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State Estimation in Power Systems with FACTS

Devices and PMU Measurements


Valeriu Iulian PRESADA, Cristian Virgil CRISTEA, Mircea EREMIA, Lucian TOMA
Department of Electrical Power Systems
University Politehnica of Bucharest
Bucharest, Romania
Email: presadaval@yahoo.com
Abstract This paper presents an algorithm for state estimation
in power systems that include FACTS devices and PMUs. The
FACTS devices are equipments of special purpose capable of
changing the natural behavior of transmission systems. They
may be able to influence the voltage, the active power or the
reactive power flows based on predefined targets so that the
classical power flow and steady state calculations must be
adapted. Furthermore, PMU measurements are increasing in
number so that the accuracy in steady state calculations can be
improved. A state estimation algorithm was developed by
considering the behavior of TCSC and SVC devices, while
including some improvements due to the integration of
synchronized measurements. A Matlab application was
developed and simulations were performed on various test
networks. In this paper, results obtained on the IEEE 30 bus test
system only will be presented.

reactive power flows through branches; real and reactive


powers injections at buses; bus voltage magnitudes; current
magnitude flowing through the transmission lines. However,
PMU devices provide two types of measurements, namely
voltage phasors and current phasors [7].
In the actual context of the power markets and the
increased concerns for the power grid safety, the power
system state estimation has become a critical tool for the
power system operator. Figure 1 indicates the purpose of the
state estimation in power system operation.

Index Terms-- Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Phasor


Measurement Units, State Estimation, Static VAr Compensator
(SVC), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

I.

INTRODUCTION

The electrical power systems are sometimes operating


close to their stability limits due also to the expansion of
interconnections between neighbor power systems and
implementation of the power market. Although technology is
progressing, the power system become more complex. At the
same time, powerful tools are implemented, e.g the Energy
Management System (EMS) which is of great importance for
the system operators because of the increasing need for
reliable and consistent data in the operation process [1]. State
estimation [2], a key function of EMS, provides the best
possible approximation for the state of a power system by
processing the available information [3], [4]. The state
estimator is the algorithm that, based on available SCADA
measurements [5], network model and other data (pseudomeasurements), provides reliable information about the steady
state of a power system, i.e. voltage magnitudes, angles, active
and reactive power flows, circuit breakers status, etc.
The classical state estimator uses measurements from the
already classical SCADA system as follows [6]: active and

Figure 1. The purpose of state estimation in power system operation.

Various state estimation methods proposed in literature are


based on synchronized measurements from PMUs. However,
even if PMU devices have been widely implemented, SCADA
measurements are the only data used in many power systems.
Examples can be found in [6], [8] or [14].
The FACTS devices are increasingly employed in many
power systems due to their major benefits that they provide in
improving the reliability and stability of the power systems.
This paper proposes an improved algorithm for state
estimation by considering the characteristics and behavior of
FACTS devices and measurements from PMUs.
The classical two step state estimator algorithm
implemented in MATLAB as presented in [8], was upgraded
to incorporate additional SVC and TCSC devices state

variables. The algorithm was improved also by integrating


PMU measurements. In order to test the application,
simulations were performed on the IEEE 30 bus system and
the results were compared with valid power flow results.
II.

X TCSC ()

ESTIMATION ALGORITHM

Operational equations of the FACTS devices are included


in the first step of the state estimation algorithm. This leads to
an increased size of the Jacobian matrix, and its structure can
be outlined as follows [9],[10]:
x1
... xnC r1 ... rnF
f1

1
BTCSC ()

g1
gnF
Figure 2. Integrating FACTS devices equations into the Jacobian matrix.

The algorithm is improved by integrating synchronized


PMU measurements as input data in the second step.
In Figure 2, xnC stands for the classical state variables,
namely, nodal voltage magnitudes and phase angles, and rnF
stands for the additional FACTS devices state variables.
Measurements of classical quantities and FACTS devices
quantities are denoted by fnC and gnF, respectively.
The model of the TCSC device (Fig. 3) is based on the
simple concept of a variable series reactance, the value of
which is adjusted automatically in order to keep the power
flowing through the branch i-j to a specified value.

XC
Ii

C1

2
X C X LC
4 X LC
X C X L ( )

; C2
; X LC ( )
X L ( )
X C X L ( )

In order to consider the TCSC in the state estimator,


additional measurements should be included to the set of
equations, namely the active and reactive power flows through
the TCSC branch, given by the susceptance BTCSC, i.e.

