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Rineke Dijkstra, Golani Brigade, Orev
Unit, Elyacim, Israel. May 28, 1999, 1999. Color photograph, 70"8" x 59'!e'.

52

NEWARTEXAMINER

Jan Estep: How did you first get started in
photography?
Rineke Dijkstra: I was studying to be a
teacher for secondary education.

you ask five or ten people on the street
which person they find interesting, you'll get
five or ten different responses. Beyond that,
I always find myself more interested in the
quiet ones than in the flamboyant ones.

coming out of her head. Everything fits.
JE: HoW many images of her did you shoot
to get this one?
RD: Only four.

JE: As an art teacher?
RD: Yes. I had a friend who was a photographer (that's how most things work, isn't
it?) and after he showed me what he was
doing I thought that it would be interesting
for me to try it myself. In the beginning
it was very hard for me, as I think it is
for everybody, to ask people to let me take
pictures of them. People have reservations.
At first I didn't know whether to ask them
or not.
JE: When did you get more comfortable
taking pictures?
RD: It just took time. In 1984, when I was
25 1 went to this club in Holland. I photographed there, and found it was hard to
ask people if they would like to pose for me.
Because I was so uncertain, people would

JE: Are the quiet ones more difficult, to get
to pose for you?

JE: Really? Why so few: because you knew
you had the perfect shot or was that all the

RD: Yes. It's really difficult sometimes.

film you had?

JE: By "quiet" do you mean they are more
self-conscious?

RD: I didn't have so much money, and
working with a four-by-five is very expensive, different than a small camera that you
can shoot and shoot and shoot. I just
watched her very carefully. In the beginning it was awful because she was standing

RD: They are very shy. One of the first
beach photos that I took in 1992 was the
girl in the green bathing suit (Kolobrzeg,
Poland, 1992; the one that looks like a
Botticelli painting). It was very strange
because it is the only time in my whole
career that I saw somebody in the distance and thought immediately to myself,
"I really need to photograph her."
JE: That picture is part of a series of photographs of people at the beach. At what
point in the series did you see her?

all slouched over and then I said. "You have
to move your head just slightly." Then she
had it.
JE: During the last two years you have been
traveling to Israel and photographing young
men and women in the army there, both
during their training and induction and during their civilian off-hours. In situations like
this, do you usually shoot so few images?

I STILL FIND IT DIFFICULT SOMETIMES. YOU ARE INTERRUPTING
SOMEBODY'S LIFE AND YOU HAVE TO EXPLAIN WHAT YOU ARE DOING.
kind of back away and say, "No, I'm sorry,"
shaking their heads.

RD: The first part of the series was shot in
Hilton hlead. This was during the second

RD: When I'm on location. yes. With the
soldiers in Israel, I shot two or three takes,

JE: If you're not confident. how will you

phase in Poland. It was really strange,
because I thought that this would be my

sometimes only one, because I don't have
much time. For the level of concentration

make a good picture?

best photo ever. I knew it.

I want from them, after five photos they've
had enough. They become impatient. The

RD: I still find if difficult sometimes. You
are interrupting somebody's life and you
have to explain what you are doing.

JE: Do you still feel that's the case?

moment is always very short-lived. Every-

JE: You carry all of your equipment with
you, so you're announcing yourself as a
photographer from the get-go.

JE: What about that photograph makes it

RD: Yes, I always work on location, and I
have a big camera, a four-by-five-inch format, and a tripod.
JE: What attracts you to someone to want
to photograph them?
RD: It's difficult to explain, but I think it's
the same for everybody. When you pick
somebody out on the street, you think, oh,
well, that person has an interesting face. If

RD: Yes (laughing).

thing in the shoot comes to that moment
and then you lose it again. Sometimes I see
it in the camera but very often I see it after
the film has been developed.

so special?
RD: She is so shy, and at the same time
she's unconsciously taking the pose from
[Sandrol Botticelli's Birth of Venus [from the
fifteenth centuryl. It was also unconscious
for me, because I didn't recognize it at the
time I was making the photo. When I came
home I thought that it reminded me of
something. I looked in my history books,
and, wow, it's exactly the same pose. That's
what makes it very special. Also, all of
the elements in the photo work together:
her hair, and the clouds that appear to be

