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K. Prakash, Member, IEEE, and M. Sydulu

the optimal location and size of capacitors on radial distribution

systems to improve voltage profile and reduce the active power

loss. Capacitor placement & sizing are done by Loss Sensitivity

Factors and Particle Swarm Optimization respectively. The

concept of Loss sensitivity Factors and can be considered as the

new contribution in the area of distribution systems. Loss

Sensitivity Factors offer the important information about the

sequence of potential nodes for capacitor placement. These

factors are determined using single base case load flow study.

Particle Swarm Optimization is well applied and found to be very

effective in Radial Distribution Systems. The proposed method is

tested on 10, 15, 34, 69 and 85 bus distribution systems.

Index Terms--Capacitor Placement, Radial Distribution

Systems, Loss Sensitivity Factors and Particle Swarm

Optimization.

.

I. INTRODUCTION

stretched too far, leading to higher system losses and

poor voltage regulation, the need for an efficient and effective

distribution system has therefore become more urgent and

important. In this regard, Capacitor banks are added on Radial

Distribution system for Power Factor Correction, Loss

Reduction and Voltage profile improvement.

With these various Objectives in mind, Optimal Capacitor

Placement aims to determine Capacitor location and its size.

Optimal Capacitor Placement has been investigated over

decades. Early approaches were based on heuristic

techniques. In the 80s, more rigorous approaches were

suggested as illustrated by Grainger [1],[2] and Baran Wu

[3],[4] formulated the Capacitor Placement as a mixed integer

non-linear program. In the 90s combinatorial algorithms were

introduced as a means of solving the Capacitor Placement

Problem and neural network technique based papers [5] and

[6] were investigated. Ng and Salama [7] have proposed a

solution approach to the capacitor placement problem based

on fuzzy sets theory. Using this approach, the authors

attempted to account for uncertainty in the parameters the

distribution functions. Chin [8] uses a fuzzy dynamic

programming model to express real power loss, voltage

deviation, and harmonic distortion in fuzzy set notation.

Sundharajan and Pahwa [9] used genetic algorithm for

capacitor placement.

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was developed by James

Kennedy and Russell Eberhart [10]. It is based on metaphor

of social interaction, searches a space by adjusting the

trajectories of moving points in a multi dimensional space and

used for optimization of continues non linear problems. The

main advantages of the PSO are summarized as follows:

simple concept, easy implementation robustness to control

parameters and better computational efficiency when

compared with other heuristic algorithms.

Shi and Eberhart [11] uses an extra inertia weight term

which is used to scale down the velocity of each particle and

this term is typically decreased throughout a run. Shi and

Eberhart [12] also described an empirical study of PSO.

In this paper, Capacitor Placement and Sizing is done by Loss

Sensitivity Factors and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

respectively. PSO is used for estimation of required level of

shunt capacitive compensation to improve the voltage profile

of the system. The proposed method is tested on 10, 15, and

34 bus radial distribution systems and results are very

promising. In this paper, Vector based Distribution Load Flow

method (VDLF) [13] with Sparsity Technique [14] is used.

With the support of sparsity technique the VDLF found to be

very effective.

A new methodology is used to determine the candidate

nodes for the placement of capacitors using Loss Sensitivity

Factors. The estimation of these candidate nodes basically

helps in reduction of the search space for the optimization

procedure.

Consider a distribution line connected between p and q

buses.

p

University, Warangal (A.P), 506004 India (e-mail: prakashkam@yahoo.co.in).

M.Sydulu is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National

Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Warangal (A.P), 506004 India (email: msydulu@nitw.ernet.in).

R+jX

kth line

q

Peff + jQeff

distribution system.

Plineloss[ q] =

(P

2

2

eff [ q] + Qeff [ q ] .R[ k ]

2

(V [q])

(1)

Qlineloss [q ] =

(P

2

eff [ q ] +

2

Qeff

[q ] . X [k ]

(V [q])2

(2)

supplied beyond the node q.

Qeff [q] = Total effective reactive power

supplied beyond the node q.

