23 views

Uploaded by Cristian Felipe González González

solucion HA 1

- Finite-Element Design of Concrete Structures,2nd_By G.a. Rombach
- 9SmartBeamNon-CompositeCastellatedDesign
- Aci Beam Ledge
- ACI Beam Ledge
- Stress Strain Relationship for Mild Steel
- cbems 150
- Large web openings for service integration in composite floors
- Finite-element Design of Concrete Structures, 2nd Rombach
- Ruaumoko Appendices
- CE 142L Beam Report S08
- Steel Design Beams
- A516Gr70
- 48653_Tutorial 5 - Energy Method-2016
- The Neutral Axis in Beam
- Behavior and Design of Link Slabs for Jointless Bridge Decks
- CIE 525 Module 01
- RC Beam Designss
- CFD-TS-500-2018.pdf
- CFD-NZS-3101-2006
- IMT5081-01A

You are on page 1of 24

4-1

Figure P4-1 shows a simply supported beam and the cross-section at midspan. The

beam supports a uniform service (unfactored) dead load consisting of its own weight

plus 1.4 kips/ft and a uniform service (unfactored) live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The

concrete strength is 3500 psi, and the yield strength of the reinforcement is 60,000

psi. The concrete is normal-weight concrete. Use load and strength reduction factors

from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. For the midspan section shown in part (b) of

Fig. P4-1, compute

and show that it exceeds

.

Weight/ft =

24 12

0.15 0.3 kips/ft

144

Factored load/ft: wu = 1.2(0.30 + 1.40) + 1.6(1.50) = 4.44 k/ft

M u wu

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 3 No. 9 bars = 3 1.00 in.2 = 3.00 in.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

c

1

A f

3.00 60000

s y

5.04 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3500 12

c

5.04

0.85

5.93 in.

d c

21.5 5.93

0.003 0.00788

Using Eq.(4-18)

s

t c cu

5.93

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

5.04

M A f d

285 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

Since, t 0.00788 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9. Then,

M n 0.9 285 kip-ft 256 kip-ft. Clearly, M n M u

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-1

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-2

A cantilever beam shown in Fig. P4-2. The beam supports a uniform service

(unfactored) dead load of 1 kip/ft plus its own dead load and it supports a

concentrated service (unfactored) live load of 12 kips as shown. The concrete is

normal-weight concrete with

psi and the steel is Grade 60. Use load and

strength-reduction factors form ACI Code Section 9.2 and 9.3. For the end section

shown in part (b) of Fig. P4-2, compute

and show it exceeds

.

Weight/ft =

30 18

0.15 0.563 kips/ft

144

Factored distributed load/ft: wu = 1.2(0.563 + 1.0) = 1.88 k/ft

Factored live load is a concentrated load: Pu 1.6 12 19.2 kips

M u wu

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 =4.74 in.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

A f

4.74 60000

s y

2.79 in.

1

0.85 f ' b 0.85 4000 30

c

'

For fc 4000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 2.79

3.28 in.

1

0.85

d c

15.5 3.28

0.003 0.011 > 0.0021

Using. Eq.(4-18)

s

t c cu 3.28

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

2.79

M A f d

334 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

Since, t 0.011 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9. Then,

M n 0.9 334 301 kip-ft 267 kip-ft. Clearly, M n M u

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-2

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-3

(a)

Compare

for singly reinforced rectangular beams having the following

properties. Use strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and

9.3.

Beam

No.

(in.)

(in.)

1

2

3

4

5

12

12

12

12

12

22

22

22

22

33

Bars

3 No. 7

2 No. 9 plus 1 No. 8

3 No. 7

3 No. 7

3 No. 7

f c'

fy

(psi)

4,000

4,000

4,000

6,000

4,000

(psi)

60,000

60,000

80,000

60,000

60,000

Beam No.1

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

For Beam 1,

Beam No.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

(

For

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-3

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9.

For Beam 2,

Beam No.3

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9.

For Beam 3,

Beam No.4

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

For

(

,

)

. Therefore,

(

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-4

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

For Beam 4,

Beam No.5

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

(

For Beam 5,

(b)

and d on

. (Note that each beam has the same properties as

beam 1 except for the italicized quantity.)

Beam

No.

