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Heat Transfer

Rate of Heat Flow


The Rate of heat flow (Power) through an object as shown can be determined from the formula below
dx
Area=A
dQ/dt

dQ = -kA d
dt
dx
dQ/dt = Rate of heat flow (Power)Watts
A =cross-sectional area of object.m2
d = difference in temperature between two faces
dx = width of object (m)
d/dx = temperature gradient
k= coefficient of thermal conductivity
Methods of heat transfer
Conduction: Transfer of heat from particle to particle through a substance without whole movement of
the substance itself. Takes place best in solids worst in gases
Convection: Transfer of heat through a fluid (liquids and gases) involving the whole movement of the
substance itself. The heated parts near the heat source rise while the cooler parts move in to fill the
vacated space.
Radiation: Transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. The only means of heat transmission that does not
require a medium (can take place in a vacuum). Means of heat transmission from sun to the Earth.

Colour and Radiation: Black or dark objects tend to absorb heat by radiation more quickly than white or
shiny objects in the presence of the heat source. However, they also tend to emit (release) heat more
quickly in the absence of the heat source.
Black body: According to physics a black body is one that absorbs all the radiation which is incident on it
Stefans Law: This states that the total heat energy per unit time per unit surface area emitted by a black
body is proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature of the body.

The above law basically says that the Rate of Heat Flow ( Power) per unit Area of a Black Body is
proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature. A Black Body is any Object that absorbs all
the incident light on it.
EPA = T4
= Stephans constant (5.67 x 10-8Wm-2K-4),
T = Kelvin temperature of the body
EPA = Rate of heat transfer (Power) per unit area
If the black body is in an enclosed surroundings, then the rate per unit surface area at which it absorbs
heat energy is given by the formula below:
EPA = To4
To = Kelvin temperature of surroundings
If the black body has a higher temperature than its enclosed surroundings then the black body will
experience net emission of heat given by:
EPA (net) = T4 - To4 = (T4 - To4)
If the black body has a lower temperature than its enclosed surroundings then the black body will
experience net absorption of heat given by:
EPA (net) = To4 - T4 = (To4 - T4)
Rate of heat transfer (Power) is give by the formula below:
EP = EPA x Area

EP = Rate of heat transfer (Power)

Total heat energy (E) transmitted is given by the formula below:


E = EP x time
a. The total surface area of a 100W filament bulb is 1.51x 10 -4 m2.
i.
What is the heat transferred per unit time and unit surface area.
ii.
What is the working temperature of the bulb in Kelvins
b. A black body with a temperature of 500C has a total surface area of 2.5 x 103m2. If it is placed in
an oven of temperature 150C. Answer the following questions:
i.
What is the rate at which the body emits heat
ii.
What is the rate at which the body absorbs heat
iii.
What is the net rate of heat transfer respecting the black body
iv.
If two minutes pass how much net heat energy has been transferred respecting the body
Greenhouse effect: This is the build up of heat and therefore temperature on the Earth due to the build up
of heat trapping gases such as carbon dioxide in the Earths atmosphere. Powerful short wavelength
radiation from the sun such as ultraviolet rays is able to penetrate the Earths atmosphere. However

weaker longer wavelength radiation emitted from the Earth such as infra red rays are reflected back to the
Earth by heat trapping gases such as carbon dioxide
Applications of the three types of heat transfer methods
Conduction: Used in cooking or dissipating heat. Here good conductors such as metals are used
Convection: Sea and air currents are natural applications of convection. Man made applications of
convection include cooking with covered grills and convection ovens
Radiation: cooking with microwaves
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity: Heat capacity (JK-1 or JC-1) is the amount of heat needed to
bring about unit temperature change in an object. Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed per
unit mass to bring about unit temperature change in an object.
Specific Heat Capacity = Heat Capacity
Mass
Methods of Determining Specific and Molar heat Capacities: there are two main methods of
determining specific and molar heat capacities of substances:
i.
ii.

Method of Mixtures
Electrical Method

Method of Mixtures: This involves mixing two substances (usually liquids), one with a known specific
heat capacity and the other with an unknown specific or molar heat capacity. The heat released by one
substance will be absorbed by the other:
Heat Released

= Heat Absorbed

m x c1 x T
m x c1 x T

= m x c2 x T
= n x c2 x T

Electrical Method: This involves using an electric heater to heat a substance (usually liquid or solid) of
unknown specific or molar heat capacity. The electrical energy released by the heater will equal the heat
energy absorbed by the substance
Electrical Energy Released = Heat Absorbed
Power x time
Power x time

= m x c x T
= n x c x T

Power can be directly stated in Watts or the Voltage and the Current of the heater can be stated, in which
case Power = VI

Changes of state:

Melting: solid to liquid


Solidification (Freezing): liquid to solid
Condensation: gas to liquid
Sublimation: solid directly to gas or gas directly to solid [camphor balls, dry ice
(C02)]
Evaporation: liquid to gas at the surface and at any temperature
Boiling: liquid to gas from within the body of the liquid and at a specific temperature