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Valeriu Iulian PRESADA, Cristian Virgil CRISTEA, Mircea EREMIA, Lucian TOMA

Department of Electrical Power Systems

University Politehnica of Bucharest

Bucharest, Romania

Email: presadaval@yahoo.com

Abstract This paper presents an algorithm for state estimation

in power systems that include FACTS devices and PMUs. The

FACTS devices are equipments of special purpose capable of

changing the natural behavior of transmission systems. They

may be able to influence the voltage, the active power or the

reactive power flows based on predefined targets so that the

classical power flow and steady state calculations must be

adapted. Furthermore, PMU measurements are increasing in

number so that the accuracy in steady state calculations can be

improved. A state estimation algorithm was developed by

considering the behavior of TCSC and SVC devices, while

including some improvements due to the integration of

synchronized measurements. A Matlab application was

developed and simulations were performed on various test

networks. In this paper, results obtained on the IEEE 30 bus test

system only will be presented.

powers injections at buses; bus voltage magnitudes; current

magnitude flowing through the transmission lines. However,

PMU devices provide two types of measurements, namely

voltage phasors and current phasors [7].

In the actual context of the power markets and the

increased concerns for the power grid safety, the power

system state estimation has become a critical tool for the

power system operator. Figure 1 indicates the purpose of the

state estimation in power system operation.

Measurement Units, State Estimation, Static VAr Compensator

(SVC), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

I.

INTRODUCTION

close to their stability limits due also to the expansion of

interconnections between neighbor power systems and

implementation of the power market. Although technology is

progressing, the power system become more complex. At the

same time, powerful tools are implemented, e.g the Energy

Management System (EMS) which is of great importance for

the system operators because of the increasing need for

reliable and consistent data in the operation process [1]. State

estimation [2], a key function of EMS, provides the best

possible approximation for the state of a power system by

processing the available information [3], [4]. The state

estimator is the algorithm that, based on available SCADA

measurements [5], network model and other data (pseudomeasurements), provides reliable information about the steady

state of a power system, i.e. voltage magnitudes, angles, active

and reactive power flows, circuit breakers status, etc.

The classical state estimator uses measurements from the

already classical SCADA system as follows [6]: active and

based on synchronized measurements from PMUs. However,

even if PMU devices have been widely implemented, SCADA

measurements are the only data used in many power systems.

Examples can be found in [6], [8] or [14].

The FACTS devices are increasingly employed in many

power systems due to their major benefits that they provide in

improving the reliability and stability of the power systems.

This paper proposes an improved algorithm for state

estimation by considering the characteristics and behavior of

FACTS devices and measurements from PMUs.

The classical two step state estimator algorithm

implemented in MATLAB as presented in [8], was upgraded

to incorporate additional SVC and TCSC devices state

PMU measurements. In order to test the application,

simulations were performed on the IEEE 30 bus system and

the results were compared with valid power flow results.

II.

X TCSC ()

ESTIMATION ALGORITHM

in the first step of the state estimation algorithm. This leads to

an increased size of the Jacobian matrix, and its structure can

be outlined as follows [9],[10]:

x1

... xnC r1 ... rnF

f1

1

BTCSC ()

g1

gnF

Figure 2. Integrating FACTS devices equations into the Jacobian matrix.

PMU measurements as input data in the second step.

In Figure 2, xnC stands for the classical state variables,

namely, nodal voltage magnitudes and phase angles, and rnF

stands for the additional FACTS devices state variables.

Measurements of classical quantities and FACTS devices

quantities are denoted by fnC and gnF, respectively.

The model of the TCSC device (Fig. 3) is based on the

simple concept of a variable series reactance, the value of

which is adjusted automatically in order to keep the power

flowing through the branch i-j to a specified value.

XC

Ii

C1

2

X C X LC

4 X LC

X C X L ( )

; C2

; X LC ( )

X L ( )

X C X L ( )

additional measurements should be included to the set of

equations, namely the active and reactive power flows through

the TCSC branch, given by the susceptance BTCSC, i.e.

BTCSC in the iterative calculation process.

FACTS devices

Vj

Vi

where

Conventional

fnC

X C C1 2 sin 2

SCADA measurements in the first step. PMU measurements

are added in the second step.