1

2

3

4

5

(kip-ft)

167

250

219

171

257

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-5

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

An increase of 55% in As (from 1.80 to 2.79 in.2) caused an increase of 50% in M n . Increasing

the tension steel area causes a proportional increase in the strength of the section, with a loss of

ductility. Note that in this case, the strength reduction factor was 0.9 for both sections.

Effect of f y (Beams 1 and 3)

An increase of 33% in f y caused an increase of 31% in M n . Increasing the steel yield strength

has essentially the same effect as increasing the tension steel area.

Effect of f c' (Beams 1 and 4)

An increase of 50% in f c' caused an increase of 2% in M n . Changing the concrete strength has

approximately no impact on moment strength, relative to changes in the tension steel area and

steel yield strength.

Effect of d (Beams 1 and 5)

An increase of 50% in d caused an increase of 54% in M n . Increasing the effective flexural

depth of the section increases the section moment strength (without decreasing the section

ductility).

(c)

effective way?

Disregarding any other effects of increasing d , As or f y such as changes in cost, etc., the most

effective way to increase M n is to increase the effective flexural depth of the section, d ,

followed by increasing f y and As . Note that increasing f y and As too much may make the beam

over-reinforced and thus will result in a decrease in ductility.

The least effective way of increasing M n is to increase f c' . Note that increasing f c' will cause a

significant increase in curvature at failure.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-6

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-4

A 12-ft-long cantilever supports its own dead load plus an additional uniform

service (unfactored) dead load of 0.5 kip/ft. The beam is made from normal-weight

4000-psi concrete and has

in.,

in., and

in. It is reinforced

with four No. 7 Grade-60 bars. Compute the maximum service (unfactored)

concentrated live load that can be applied at 1ft from the free end of the cantilever.

Use load and strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. Also

check

.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 4 No. 7 bars = 4 0.60 in.2 =2.40 in.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

A f

2.4 60000

s y

c

2.65 in.

1

0.85 f ' b 0.85 4000 16

c

For fc' 4000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 2.65

3.1 in.

0.85

1

d c

15.5 3.1

0.003 0.012

Using Eq.(4-18)

s

t c cu 3.1

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

2.65

M A f d

170 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

Since, t 0.012 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and,

M n 0.9 170 kip-ft = 153 kip-ft

2. Compute Live Load

Set M u M n 153 kip-ft

16 18

0.15 0.3 kips/ft

144

Factored dead load = 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.96 kips/ft

Weight/ft of beam =

Therefore the maximum factored live load moment is: 153 kip-ft 69.1 kip-ft = 83.9 kip-ft

Maximum factored load at 1 ft from the tip = 83.9 kip-ft / 11 ft = 7.63 kips

Maximum concentrated service live load = 7.63 kips / 1.6 = 4.77 kips

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

4-7

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any

prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

3. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

16 15.5 0.82 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-8

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-5

Compute

psi and

and check

psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 =4.74 in.2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the

tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d 19 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16):

A f

4.74 60000

s y

'

0.85 f b e 0.85 4500 48

c

1.88 in.

0.825

1

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and d t , it is clear that

the tension steel strain, s , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of

the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, t , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections

(0.005). Thus, =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

1.55

4.74 60000 19

M A f d

432 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

M n 0.9 432 kip-ft = 389 kip-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 201 psi, so use 3 f c' in the numerator:

As ,min

3 f c'

fy

bw d

201

12 19 0.76 in.2 < As (o.k.)

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 4-9

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-6

Compute

psi and

and check

psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 =4.74 in.2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the

tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d 18.5 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16):

A f

4.74 60000

s y

0.85 f ' b e 0.85 4000 20

c

4.92 in.

0.85

1

d c

18.5 4.95

0.003 0.0082

Using Eq.(4-18)

s c cu 4.95

Thus, > 0.002 and it is clear that the steel is yielding in both layers of reinforcement.

s

It is also clear that the section is tension-controlled ( =0.9), but just for illustration the value of

t

dt c

19.5 4.92

0.003 0.0089

cu

4.92

4.18

M A f d

389 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

M n 0.9 389 kip-ft = 350 kip-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 190 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

12 18.5 0.74 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-10

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-7

shown in Fig. P4-7. Use

psi and

, and check

psi.

1. Calculation of M n

This section is subjected to negative bending, so tension will develop in the top flange and the

compression zone is at the bottom of the section. ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires that a portion

of the tension reinforcement be distributed in the flange, so assuming that the No. 6 bars in the

2

flange are part of the tension reinforcement: As 6 0.44 2.64 in.