Now, both the Loss Sensitivity Factors can be obtained as

shown below:

Plineloss (2 * Qeff [q ] * R[ k ])

=

Qeff

(V [q])2

(3)

Qlineloss (2 * Qeff [q ] * X [ k ])

=

Qeff

(V [q ])2

(4)

The Loss Sensitivity Factors ( Plineloss Qeff ) are calculated

from the base case load flows and the values are arranged in

descending order for all the lines of the given system. A

vector bus position bpos [i] is used to store the respective

end buses of the lines arranged in descending order of the

values ( Plineloss Qeff ). The descending order of

( Plineloss Qeff ) elements of bpos[i] vector will decide the

sequence in which the buses are to be considered for

compensation. This sequence is purely governed by the

( Plineloss Qeff ) and hence the proposed Loss Sensitive

Coefficient factors become very powerful and useful in

capacitor allocation or Placement. At these buses of bpos[i]

vector, normalized voltage magnitudes are calculated by

considering the base case voltage magnitudes given by

(norm[i]= V[i]/0.95). Now for the buses whose norm[i] value

is less than 1.01 are considered as the candidate buses

requiring the Capacitor Placement. These candidate buses are

stored in rank bus vector. It is worth note that the Loss

Sensitivity factors decide the sequence in which buses are to

be considered for compensation placement and the

norm[i]decides whether the buses needs Q-Compensation or

not. If the voltage at a bus in the sequence list is healthy (i.e.,

norm[i]>1.01) such bus needs no compensation and that bus

will not be listed in the rank bus vector. The rank bus

vector offers the information about the possible potential or

candidate buses for capacitor placement. Now sizing of

Capacitors at buses listed in the rank bus vector is done by

using Particle Swarm Optimization based algorithm. Table I

shows the active power Line Loss Sensitivity Coefficients

placed in descending order along with its bus identification

and normalized voltage magnitudes of 15 bus radial

TABLE I

LOSS SENSITIVITY COEFFICIENTS PLACED IN DESCENDING

ORDER OF A 15-BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

Bus

Norm[i]

Base voltage

Plineloss Qeff

No.

V[i]/0.95

(descending)

0.029661

0.016437

0.015485

0.008526

0.006182

0.005266

0.004134

0.003141

0.002966

0.002811

0.001678

0.001613

0.001342

0.001256

2

6

3

11

4

12

9

15

14

7

13

8

10

5

1.0224

1.0086

1.0069

0.9990

1.0009

0.9955

1.0188

0.99835

0.9985

1.0063

0.9942

1.007263

1.01768

0.99985

0.971283

0.958232

0.956669

0.949952

0.949952

0.945829

0.967971

0.94844

0.948608

0.956008

0.944517

0.956954

0.966897

0.949918

contains set of sequence of buses given as

{6,3,11,4,12,15,14,7,13,8,5}

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a meta heuristic

parallel search technique used for optimization of continues

non linear problems. The method was discovered through

simulation of a simplified social model. PSO has roots in two

main component methodologies perhaps more obvious are ties

to artificial life in general, and to bird flocking, fish schooling

and swarming theory in particular.

It is also related, how ever to evolutionary computation and

has ties to both genetic algorithms and evolutionary

programming. It requires only primitive mathematical

operators, and is computationally inexpensive in terms of both

memory requirements and speed.

It conducts searches using a population of particles,

corresponding to individuals. Each particle represents a

Candidate solution to the capacitor sizing problem.

In a PSO system, particles change their positions by flying

around a multi dimensional search space until a relatively

unchanged position has been encountered, or until

computational limits are exceeded. In social science context, a

PSO system combines a social and cognition models.

The general elements of the PSO are briefly explained as

follows:

Particle X(t): It is a k-dimensional real valued vector which

represents the candidate solution. For an ith particle at a time t,

the particle is described as Xi(t)={Xi,1(t), Xi,2(t), Xi,k(t)}.

Population: It is a set of n number of particles at a time t

described as {X1(t), X2(t) Xn(t)}.

Swarm: It is an apparently disorganized population of moving

particles that tend to cluster together while each particle

seems to be moving in random direction.

particle represented by a k-dimensional real valued vector

Vi(t)= {vi,1(t), vi,2(t) vi,k(t)}.

Inertia weight W(t): It is a control parameter that is used to

control the impact of the previous velocity on the current

velocity.