Ij

XL

XTCSC

Figure 3. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) equivalent circuit.

the TCSC is calculated with expression [11]:

new elements attached to the TCSC branch, representing

power flow measurements. Thus, the new terms to be added in

the Jacobian matrix associated with the known and unknown

variables, attached to the TCSC device, are as follows:

i

Pij

Pi

i

P

ji

Pj

i

Qij

Qi

i

Q ji

Q j

i

P

ij

Pij

i

Pji

Pji

Qij Qij

i

Q ji Q ji

Pij

j

Pji

j

Qij

j

Q ji

j

Pij

j

Pji

j

Qij

j

Q ji

j

Vi Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Vi

Pij

V j

Pji

Vi

Qij

Vi

Q ji

Vi

Pij

Vi

Pji

Vi

Qij

Vi

Q ji

Vi

V j V j

V j

V j

V j

V j

Vj

Vj

Vj

Vj

Pij

V j

Pji

V j

Qij

V j

Q ji

V j

Pij

V j

Pji

V j

Qij

V j

Q ji

V j

BTCSC

Pij

BTCSC

Pji

BTCSC

Qij

BTCSC

Q ji

BTCSC

Pij

BTCSC

Pji

BTCSC

Qij

BTCSC

Q ji

BTCSC

from bus i to bus j only, the power flow equations Qij , Pji and

shown in equation (4).

where classical notations are used [13], is modified to

incorporate SVC and TCSC by changing the Jacobian matrix

accordingly. The output of this step comprises the classical

state vector (bus voltages and angles) with additional state

variables of the FACTS devices.

flows through the transmission branch in both directions. The

highlighted elements which have to their left side the + sign

are not total values. As the sign indicates, these quantities are

the TCSC contributions by power injections to the terminal

buses. In the Jacobian matrix these elements correspond to the

measurements of the bus injections of the active and reactive

powers. They represent the sum of the power flow

contribution of each electrical component connected to these

buses.

FIRST STEP

Classical State Estimation

x = x0

Compute

(z-h(x))

Create modified

Jacobian matrix

Update

Xk+1=Xk+x

is zero; this assumption may be acceptable as long as the SVC

operates within its design limits [9]. This assumption may lead

to gross errors if the SVC is operating close to its limits. In

practice, the SVC device can be represented as an adjustable

reactance with either firing-angle limits or reactance limits

[12].

matrix G(x)

Calculate state

mismatch vector

Convergence

test

max(X)<

G=JTR-1J

X=G-1JTR-1(z-h(x))

OUTPUT:

susceptance, BSVC, introduced as an additional variable,

measurement of the reactive power injection by the SVC

should be included in the Jacobian.

is used in the second step where the solution is improved by

integrating phasor measurements. The state estimation second

step algorithm is based on a linear measurement model of the

following form:

Vi

ISVC

Z J V e

where

BSVC

T

V VRe ;VIm is the state vector expressed in

rectangular form;

The measurement vector Z is composed of:

I SVC jBSVCVi

QSVC Vi 2 BSVC

T

The expanded measurement model is shown below with

all voltages expressed in rectangular coordinates [14]:

T

introduced in the Jacobian matrix is:

or added accordingly to SVC reactive power injection

measurement are shown in the following equation:

QSVC

Vi V

i

Vi

Vi

Vi

BSVC

QSVC Vi

BSVC Vi

BSVC

0

BSVC

where

BSVC

Qi

BSVCVi 2 QSVC

BSVC

Z aug

VRe

VIm Step 1

V

Re

VIm PMU

I Re

I

Im PMU

J

11

J 21

J 31

J 41

J 51

J

61

eVSERe

J12

SE

eVIm

J 22

PMU

J 32 VRe eVRe

J 42 VIm eVPMU

Im

J 52

eIPMU

Re

PMU

J 62

eI Im

J12 , J21 , J32 and J41 are zero matrices;

J31 and J42 have only one nonzero element that is 1 in

every row, depending on the PMU placement;

The elements of J51 and J62 are made up of real parts of the

branch admittance, and the elements of J52 and J61 are made up

of imaginary parts of the branch admittance.

estimator is shown in Table 1.

TABLE I.

J 51

J 52

PMU

I Re

VRe

PMU

I Re

VIm

I PMU

J 61 Im

VRe

PMU

I Im

VIm

J 62

I ikPMU

, Re

Vi , Re

I

PMU

ik , Re

Vi , Im

I ikPMU

, Im

Vi , Re

I ikPMU

, Im

Vi , Im

G Gio ;

B Bio ;

B Bio ;

G Gio ;

I ikPMU

, Re

Vk , Re

I ikPMU

, Re

Vk , Im

I iPMU

k , Im

Vk , Re

I ikPMU

, Im

Vk , Im

G

B

B

G

equation [14]:

1

V J T R 1 J J T R 1 Z

introduced by the FACTS devices obtained in the first step of

the algorithm presents less accuracy than those provided from

synchronized measurements with PMUs. Thereby, the above

algorithm was modified accordingly to integrate those

measurements before running the first step of the algorithm.

