements respectively. For ductile elements,
verification will be conducted in terms of deformation using mean values of properties
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divided by CF. For brittle elements, verification shall be conducted in terms of strength
using mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor.

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Pushover Analysis as per EC8:2004

midas Gen tutorials

Capacity of RC structures for assessment in the Safety Verification Table (Eurocode8-3:2004, Annex A.3.1)

*For ductile elements, mean values of properties divided by CF are used.


For brittle members, mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor.
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