The depth of the Whitney stress block can be calculated using Eq. (4-16), using b 12 in., since

the compression zone is at the bottom of the section:

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

(

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension because the beam is subjected to negative

bending. Therefore, the value of As ,min will depend on whether the beam is statically determinate.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is

equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

(

(

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-11

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-8

(a)

psi and

psi.

The limits given in ACI Code Section 8.12 for determining the effective compression flange, be ,

for a flanged section that is part of a continuous floor system are:

be

bw 2(8h f )

w

Assuming that the columns are 18 in. 18 in. , the longitudinal span is approximated as:

18 in.

ft 22.5 ft

21 ft

12 in.

ft

12 in.

8.5 ft

The clear transverse distance for the 9 ft.-6 in. span is: 9.5 ft

12 in.

ft

1 12 in.

18 in.

and for the 11 ft. span is: 11 ft

9.75 ft

2 12 in.

12 in.

ft

ft

22.5 ft 12 in./ft

67.5 in.

be

12 in. 2 8 6 in. 108 in.

(b)

Compute

for the positive- and negative-moment regions and check

for both sections. At the supports, the bottom bars are in one layer; at

midspan, the No. 8 bars are in the bottom, the No. 7 bars in a second layer.

1. Calculation of M n

Tension steel area: As = 3 No. 8 bars + 2 No. 7 bars = 3 0.79 2 0.60 3.57 in.2

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-12

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will

include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme

tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, d t ,

can be calculated to be:

dt 21 in. 2.5 in. =18.5 in.

The minimum spacing required between layers of reinforcement is 1 in. (ACI Code Section

7.6.2). Thus the spacing between the centers of the layers is approximately 2 in. So the distance

from the tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is:

3.57

3.17 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f 6 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y ; using Eq.(4-

16) we have:

A f

3.57 60000

s y

'

0.85

3500

67.5

0.85 f b e

c

1.26 in.

0.85

1

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and d t , it is clear that

the tension steel strain, s , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of

the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, t , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections

(0.005). Thus, =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

1.07

M A f d

308 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

M n 0.9 308 kip-ft = 277 kip-ft

Check of As ,min : The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this

section, so we should use bw in Eq. (4-11). 3 f c' is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the

numerator.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-13

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

12 17.8 0.71 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

The tension and compression reinforcement for this section is provided in single layers.

Assuming the section will include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the

distance from the extreme tension or compression edge of the section to the centroid of the

tension or compression layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

2

As = 7 No. 7 bars = 7 0.60 4.2 in. , d 18.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

Try c d 4 4.5 in.

c d'

4.5 2.5

cu

0.003 0.00133

4.5

c

f s' E s s' 29,000 ksi 0.00133 38.6 ksi f y

s'

C 's

As'

f s'

0.85 f c'

2

Cc 0.85 fc'b1c 0.85 3.5 ksi 12 in. 0.85 4.5 in.=137 kips

T As f y 4.20 in.2 60 ksi 252 kips

Because T Cc C 's , we should increase c for the second trial.

Try c 5.9 in.

s' 0.00173

Cc 179 kips

T 254 kips Cc Cs 254 kips

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

d c

18.5 5.9

0.003 0.0064

using Eq.(4-18)

s c cu 5.9

s

So, using 1c 0.85 5.9 in. 5.0 in. , use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

n

2

n

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-14

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Check of As ,min : The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will

depend on the use of that beam. Since the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate

floor system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw in Eq. (4-11).

Also, 3 f c' is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator.

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

12 18.5 0.74 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-15

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-9

Compute

psi and

(a)

and check

psi, and

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 = 4.74 in.2

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

top flange, 5 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16) with

b 30 in. :

(

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

(

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will depend on the

use of that beam. Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor

system, the minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw 2 5 10 in. in Eq.

(4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

10 32.5 1.08 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

As ,min

200

200

2

bw d

20 32.5 2.17 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-16

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

(b)

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 9 No. 8 bars = 9 0.79 in.2 =7.11 in.2

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f 5 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-

(

, 1 0.85 . Therefore,

For

(

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

2. Check of As ,min

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-17

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-10

Compute

psi and

and check

psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension steel area: As = 8 No. 7 bars = 8 0.60 in.2 =4.8 in.2

Tension will develop in the bottom flange and the compression zone is at the top of the section.