Particle Best (pbest): Conceptually pbest resembles

autobiographical memory, as each particle remembers its own

experience. When a particle moves through the search space,

it compares its fitness value at the current position to the best

value it has ever attained at any time up to the current time.

The best position that is associated with the best fitness

arrived so far is termed as individual best or Particle best. For

each Particle in the swarm its pbest can be determined and

updated during the search.

Global Best (gbest): It is the best position among all the

individual pbest of the particles achieved so far.

Velocity Updation: Using the global best and individual best,

the ith particle velocity in kth dimension is updated according

to the following equation.

V[i][j]=K*(w*v[i][j]+c1*rand1*(pbestX[i][j]X[i][j])+c2*rand2*(gbestX[j]-X[i][j])).

where,

K constriction factor

c1, c2 weight factors

w Inertia weight parameter

i particle number

j

control variable

rand1, rand2 random numbers between 0 and 1

Stopping criteria: This is the condition to terminate the

search process. It can be achieved either of the two following

methods:

i.

The number of the iterations since the

last change of the best solution is

greater than a pre-specified number.

ii.

The number of iterations reaches a prespecified maximum value.

IV. ALGORITHM FOR CAPACITOR PLACEMENT AND

SIZING USING LOSS SENSITIVITY FACTORS AND

PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

Step1: Run the base case Distribution load flow and

determine the active power loss.

Step2: Identify the Candidate buses for placement of

capacitors using Loss Sensitivity Factors.

Step3: Generate randomly n number of particles, where

each particle is represented as particle[i]={Qc 1,Qc 2,.,Qc j}

Where j represents number of candidate buses.

Step4: Generate the particle velocities (v[i]) between vmax

and vmax.

Where, vmax = (capmax-capmin)/N

Capmax= maximum capacitor rating in kvar

Capmin= minimum capacitor rating in kvar

N= number of steps to move the particle from

one position to the other.

Step5: Set the Iteration count, iter=1.

candidate bus for reactive power compensation and

store the active power loss (pl).

Step7: Evaluate the fitness value (base power loss-pl) of the

particle i and compare with previous particle best

(pbest) value. If the current fitness value is greater than its

pbest value, then assign the pbest value to the current value.

Step8: Determine the current global best(gbest) maximum

value among the particles individual best (pbest)

values.

Step9: Compare the global position with the previous

global position. If the current global position is greater than

the previous, then set the global position to the current global

position.

Step10: Update the velocities by using

v[i][j]=K*(w*v[i][j]+c1*rand1*(pbestparticle[i][j]particle[i][j])+c2*rand2*(gbestparticle[j]-particle[i][j]).

Where,

particle[i] position of individual i

pbestparticle[i] best position of individual i

gbestparticle best position among the swarm

v[i] velocity if individual i

Step11: If the velocity v[i][j] violates its limits (-vmax,

vmax), set it at its proper limits

Step12: Update the position of the particle by adding the

velocity (v[i][j]) to it.

Step13: Now run the load flow and determine the active

power loss (pl) with the updated particle.

Step14: Repeat step 7 to step 9

Step15: Repeat the same procedure for each particle from

steps from 6 to 13.

Step16: Repeat steps from 6 to 13 until the termination

criteria are achieved.

V. TEST RESULTS

The proposed method for loss reduction by capacitor

placement is tested on 10bus [15], 15bus [13], 34bus [16], 69

bus [3] and 85bus radial distribution systems. The various

constants used in the proposed algorithm are

capmin=200kvar, capmax=1200kvar, K=0.7259, c1=c2=2.05

and w=1.2.The test results are shown below in various tables.

The 10 bus test system with the proposed method is compared

with the paper [15] in which the total kvar placed is 5500 kvar

with a loss reduction of 10.06% where as the proposed

method for the identified locations the total kvar placed only

3186 kvar that too with a loss reduction of 11.17% as shown

in Table II. When the proposed method is tested on 15 bus

system and compared with the paper [18], nearly similar

results are obtained as shown in Table III. The proposed

method is also tested on 34 bus test system and compared

with the heuristic method [16] and Fuzzy Expert Systems

(FES) approach [20], results obtained are more promising. as

shown in Table IV. In practice the capacitor size should be in

discrete in value. With this in mind, for a 34 bus system, when

buses 19, 22 and 20 are compensated by 800kvar, 800kvar

and 450kvar instead of 781kvar, 803kvar and 479kvar

respectively as shown in Table IV, the load flow results

168.89kw can be achieved. Similarly the other systems can

also be compensated by round off discrete capacitor values.