Pij ViV j BTCSC ( ) sin i j

Qij Vi 2 BTCSC ViV j BTCSC ( )cos i j

These new elements helps determining the susceptance


BTCSC in the iterative calculation process.

FACTS devices

Vj

Vi

where

Conventional
fnC

X C C1 2 sin 2

C2 cos 2 tan tan

INTEGRATING SVC AND TCSC INTO TWO STEP STATE

The two step state estimation algorithm uses conventional


SCADA measurements in the first step. PMU measurements
are added in the second step.

Ij

XL
XTCSC
Figure 3. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) equivalent circuit.

The fundamental frequency equivalent reactance XTCSC of


the TCSC is calculated with expression [11]:

The Jacobian matrix is therefore expanded by addition of


new elements attached to the TCSC branch, representing
power flow measurements. Thus, the new terms to be added in
the Jacobian matrix associated with the known and unknown
variables, attached to the TCSC device, are as follows:
i
Pij
Pi
i

P
ji
Pj
i

Qij
Qi
i

Q ji
Q j
i
P
ij
Pij
i

Pji
Pji

Qij Qij
i

Q ji Q ji

Pij
j
Pji
j
Qij
j
Q ji
j

Pij
j
Pji
j
Qij
j
Q ji
j

Vi Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi
Vi

Pij
V j
Pji
Vi
Qij
Vi
Q ji
Vi
Pij
Vi
Pji
Vi

Qij
Vi
Q ji
Vi

V j V j
V j
V j
V j
V j
Vj
Vj
Vj
Vj

Pij
V j
Pji
V j
Qij
V j
Q ji
V j
Pij
V j
Pji
V j

Qij
V j
Q ji
V j

BTCSC
Pij

BTCSC
Pji

BTCSC

Qij
BTCSC

Q ji

BTCSC
Pij
BTCSC

Pji

BTCSC
Qij

BTCSC

Q ji
BTCSC

Although the TCSC controls the active power flow ( Pij )


from bus i to bus j only, the power flow equations Qij , Pji and

Q ji can be also used to increase the estimation redundancy, as


shown in equation (4).

The first step of the state estimation algorithm (Fig. 5),


where classical notations are used [13], is modified to
incorporate SVC and TCSC by changing the Jacobian matrix
accordingly. The output of this step comprises the classical
state vector (bus voltages and angles) with additional state
variables of the FACTS devices.

The elements in (4) represent the sensitivities of the power


flows through the transmission branch in both directions. The
highlighted elements which have to their left side the + sign
are not total values. As the sign indicates, these quantities are
the TCSC contributions by power injections to the terminal
buses. In the Jacobian matrix these elements correspond to the
measurements of the bus injections of the active and reactive
powers. They represent the sum of the power flow
contribution of each electrical component connected to these
buses.

FIRST STEP
Classical State Estimation

Set initial conditions

x = x0

Compute

(z-h(x))

Create modified
Jacobian matrix

Update

Xk+1=Xk+x

In the case of SVC we assume that the slope of the device


is zero; this assumption may be acceptable as long as the SVC
operates within its design limits [9]. This assumption may lead
to gross errors if the SVC is operating close to its limits. In
practice, the SVC device can be represented as an adjustable
reactance with either firing-angle limits or reactance limits
[12].

Calculate the gain


matrix G(x)

Calculate state
mismatch vector

Convergence
test
max(X)<

G=JTR-1J

X=G-1JTR-1(z-h(x))

OUTPUT:

X vector + FACTS variables

Figure 5. First step of state estimation algorithm.

In order to determine the appropriate value of the SVC


susceptance, BSVC, introduced as an additional variable,
measurement of the reactive power injection by the SVC
should be included in the Jacobian.

The state vector obtained in the first step of the algorithm


is used in the second step where the solution is improved by
integrating phasor measurements. The state estimation second
step algorithm is based on a linear measurement model of the
following form:

Vi
ISVC

Z J V e

where

BSVC

J is the measurement Jacobian coefficient matrix;


T
V VRe ;VIm is the state vector expressed in
rectangular form;

e - the vector of measurement errors.


The measurement vector Z is composed of:

Figure 4. SVC variable shunt susceptance model.