Thus, assuming that the tension steel is yielding, s y , in Eq. (4-16) we should use

b 2 6 12 in. and we find the depth of the Whitney stress block as:

A f

4.8 60000

s y

5.65 in.

'

0.85 f b 0.85 5000 12

c

5.65

0.80

7.06 in.

d c

23.5 7.06

0.003 0.007

using Eq.(4-18) t

s

7.06

c cu

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

5.65

M A f d

496 kip-ft

n

s y

2

12000

M n 0.9 496 kip-ft = 446 kip-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will depend on the

use of that beam.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw 2 6 12 in. in Eq. (4-11). Also,

note that 3 f c' is equal to 212 psi:

As ,min

212

212

2

bw d

12 23.5 1.00 in. < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

As ,min

212

212

bw d

24 23.5 1.99 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy

60,000

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-18

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-11

(a)

Compute

psi and

ksi,

Beam No. 1

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.2 =6.00 in.2

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will

include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme

tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, d t ,

can be calculated to be:

The effective flexural depth, d , is given as : d 32.5 in.

For

,

(

. Therefore,

(

s

Also, t 0.005 , the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

Beam No. 2

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.2 =6.00 in.2

Compression steel area: A s' = 2 No. 9 bars = 2 1.00 in.2 =2.00 in.2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d 32 in., dt 33.5 in. and d ' is given as d ' 2.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-19

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Try c d 4 8 in.

(

)

(

)

)

Try

(

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

(

s

, use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

So, using

*

)+

)]

Beam No. 3

Tension steel area: As = 6 No. 9 bars = 6 1.00 in.2 =6.00 in.2

Compression steel area: A s' = 4 No. 9 bars = 4 1.00 in.2 =4.00 in.2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d 32.5 in., and dt 33.5 in.

The compression reinforcement for this beam section is provided in two layers and d ' is given as

3.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will the same procedure as for beam No. 2

(assuming that the tension steel is yielding).

The depth of the neutral axis for this section should be smaller compared with beam section No.

2, since the compression reinforcement is increased for this section.

Try

(Note that both layers of the compression steel will be in the compression zone)

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-20

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Try

(

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

(

s

, use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

So, using

*

(b)

)+

)]

reinforcement is a cost-effective way of increasing the strength,

, of a beam.

Comparing the values of M n for the three beams, it is clear that for a given amount of tension

reinforcement, the addition of compression steel has little effect on the nominal moment capacity,

as long as the tension steel yields in the beam without compression reinforcement. As a result,

adding compression reinforcement in not a cost effective way of increasing the nominal moment

capacity of a beam. However, adding compression reinforcement improves the ductility and

might be necessary when large amounts of tension reinforcement are used to change the behavior

from compression controlled to tension controlled.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-21

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

4-12

Compute

psi and

psi. Does the compression steel yield in this beam at nominal strength?

As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 = 4.74 in.2 , d 25 in. 2.5 in. 22.5 in.

As' = 2 No. 7 bars = 2 0.60 in.2 =1.2 in.2 , d ' 2.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

Try

For

psi,

. Thus,

Since the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than 5.0 in. , 5.0 in. , the width of the

compression zone is constant and equal to 10 in., i.e. b 10 in.

(

)

(

)

)

Because

Try

(

)

(

)

)

Since

, the width of the compression zone is not constant. Using a similar

reasoning as in the case of flanged sections, where the depth of the Whitney stress block is in the

web of the section, the compression force can be calculated from the following equations (refer to

Fig. S4-12):

(

)(

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

(

s

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-22

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

(

[

[

)

(

(

)

)

(

)]

)

)]

The strain in the compression steel at nominal moment capacity is 0.00185, the compression steel

has not yielded at nominal strength.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-23

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

bw

0.85f'c

ht

a

f's

f

fs=fy

b

(assumed)

bw

ht

a/2

d'

Cs

Ccw

T1

F

b

b) Part 1: web of section and corresponding internal forces

bw

ht

(a+ht)/2

Ccf

d

T2

F

b

c) Part 2: overhanging flanges and corresponding internal forces

Fig. S4-12.1 Beam section and internal forces for the case of ht .