This additional step can also help improving the

observability analysis of the system. Thus, the improved

algorithm follows the flow chart presented in Figure 6.

START

Integrate

Synchrophasor

Measurements

Read entry

data

Read weighting

data ( R )

FIRST STEP

Classical State Estimation

SECOND STEP

Enhance State Estimation

with PMU Measurements

Figure 6. Improved two-step state estimator algorithm flow chart.

III.

STUDY CASE

to incorporate SVC and TCSC devices and improved by

inserting an additional step to integrate PMU measurements

from the beginning of the algorithm was implemented under

Matlab environment.

Simulations were performed on the IEEE 30 bus system

[15], with some changes. The starting point is the load flow

base case. The measurement set of data was chosen from the

load flow solution using minimum spanning tree logic. The

1

Vi

1.06

1

2

Vi

1.0426

15

3

Pi

2.5906

1

4

Pi

0.183

2

5

Pi

0

6

6

Pi

0

9

7

Pi

-0.058

10

8

Pi

-0.112

12

9

Pi

-0.062

14

10

Pi

-0.082

15

11

Pi

-0.032

18

12

Pi

0

22

13

Pi

-0.032

23

14

Pi

0

25

15

Pi

0

27

16

Qi

-0.2641

1

17

Qi 0.68477

2

18

Qi

0

6

19

Qi

0

9

20

Qi 0.18928 10

21

Qi

-0.075

12

22

Qi

-0.016

14

23

Qi

-0.025

15

24

Qi

-0.009

18

25

Qi

0

22

26

Qi

-0.016

23

27

Qi

0

25

28

Qi

0

27

29

Pij

1.7929

1

30

Pij 0.79766

1

31

Pij 0.62207

2

32

Pij 0.78204

2

33

Pij 0.51593

2

34

Pij 0.42132

6

35

Pij

0.2953

6

36

Pij 0.27257

6

37

Pij 0.15592

6

38

Pij 0.18842

6

39

Pij

0

9

40

Pij 0.05051 10

41

Pij 0.08864 10

42

Pij 0.15624 10

43

Pij 0.07511 10

To

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

28

11

17

20

21

22

Nr.

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Type

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Pij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Qij

Value

0

0.18101

0.07528

0.01627

0.06176

0.05127

0.02936

0.05477

0.01897

0.03544

-0.04921

-0.1821

0.0618

0.07083

-0.26083

-0.00326

0.27614

0.03134

0.00772

-0.01679

0.03767

-0.07451

0.00266

0.00718

-0.14013

0.04447

0.03692

0.09691

0.04393

-0.06962

0.06595

0.03339

0.00587

0.01608

0.0264

0.00626

0.02549

0.00978

0.02366

-0.01081

-0.02322

0.00791

0.00399

From

12

12

12

14

15

15

18

22

23

25

25

27

27

27

1

1

2

2

2

6

6

6

6

6

9

10

10

10

10

12

12

12

14

15

15

18

22

23

25

25

27

27

27

To

13

15

16

15

18

23

19

24

24

26

27

28

29

30

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

28

11

17

20

21

22

13

15

16

15

18

23

19

24

24

26

27

28

29

30

unit variance) has been added to the perfect measurement to

produce more realistic noisy measurements.

In the starting point, the SVC device was assumed to

operate at bus 30 with a reference voltage of 1.01 p.u., for

which a reactive power injection QSVC=0,02105 p.u and

susceptance BSVC=-0,02064 p.u. are required. The TCSC

device was set to compensate 50% of the line 4-2 reactance

(Xl=0.17370p.u.) with XTCSC=0,08685 p.u.

The one-line diagram of the IEEE 30 test system, with

PMUs placement according to an integer programming

algorithm for minimum cost [16], implemented also in Matlab,

is illustrated in Figure 7. The IEEE 30 bus test system can be

summarized as follows:

- number of buses: N = 30

- number of state variables: n = 2N 1 = 59

- number of measurements: m = 86

- redundancy ratio = m/n = 1.46

additional step does not require major changes in traditional

way of providing the measurements set to the state estimator

algorithm.