JE: In 1994 you created a series of three
photographs of women who had just
given birth: they're shot holding the
reddish newborn babies tightly against
their naked bodies standing against nondescript white walls. Ahat was it like to make
these photographs?
RD: With the first one. Julie, Den Haag, The

Netherlands, February 29, 1994, 1 didn't
know exactly what was going to happen or
if I would be able to take the photograph at
all. This photograph was taken right after

2001 I JULY-AUGUST

53

she gave birth. one hour after. I didn't
really know her: she was a friend of a
friend. I was supposed to visit her before
[I came to photograph her] but I was called
a few days before my first appointment and
was told that the baby had started to come.
JE: She went into labor early?
RD: Yes and [once I was at her housel. sitting on the couch. I heard her screaming. I
thought. oh no, I can't ask her to do this.
JE: Did she know you were there to take a
photograph or her?
RD: Yes, but she wras ...
JE: ...

not thinking of you.

RD: No (laughing). It was such a private
moment. I felt really uncomfortable, but

JE: How did you get the idea for the series?
It is such a private event for most people;
there are the doctors, nurses, and family,
but other than that, few others witness it.

RD: And full portraits. all kinds of pictures.
I also photographed writers and artists.
But I always had this problem ...
JE: WVas this freelance work?

RD: In the Netherlands women always give
birth at home, so it's even more private. A
friend of mine gave birth a couple of years
before I started this series, and that's when
I came up with the idea. Following the
whole process of giving birth I saw that the
mother becomes very introverted.

RD: Yes, for magazines and Dutch newspapers. For me it was a good school in
which to learn everything. But I found it
very difficult that my subjects were always
so conscious of being photographed. They
knew exactly how they wanted to be seen,
with a specific stance, a certain look.

JE: During pregnancy?
RD: Yes, but especially during the moment
of giving birth, when the baby is coming.
I want to show that there are many emotions at one moment: so much pain and
effort, then the relief and the happiness
come after that. I think Julie is really
the best one: she looks like a wild animal,

JE: They feel a need to project a certain
image.
RD: Exactly. Sometimes I saw them in an
unconscious moment and I found it much
more interesting. But it is very hard to get
it for the camera. I did this for six years and
I really felt like I wanted to do something

BECAUSE THE CULTURE IS SATURATED WITH SO MANY FASHION AND
ADVERTISING IMAGES PEOPLE H''AV'E SUCH AN IMAGE OF HOW THEY WANT
TO LOOK. IFM NOT AGAINS THAT, I'M JUST LOOKING FOR SOMETHING
ELSE, SOMETHING MORE PERSONAL.
the nurse who was there helped me. I
talked to her after the baby was born and
asked her opinion. I didn't think I could
take the photo. But she said, "Oh, it's okay.
First we'll have coffee, and then we'll take
the photograph, and then we will wash the
baby." This provided some structure, and
that really helped the mother. We did it in
two minutes. In the first take the baby was
too exposed to the flash, so in the second
one the mother is covering the baby's head
with her hand. protecting it from the light.
That's the one I chose as the final image.
JE: How did the other tWo photos in the
series go?
RD: Saskia [Saskia, Harderwgk, The
Nethterlands, March 16, 19941 1 pho-

tographed one week after she had her baby.
She had a Cesarian section. And Tecla
[Tecla, Arnsterdam, The Netherlarnds, May
16, 19941 was taken after one day, though
it was the first time she got out of bed after
having her baby. But even after one day it
was quite different for the mother.