Table V shows the test results of the proposed method on 69

bus system with a loss reduction of 32.23% and Table VI

shows the test results of the 85bus radial distribution system

with a loss reduction of 48.27%.This proposed PSO based

capacitor placement with Loss sensitivity Factors method

saves not only initial investment on the capacitors but also

running cost as it places the capacitors in a minimum number

of locations.

TABLE II

COMPARISION OF PREVIOUS METHOD [15] AND PROPOSED

METHOD FOR OF 10BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

BASE CASE ACTIVE POWER LOSS=783.77 KW

Fuzzy Reasoning based[15]

Proposed PSO based

Bus No

Size (kvar)

Bus No

Size (kvar)

4

1050

6

1174

5

1050

5

1182

6

1950

9

264

10

900

10

566

Total kvar placed

4950

Total kvar placed

3186

Active power loss(kw)

704.88

Active power loss(kw)

696.21

TABLE III

COMPARISION OF PREVIOUS METHOD [18] AND PROPOSED

METHOD FOR OF 15BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

BASE CASE ACTIVE POWER LOSS=61.79 KW

Method proposed in[18]

Proposed PSO based

Bus No

Size (kvar)

Bus No

Size (kvar)

3

805

3

871

6

388

6

321

Total kvar placed

1193

Total kvar placed

1192

Active power loss(kw)

32.6

Active power loss(kw)

32.7

TABLE IV

COMPARISION OF PREVIOUS METHODS AND PROPOSED METHOD

FOR OF 34BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

BASE CASE ACTIVE POWER LOSS=221.723 KW

Heuristic based [16]

FES based[20]

Proposed PSO based

Bus No

kvar

Bus No

kvar

Bus No

kvar

26

1400

24

1500

19

781

11

750

17

750

22

803

17

300

7

450

20

479

4

250

------------------Total kvar

2700

Total kvar

2700

Total kvar

2063

Power loss(kw) 168.47

Power loss(kw) 168.98

Power loss(kw) 168.8

TABLE V

PROPOSED PSO METHOD TESTED ON 69 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION

SYSTEM.

BASE CASE ACTIVE POWER LOSS=225 KW

Bus No

Kvar

46

241

47

365

50

1015

Total Kvar

1621

Active Power Loss (kw)

152.48

TABLE VI

PROPOSED PSO METHOD TESTED ON 85 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION

SYSTEM.

BASE CASE ACTIVE POWER LOSS=315.714 KW

Bus No

Kvar

8

58

7

27

Total Kvar

Active Power Loss (kw)

796

453

314

901

2464

163.32

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an algorithm that employs Particle Swarm

Optimization, a meta heuristic parallel search technique for

estimation of required level of shunt capacitive compensation

to improve the voltage profile of the system and reduce active

power loss. Loss Sensitivity Factors are used to determine the

optimum locations required for compensation. The main

advantage of this proposed method is that it systematically

decides the locations and size of capacitors to realize the

optimum sizable reduction in active power loss and significant

improvement in voltage profile. Test results on 10, 15, 34, 69

and 85 bus systems are presented. The method places

capacitors at less number of locations with optimum sizes and

offers much saving in initial investment and regular

maintenance.

VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support and facilities

extended by the Department of Electrical Engineering,

National Institute of Technology, Warangal and Vaagdevi

College of Engineering, Warangal (A.P) India.

VIII. REFERENCES

[1]

with lateral branches using shunt capacitors as Voltage regulators-part I, II

and III, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and systems, vol. PAS-104, no.

11, pp. 3278-3297, Nov. 1985.

[2] J.J .Grainger and S.H Lee, Capacitor release by shunt capacitor

placement on Distribution Feeders: A new Voltage Dependent Model,

IEEE Trans .PAS, pp 1236-1243 May 1982.

[3] M. E Baran and F. F. Wu, Optimal Sizing of Capacitors Placed on a

Radial Distribution System, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. no.1, pp.