- the output of the classical state estimator, calculated in

The SVC current is

I SVC jBSVCVi

QSVC Vi 2 BSVC

- PMU synchronized voltage measurements VRe ;VIm PMU ;


T

- PMU synchronized current measurements I Re ; I Im PMU .


The expanded measurement model is shown below with
all voltages expressed in rectangular coordinates [14]:
T

The equation of the reactive power measurement


introduced in the Jacobian matrix is:

the first step, VRe ;VIm Step 1 ;

The elements of the new Jacobian matrix that are adjusted


or added accordingly to SVC reactive power injection
measurement are shown in the following equation:

QSVC
Vi V
i

Vi
Vi
Vi

BSVC

QSVC Vi
BSVC Vi

BSVC
0

BSVC

where
BSVC

Qi
BSVCVi 2 QSVC
BSVC

Z aug

VRe

VIm Step 1

V
Re
VIm PMU

I Re
I
Im PMU

J
11
J 21

J 31
J 41

J 51
J
61

eVSERe
J12
SE
eVIm
J 22
PMU
J 32 VRe eVRe

J 42 VIm eVPMU
Im
J 52
eIPMU
Re

PMU
J 62
eI Im

where J11 and J22 are unit matrices;


J12 , J21 , J32 and J41 are zero matrices;
J31 and J42 have only one nonzero element that is 1 in
every row, depending on the PMU placement;

The elements of J51 and J62 are made up of real parts of the
branch admittance, and the elements of J52 and J61 are made up
of imaginary parts of the branch admittance.

measurement set of data presented to the classical state


estimator is shown in Table 1.
TABLE I.

J 51
J 52

PMU
I Re
VRe
PMU
I Re
VIm

I PMU
J 61 Im
VRe

PMU
I Im
VIm

J 62

I ikPMU
, Re
Vi , Re
I

PMU
ik , Re

Vi , Im
I ikPMU
, Im
Vi , Re
I ikPMU
, Im
Vi , Im

G Gio ;
B Bio ;
B Bio ;
G Gio ;

I ikPMU
, Re
Vk , Re
I ikPMU
, Re
Vk , Im
I iPMU
k , Im
Vk , Re
I ikPMU
, Im
Vk , Im

G
B

B
G

The linear state estimation is solved using the following


equation [14]:

1
V J T R 1 J J T R 1 Z

The measurements of the additional state variables


introduced by the FACTS devices obtained in the first step of
the algorithm presents less accuracy than those provided from
synchronized measurements with PMUs. Thereby, the above
algorithm was modified accordingly to integrate those
measurements before running the first step of the algorithm.
This additional step can also help improving the
observability analysis of the system. Thus, the improved
algorithm follows the flow chart presented in Figure 6.
START

Integrate
Synchrophasor
Measurements

Read entry
data
Read weighting
data ( R )

FIRST STEP
Classical State Estimation

SECOND STEP
Enhance State Estimation
with PMU Measurements
Figure 6. Improved two-step state estimator algorithm flow chart.

III.

STUDY CASE

The classical two-step state estimator algorithm modified


to incorporate SVC and TCSC devices and improved by
inserting an additional step to integrate PMU measurements
from the beginning of the algorithm was implemented under
Matlab environment.
Simulations were performed on the IEEE 30 bus system
[15], with some changes. The starting point is the load flow
base case. The measurement set of data was chosen from the
load flow solution using minimum spanning tree logic. The

Nr. Type Value From


1
Vi
1.06
1
2
Vi
1.0426
15
3
Pi
2.5906
1
4
Pi
0.183
2
5
Pi
0
6
6
Pi
0
9
7
Pi
-0.058
10
8
Pi
-0.112
12
9
Pi
-0.062
14
10
Pi
-0.082
15
11
Pi
-0.032
18
12
Pi
0
22
13
Pi
-0.032
23
14
Pi
0
25
15
Pi
0
27
16
Qi
-0.2641
1
17
Qi 0.68477
2
18
Qi
0
6
19
Qi
0
9
20
Qi 0.18928 10
21
Qi
-0.075
12
22
Qi
-0.016
14
23
Qi
-0.025
15
24
Qi
-0.009
18
25
Qi
0
22
26
Qi
-0.016
23
27
Qi
0
25
28
Qi
0
27
29
Pij
1.7929
1
30
Pij 0.79766
1
31
Pij 0.62207
2
32
Pij 0.78204
2
33
Pij 0.51593
2
34
Pij 0.42132
6
35
Pij
0.2953
6
36
Pij 0.27257
6
37
Pij 0.15592
6
38
Pij 0.18842
6
39
Pij
0
9
40
Pij 0.05051 10
41
Pij 0.08864 10
42
Pij 0.15624 10
43
Pij 0.07511 10

