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Notes on Heat Transfer

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The Rate of heat flow (Power) through an object as shown can be determined from the formula below

dx

Area=A

dQ/dt

dQ = -kA d

dt

dx

dQ/dt = Rate of heat flow (Power)Watts

A =cross-sectional area of object.m2

d = difference in temperature between two faces

dx = width of object (m)

d/dx = temperature gradient

k= coefficient of thermal conductivity

Methods of heat transfer

Conduction: Transfer of heat from particle to particle through a substance without whole movement of

the substance itself. Takes place best in solids worst in gases

Convection: Transfer of heat through a fluid (liquids and gases) involving the whole movement of the

substance itself. The heated parts near the heat source rise while the cooler parts move in to fill the

vacated space.

Radiation: Transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. The only means of heat transmission that does not

require a medium (can take place in a vacuum). Means of heat transmission from sun to the Earth.

Colour and Radiation: Black or dark objects tend to absorb heat by radiation more quickly than white or

shiny objects in the presence of the heat source. However, they also tend to emit (release) heat more

quickly in the absence of the heat source.

Black body: According to physics a black body is one that absorbs all the radiation which is incident on it

Stefans Law: This states that the total heat energy per unit time per unit surface area emitted by a black

body is proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature of the body.

The above law basically says that the Rate of Heat Flow ( Power) per unit Area of a Black Body is

proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature. A Black Body is any Object that absorbs all

the incident light on it.

EPA = T4

= Stephans constant (5.67 x 10-8Wm-2K-4),

T = Kelvin temperature of the body

EPA = Rate of heat transfer (Power) per unit area

If the black body is in an enclosed surroundings, then the rate per unit surface area at which it absorbs

heat energy is given by the formula below:

EPA = To4

To = Kelvin temperature of surroundings

If the black body has a higher temperature than its enclosed surroundings then the black body will

experience net emission of heat given by:

EPA (net) = T4 - To4 = (T4 - To4)

If the black body has a lower temperature than its enclosed surroundings then the black body will

experience net absorption of heat given by:

EPA (net) = To4 - T4 = (To4 - T4)

Rate of heat transfer (Power) is give by the formula below:

EP = EPA x Area

E = EP x time

a. The total surface area of a 100W filament bulb is 1.51x 10 -4 m2.

i.

What is the heat transferred per unit time and unit surface area.

ii.

What is the working temperature of the bulb in Kelvins

b. A black body with a temperature of 500C has a total surface area of 2.5 x 103m2. If it is placed in

an oven of temperature 150C. Answer the following questions:

i.

What is the rate at which the body emits heat

ii.

What is the rate at which the body absorbs heat

iii.

What is the net rate of heat transfer respecting the black body

iv.

If two minutes pass how much net heat energy has been transferred respecting the body

Greenhouse effect: This is the build up of heat and therefore temperature on the Earth due to the build up

of heat trapping gases such as carbon dioxide in the Earths atmosphere. Powerful short wavelength

radiation from the sun such as ultraviolet rays is able to penetrate the Earths atmosphere. However

weaker longer wavelength radiation emitted from the Earth such as infra red rays are reflected back to the

Earth by heat trapping gases such as carbon dioxide

Applications of the three types of heat transfer methods

Conduction: Used in cooking or dissipating heat. Here good conductors such as metals are used

Convection: Sea and air currents are natural applications of convection. Man made applications of

convection include cooking with covered grills and convection ovens

Radiation: cooking with microwaves

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity: Heat capacity (JK-1 or JC-1) is the amount of heat needed to

bring about unit temperature change in an object. Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed per

unit mass to bring about unit temperature change in an object.

Specific Heat Capacity = Heat Capacity

Mass

Methods of Determining Specific and Molar heat Capacities: there are two main methods of

determining specific and molar heat capacities of substances:

i.

ii.

Method of Mixtures

Electrical Method

Method of Mixtures: This involves mixing two substances (usually liquids), one with a known specific

heat capacity and the other with an unknown specific or molar heat capacity. The heat released by one

substance will be absorbed by the other:

Heat Released

= Heat Absorbed

m x c1 x T

m x c1 x T

= m x c2 x T

= n x c2 x T

Electrical Method: This involves using an electric heater to heat a substance (usually liquid or solid) of

unknown specific or molar heat capacity. The electrical energy released by the heater will equal the heat

energy absorbed by the substance

Electrical Energy Released = Heat Absorbed

Power x time

Power x time

= m x c x T

= n x c x T

Power can be directly stated in Watts or the Voltage and the Current of the heater can be stated, in which

case Power = VI

Changes of state:

Solidification (Freezing): liquid to solid

Condensation: gas to liquid

Sublimation: solid directly to gas or gas directly to solid [camphor balls, dry ice

(C02)]

Evaporation: liquid to gas at the surface and at any temperature

Boiling: liquid to gas from within the body of the liquid and at a specific temperature

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