2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written

permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write

to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education,4-24

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

- Finite-Element Design of Concrete Structures,2nd_By G.a. RombachUploaded byMario A Villada Ríos
- 9SmartBeamNon-CompositeCastellatedDesignUploaded byes2345
- Aci Beam LedgeUploaded byLove Semsem
- ACI Beam LedgeUploaded byaminjoles
- Stress Strain Relationship for Mild SteelUploaded byCpo Jack
- cbems 150Uploaded bySally Juniasty
- Large web openings for service integration in composite floorsUploaded byStephen Hicks
- Finite-element Design of Concrete Structures, 2nd RombachUploaded byCristi Andone
- Ruaumoko AppendicesUploaded byrodrigo
- CE 142L Beam Report S08Uploaded byeolbielen
- Steel Design BeamsUploaded byLaurence Arcon Banal
- A516Gr70Uploaded byredroom31
- 48653_Tutorial 5 - Energy Method-2016Uploaded byMikey
- The Neutral Axis in BeamUploaded bykyithitoo
- Behavior and Design of Link Slabs for Jointless Bridge DecksUploaded byGuessss..........!!!!!
- CIE 525 Module 01Uploaded byAnonymous 7MdZQn1
- RC Beam DesignssUploaded byjorge25_aguila2832
- CFD-TS-500-2018.pdfUploaded byBoby Culius
- CFD-NZS-3101-2006Uploaded byLim Wee Beng
- IMT5081-01AUploaded byIrina Averaldo
- BEAM WSD====Uploaded bylitrakhan
- ME-311 Ass Welding 2018Uploaded byNitin jaiswal
- CE2306 - Design of RC ElementsUploaded byViswanathan Natesan
- Chassis_Stress_Analysis_and_optimization.pdfUploaded byMehul Shrimali
- Chapter-1 SOM 2010_31Uploaded byAmit Mondal
- Upright Front Simulation ResultsUploaded byAwais Mumtaz
- 12607007_2007_8PCEE_Peng Et Al_response of RC Plastic Hinge (1)Uploaded byIonescu Stefan
- SUD EXCUploaded byP Allen Samuel Ignatius
- is.6461.9.1973Uploaded byVijayKataria
- Size Effect on Shear Behavior of High Strength Rc Slender BeamsUploaded byesatjournals

- ProspectusUploaded byBasanti Barna
- Gerhäusser, Der Protreptikos Des Poseidonios (1912)Uploaded byalverlin
- Figueiredo, PN (2014), Beyond Tech Catch-up, J. of Engineering and Tech Management v. 31 2014pdfUploaded byDương Khánh Dương
- Sacred Music, 112.1, Spring 1985; The Journal of the Church Music Association of AmericaUploaded byChurch Music Association of America
- Self Reflection WorksheetUploaded bylnln462ln
- edimax.pdfUploaded bymelados707
- Unno vs Gen MillingUploaded byMyra Myra
- 268999191Uploaded byLester
- futuh Al GhaibUploaded bySyed Merchant
- Notes for Apple Loops DevelopersUploaded bymarcusolivus
- June 2017 Full Issue.pdfUploaded byPaola Moro
- As 2564-1982 Aluminium Ores - Determination of Aluminium Silicon Iron Titanium and Phosphorus Contents - WaveUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- TDS-542_Glucamate_SSE-20.pdfUploaded byAsesorias Educacionales Y Científicas
- DADF-H1_Service_Manual.pdfUploaded byGuillermo Hernandez
- 263339809-Bass-Drum-Exercises-FreeDrum-info.pdfUploaded byFakhrurrazi Fakhri
- 2SK3109 MosfetUploaded byJadi Marsahala Hutabarat
- cvbcvbcvbUploaded byroyroyroy1
- Lawfirms PhilippinesUploaded byRB Balanay
- Copyright AuthorUploaded byAgung Prastowo
- _5AKDZCESdxUploaded bynndumia
- Ogma v. Casio America et. al.Uploaded byPriorSmart
- Part Number C4Uploaded byGuilherme Alves
- C88-13 Standard Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate.pdfUploaded bydiego rodriguez
- ASTM E831 Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis_百度文库Uploaded byvitorhcarneiro
- Liderazgo..Uploaded byJesús Héctor Rodriguez Vergara
- SWSE DoD 04 Echoes of the JediUploaded byIndyInferno
- Provalve Valve TrayUploaded bynatee8632
- ChakraMoneyMeditation.pdfUploaded byΚωνσταντίνος Γιαμαλής
- 3 24 10 Bifurcation DeniedUploaded byMyers, Boebel and MacLeod L.L.P.
- Cadpipe TutorialUploaded byapasu4u