54

NEWARTEXAMINER

protecting the baby. The gesture came very
naturally to her.
JE: Do you find that people are less
self-conscious immediately after they've
experienced something so dranmatic and
exhausting? They are swept up in the experience and can't quite control the image
they're projecting to the camera. Many
of your projects follov this model: the
bullfighters photographed post-fight in
Portugal: the dancers at the Buzzelub in
Liverpool and Mystery World in The
Netherlands: the swimmers on the beaches
of Hilton Hlead, Long Island, Odessa, and
Belgium: the soldiers in Israel and the
French Foreign Legion.
RD: Yes, it's a process that took years for
me to figure out. For many years I worked
as a commercial photographer photographing a lot of business men. Business men
were my specialty (laughing).
JE: Head shots?

different, to think about how I was using
the camera. I took two months off, and I
didn't think about anything during the
whole time. It was sum.mer so I just had a
good rest. But on the last day of these two
months I broke my hip in a bicycle accident, Then I had to lay in bed for five
months and I couldn't do anything. Life is
so fragile, like a thin strip. Something can
happen to you and your whole life can
change. To recover for my hip I was swimming everyday and then I decided to take a
photo of myself after swimming. That is
more or less the same moment you find in
nmy other photos. Taking a picture just after
physical or emotional experience allows
you to capture a more natural pose. It's not
that I want to get something from someone they don't want to give or show.
It's just more interesting if they are more
themselves, if they don't think about being
photographed. When you point a camera at
somebody they don't know how to pose or
what to do with their hands, where to
stand. They feel uncomfortable because
they're thinking about the camera. It's this

oversize camera I use; it makes everybody
feel uncomfortable. And these days everybody has a camera. I think for August
Sander, for instance, it was much easier for
him to get this, you know, I don't know the
word....
JE: Do you mean authenticity, honesty, or
truth?
RD: It's more like being open. But now,
because the culture is saturated with so
many fashion and advertising images, people
have such an image of how they want
to look. I'm not against that, I'm just looking for something else, something more
personal.

JE: You took two group portraits of young
women from a high school in Israel taken a
year and a half apart when they are 14 and

then 16 [Danyel, Adi, Shira, Keren, Zeev
Junior High School, Herzliya, Israel, April
11, 1999 and Danyel, Adi, Shira. Keren,
Rishonim High School. Herzliya, Israel,

JE: Many of your photographs are of children and teenagers: the swimmers, the
club dancers, and the soldiers. The soldiers, for instance-the women are photographed on the first day of induction and
the men immediately after a military exer-

December 17, 20001. Were they critical of
those images of themselves?

cise out in the field-look very young to be
in uniforms. What is it about children or
adolescents that you like to photograph?
Are they less self-conscious than adults?

RD: This group primarily liked it. But most
of the time people don't like the way they
look in my portraits.

RD: Yes. Their appearance is more abstract

JE: Do they tell you?

JE: Abstract?

RD: Yes.

RD: When somebody becomes older they

to me.

2001 I JULY-AUGUST

55

...........
............ .
............
..........
........ .
...........
...........
......................
..........
............
................
...........
..............
.........
.......................
.........................

CLOCKWISFE
FROMUPPERLE[T Rineke Dijkstra
Maya, Tel-Hashomer,
Israel, April 12, 1999, 1999. Color photograph.
Golani Brigade, Orev Unit, Elyacim, Israel, May 26, 1999, 1999. Color photograph.
Induction Center, Tel-Iashomer, Israel, April 12, 1999, 1999.Color photograph.
Golani Brigade, Orev Unit, Elyacim, Israel, May 26, 1999, 1999. Color photograph.

56

NEWARTEXAMtNER

CLOCKWISE FROM UPPER LEFT:Rineke Dijkstra
Israel, April 12, 1999,1999. Color photograph.
Induction Center, Tel-Hashomer,
Golani Brigade, Orev Unit, Elyacim, Israel, May 26, 1999, 1999. Color photograph.
Induction Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel, April 12, 1999,1999. Color photograph.
Golani Brigade, Orev Unit, Elyacim, Israel, May 26, 1999,1999. Color photograph.

200

I JULY-AUGUST

57

/^: :;::
E

..............................................
..........
..........
.
.....................
................
..................
.......................
............
...........................
.................
......
..........
.... .. ..... .... ...
......
.....

..........

Rineke Dijkstra, OmriKiryat, Shmonah, Israel, September 25,2000. 2000. Color photograph, 49 /i" x 42'.2".

58

NEWARTEXAMINER

have a personality that distinguishes them
from others, but with teenagers it's much

JE: What initially took you to Israel?

RD: He is 18. He caie when he was 17.

more ...