This additional step can be used to handle some

deficiencies in the traditional measurement set, for example to

improve network observability, to aid in bad data processing

and in determining network topology, etc.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

Figure 7. IEEE 30 bus system with PMU placement.

one assumes that the state estimator is applied on a set of

measurement data that was accordingly selected to assure full

observability of the system. After the first step, the state

estimator solution contains a power system state vector

formed by voltage magnitudes at all buses and voltage phase

angles at n-1 buses as well as the additional state variables

introduced by FACTS devices.

For the SVC device, the estimated state variable was

BSVC = -0.02187 p.u., whereas for TCSC the estimated

reactance was XTCSC = 0.08094 p.u. After modifying the

algorithm to take into account PMU measurements before

running the first step, the estimated variable for SVC was

improved to BSVC = -0.02109 p.u., whereas for TCSC the

reactance was XTCSC = 0.08454 p.u. As shown in Table 2 both

estimated FACTS variables were more accurate.

TABLE II.

FACTS

state

variables

XTCSC

BSVC

SE solution

SE solution Improved SE

without PMU

with PMU

solution

measurements measurements with PMU

0.08685 u.r. 0.09501 u.r.

0.08094 u.r.

0.08454 u.r.

-0.02064 u.r. -0.02196 u.r. -0.02187 u.r. -0.02109 u.r.

Power Flow

solution

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

some conclusions. Integrating PMU measurements in state

estimation using two step method does not have a major

impact on additional state estimation variables introduced by

FACTS devices. Some improvements are obtained when PMU

measurements are considered before running the first step of

the algorithm.

It has been shown that when synchronized phasor

measurements are added to the other SCADA measurements

in sufficient numbers, the efficiency/precision of the state

estimate is improved.

The improved algorithm with additional step that includes

PMU measurements, have significant contributions to increase

[15]

[16]

Power System with UPFC, Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol.18,

No.4, 2010.

A. Monticelli, State Estimation In Electric Power System , Kluwer

Academic Publishers, Boston, 1999, p. 7-33.

A. Mutahen, Distribution Network State Estimation, Tampere

University of Technology, Lecture Notes, 2012.

O. Ivanov, M. Gavrila, B. Vicol, New models for power systems

state estimation U.P.B. Sci. Bull., series C, vol. 74, no. 1, 2012.

N. Arghira, D. Hossu, I. Fgran, S.S. Iliescu, D.R. Costianu,

Modern SCADA philosophy in power system operation a survey,

U.P.B. Sci. Bull., series C, vol. 73, iss. 2, 2011.

F. Chen, X. Han, Z. Pan, L. Han, State Estimation Model and

Algorithm Including PMU, 3rd Int. Conf. on Electric Utility

Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technology, China,

Nanjing, 6-9 April 2008.

A. Abur, A. Gomez Exposito, Power System State Estimation:

Theory and Implementation, New York, Marcel Dekker, 2004.

V.I. Presada, L. Toma, M. Eremia, An Algorithm for Improving the

Power System State Estimation Using PMU Measurements,

Proceedings of 2013 IEEE Grenoble PowerTech, Grenoble, France,

16-20 June 2013.

E. Acha, C.R. Fuerte-Esquivel, H. Ambriz-Perez, C. AngelesCamacho, FACTS Modeling and simulation in power networks,

John Wiley & Sons , England 2004.

X.P. Zhang, C. Rehtanz, B. Pal, Flexible AC Transmission System:

Modelling and Control, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.

C.R. Fuerte-Esquivel, E. Acha, H. Ambriz-Perez, A Thyristor

Controlled Series Compensator Model for the Power Flow Solution of

Practical Power Networks, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 15, no.

1, pp. 58-64, Febr. 2000.

H. Ambriz-Perez, E. Acha, C.R. Fuerte-Esquivel, Advanced SVC

Models for NewtonRaphson Load Flow and Newton Optimal Power

Flow Studies, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 129136, Feb. 2000.

M. Asprou, E. Kyriakides, M. Albu, The effect of parameter and

measurement uncertainties on hybrid state estimation, Proceedings of

2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Vancouver,

Canada, 22-26 July 2012.

R. F. Nuqui, A. G. Phadke, Hybrid Linear State Estimation Utilizing

Synchronized Phasor Measurements, Proceedings of IEEE 2007

Lausanne PowerTech, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 16651669, July

2007.

Power

Systems

Test

Case

Archive,

Available:

http://www.ee.washington.edu /research/

B. Xu, Y. J. Yoon, A. Abur, Optimal placement and utilization of

phasor measurements for state estimation PSERC Pub. 05-20,

October, 2005.

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