MEASUREMENT SET OF DATA


To
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
28
11
17
20
21
22

Nr.
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

Type
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Pij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij
Qij

Value
0
0.18101
0.07528
0.01627
0.06176
0.05127
0.02936
0.05477
0.01897
0.03544
-0.04921
-0.1821
0.0618
0.07083
-0.26083
-0.00326
0.27614
0.03134
0.00772
-0.01679
0.03767
-0.07451
0.00266
0.00718
-0.14013
0.04447
0.03692
0.09691
0.04393
-0.06962
0.06595
0.03339
0.00587
0.01608
0.0264
0.00626
0.02549
0.00978
0.02366
-0.01081
-0.02322
0.00791
0.00399

From
12
12
12
14
15
15
18
22
23
25
25
27
27
27
1
1
2
2
2
6
6
6
6
6
9
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
14
15
15
18
22
23
25
25
27
27
27

To
13
15
16
15
18
23
19
24
24
26
27
28
29
30
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
28
11
17
20
21
22
13
15
16
15
18
23
19
24
24
26
27
28
29
30

Measurement noise (Gaussian random variable, zero mean


unit variance) has been added to the perfect measurement to
produce more realistic noisy measurements.
In the starting point, the SVC device was assumed to
operate at bus 30 with a reference voltage of 1.01 p.u., for
which a reactive power injection QSVC=0,02105 p.u and
susceptance BSVC=-0,02064 p.u. are required. The TCSC
device was set to compensate 50% of the line 4-2 reactance
(Xl=0.17370p.u.) with XTCSC=0,08685 p.u.
The one-line diagram of the IEEE 30 test system, with
PMUs placement according to an integer programming
algorithm for minimum cost [16], implemented also in Matlab,
is illustrated in Figure 7. The IEEE 30 bus test system can be
summarized as follows:
- number of buses: N = 30
- number of state variables: n = 2N 1 = 59
- number of measurements: m = 86
- redundancy ratio = m/n = 1.46

the accuracy of the additional FACTS variables. The


additional step does not require major changes in traditional
way of providing the measurements set to the state estimator
algorithm.
This additional step can be used to handle some
deficiencies in the traditional measurement set, for example to
improve network observability, to aid in bad data processing
and in determining network topology, etc.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Figure 7. IEEE 30 bus system with PMU placement.

When performing the first step of the two step algorithm,


one assumes that the state estimator is applied on a set of
measurement data that was accordingly selected to assure full
observability of the system. After the first step, the state
estimator solution contains a power system state vector
formed by voltage magnitudes at all buses and voltage phase
angles at n-1 buses as well as the additional state variables
introduced by FACTS devices.
For the SVC device, the estimated state variable was
BSVC = -0.02187 p.u., whereas for TCSC the estimated
reactance was XTCSC = 0.08094 p.u. After modifying the
algorithm to take into account PMU measurements before
running the first step, the estimated variable for SVC was
improved to BSVC = -0.02109 p.u., whereas for TCSC the
reactance was XTCSC = 0.08454 p.u. As shown in Table 2 both
estimated FACTS variables were more accurate.
TABLE II.
FACTS
state
variables
XTCSC
BSVC

SET OF MEASUREMENT DATA

SE solution
SE solution Improved SE
without PMU
with PMU
solution
measurements measurements with PMU
0.08685 u.r. 0.09501 u.r.
0.08094 u.r.
0.08454 u.r.
-0.02064 u.r. -0.02196 u.r. -0.02187 u.r. -0.02109 u.r.
Power Flow
solution

[5]
[6]

[7]
[8]

[9]
[10]
[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

Comparing the state estimation results we can draw up


some conclusions. Integrating PMU measurements in state
estimation using two step method does not have a major
impact on additional state estimation variables introduced by
FACTS devices. Some improvements are obtained when PMU
measurements are considered before running the first step of
the algorithm.
It has been shown that when synchronized phasor
measurements are added to the other SCADA measurements
in sufficient numbers, the efficiency/precision of the state
estimate is improved.
The improved algorithm with additional step that includes
PMU measurements, have significant contributions to increase

[15]
[16]

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