RD: I was invited to do an exhibition there
and I was really ready to work with the
camera again. In the beginning I went to
the schools, and visited orthodox Jewish
children and families. Then I thought, well.
everybody has gone through the army.

JE: And how receptive was he to being

JE: They're not sure yet who they're going
to become?
RD: It's like an open book or something.
Their lives can go in all directions: they are
not completely filled in yet.

JE: That's the one unifying experience?
RD: Yes. A lot of my work deals with this
kind of uniformity. I've always been interested in how you can pick out individual
and specific things from people who are
members of a group, how people distinguish themselves from each other. The
Israeli soldiers share a uniform but they
are all so very different. The first person I
photographed had such long hands; he
could be a painter or a musician: he's very
elegant. Another one is very set, strong,
and stood like a good soldier. Some of them
fit the uniforms; others don't.

JE: Giving birth is such a strong demarcation of becoming an adult, of what it is to
be human, a major event. And going to war
is another major event. Whether these kids
are going to see direct combat or not, even
preparing for violence must be traumatic
for an adolescent.
RD: In Israel, Iserving in the militaryl is not
a choice; evervbody goes.
JE: Everyone enters the army when they
turn 18: they leave their families and boys

photographed? Did he become interested
in your project after a while, to see how his
image would change?
RD: Yes. but he was very cool about
it. He wasn't interested at all but he
was always, like, "Me, again?" (laughing).
We photographed the whole group of
legionnaires and I really wanted to be
careful not to give Olivier the feeling
that he was the most interesting for me.
But after a while when I photographed
him at certain points in his training,
I focused on him and he felt that attention,
of course.
JE: It seems that with some of the people
you photograph a relationship develops
because you are involved in their lives
over a period of time. Do you seek out that
kind of association with people? Or is it

Vt

i

serve for three years and girls for 21
months. Looking at the photographs,
you're forced to confront what it would
mean to take a life or to work for your
country on that level of commitment.
How do you figure out what your next

project will be? It seems like things just
naturally evolve out of relationships you
have or by chance.

ftAN

,

JE: You can see this differentiation very
quickly in the two-minute video Le Code
d'Honneur (The Code of Honor). At the

really the photos in the end that you're

beginning. a group of yotng men are seen
fidgeting individually until a call is given

RD: I'm interested in the photos, but with
Olivier, he's my friend now too. And there's
a girl, a refugee from Bosnia, who I've

and they all snap to attention. Then you
see them as a group rather than distinct

individuals. After a moment they are
prompted by someone off-screen to shout
in unison the French Foreign Legionnaire's

RD: I don't like to think about what my
next artwork will be. It really has to come
into my life, more or less, like the Buzzelub

code of honor. In close-ups the men articulate the words very differently from one

most concerned about?

known and been periodically photographing since she first came to Hiolland when
she was six years old and she's now 14:
the whole family have become friends. But

I didn't even have the address of the girl in

another.

the green bathing suit. It's been reproduced and shown a lot, but I'm not sure
she's even seen it. Most of the people I

in England and the last day my friend and
I wanted to go out. WNe
asked the cab driver
and he took us to the most famous club but

RD: They are not all from France; they

photograph will never become true friends,

come from all over the world, so for some

but I feel that taking care of the photos is
taking care of them.

there was a long queue out the door, so he

cult for them to pronounce the words.

series. I was photographing school children

took us to the Buzzclub instead. I had
never seen anything like that. I like it when
I am just dropped somewhere and, okay,
that's it; this I want to photograph. This is
more or less what happened in Israel, too.

their French is not so good. It's very diffi-

JE: You also took a series of six photo-

*

Jan Estep is an artist and senior editor of
New Art Examiner.

graphs over five months of the young
soldier Olivier Silva who joined the French
Foreign Legion. Hie looks so young.

2001 I JULY-AUGUST

59

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION

TITLE: Being open: interview with Rineke Dijkstra
SOURCE: New Art Examiner 28 no10 Jl/Ag 2001
WN: 0118201521009
The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it
is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in
violation of the copyright is prohibited.

Copyright 1982-2001 The H.W. Wilson Company.

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