1105-1117, Jan. 1989.

[4] M. E. Baran and F. F. Wu, Optimal Capacitor Placement on radial

distribution system, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 725734, Jan. 1989.

[5] N. I. Santoso, O. T. Tan, Neural- Net Based Real- Time Control of

Capacitors Installed on Distribution Systems, IEEE Trans. Power

Delivery, vol. PAS-5, no.1, pp. 266-272, Jan. 1990.

[6] P. K. Dash, S. Saha, and P. K. Nanda, Artificial Neural Net Approach for

International forum on Applications of Neural Networks to Power

Systems, pp. 247-250, 1991.

[7] H.N. Ng, M.M.A. Salama, Fuzzy Optimal Capacitor Sizing and

Placement, Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer

Engineering, pp. 680-683, 1995.

[8] H.C.Chin, Optimal Shunt Capacitor Allocation by Fuzzy Dynamic

Programming, Electric Power Systems Research, pp.133-139, Nov.

1995.

[9] Sundharajan and A. Pahwa, Optimal selection of capacitors for radial

distribution systems using genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans. Power

Systems, vol. 9 no.3, pp.1499-1507, Aug. 1994.

[10] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, Particle Swarm Optimization, proceedings

of IEEE International Conference Neural Networks, vol.,IV, pp.19421948,1995.

[11] Y.Shi and Eberhart, A modified particle swarm optimization, pro. IEEE,

Int. Conf. Evol. Comput. pp. 69-73, May 1998.

pro. IEEE, Int. Conf. Evol. Comput., NJ, pp. 1945-1950, 1999

[13] D.Das, D. P. Kothari, and A. Kalam, Simple and efficient method for

load flow solution of radial distribution networks, Electrical Power &

Energy Systems, vol. 17. N0.5,pp 335-346, Elsevier Science Ltd 1995.

[14] M. Sydulu, An Effective Algorithm for Power System Topological

Observability proceedings of IEEE TENCON 98, International

Conference on Global Connectivity in Energy, Computer Communication

and Control, 17-19 Dec. 1998.

[15] Ching-Tzong Su and Chih-Cheng Tsai, A New Fuzzy- Reasoning

Approach to Optimum Capacitor Allocation for Primary distribution

Systems, proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Industrial

Technology, 1996.

[16] M.Chis, M. M. A. Salama and S. Jayaram, Capacitor Placement in

distribution system using heuristic search strategies, IEE Proc-Gener,

Transm, Distrib, vol, 144, No.3, pp. 225-230, May 1997.

[17] M. M. A. Salama and A.Y. Chikhani, An expert system for reactive

power control of a distribution system, part1: System configuration. IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 7, no.2, pp. 940-945, Apr. 1992.

[18] M. H. Haque, Capacitor placement in radial distribution systems for loss

reduction, IEE Proc-Gener, Transm, Distrib, vol, 146, No.5, Sep. 1999.

[19] J.R.Laframboise, G. Ferland, A.Y. Chikhani and M. M. A. Salama, An

expert system for reactive power control of a distribution system, part2:

System implementation, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 1, no.3, pp.

1433-1441, Aug. 1995.

[20] H.N.Ng, M.M.A. Salama and A.Y.Chikhani, Capacitor Allocation by

Approximate Reasoning: Fuzzy Capacitor Placement, IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery, vol. 15, no.1, pp. 393-398, Jan. 2000.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

K.Prakash received his B.E (Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1999)

from University of Madras, M.Tech (Power Systems, 2003) from National

Institute of Technology, Warangal. He is currently pursuing his PhD (Power

Systems Engineering) in National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Andhra

Pradesh, INDIA. His areas of interest include Distribution system studies, Meta

Heuristic Techniques in Power Systems and Economic operation of Power

Systems.

M.Tech (Power Systems,1980), PhD (Electrical Engineering Power

Systems,1993), all degrees from Regional Engineering College, Warangal,

Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. His areas of interest include Real Time power system

operation and control, ANN, fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithm applications in

Power Systems, Distribution system studies, Economic operation, Reactive

power planning and management. Presently he is working as Professor and Head

of Electrical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology,

Warangal (formerly RECW).

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