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WAJA F5 Chemistry

Chapter 4 : Thermochemistry

CHAPTER 4 : THERMOCHEMISTRY
ANSWER
Activity 1
(a) (1) transferred , (2) increases ,
(b) (3) absorbs , (4) decreases
Activity 2
(a) Identify the following reactions as exothermic or endothermic reaction
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

Reaction
Combustion of ethanol
Burning of magnesium
Neutralisation between acid and alkali
Adding water to concentrated sulphuric acid
Photosynthesis
Reaction between acid and magnesium
Reaction between acid and calcium carbonate
Dissolving ammonium salt in water
Thermal decomposition of copper(ll) carbonate
Thermal decomposition of zinc nitrate

Exothermic

Endothermic

(b) (1) H , (2) kJ, (3) negative sign , (4) higher , (5) positive sign
(c) Two other examples of exothermic and endothermic reaction
Exothermic reaction
1) Physical changes : gas liquid

Endothermic reaction
Physical changes : solid liquid ,

liquid solid
2) Reaction between reactive metals

liquid gas
Dissolving crystalline salts in water

(sodium and potassium) with water //

example : CuSO4.5H2O

Rusting of iron
Activity 3
(a) (i) Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2
Energy

H = -467 kJ

Mg(s)+H2SO4(aq)

H = -467 kJ
MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

(ii)

CaCO3 CaO + CO2

H = + 178 kJ

Energy
CuO + CO2

H = + 178 kJ

WAJA F5 Chemistry

Chapter 4 : Thermochemistry

CuCO3

(iii) (1) zinc , (2) copper(II) sulphate , (3) exothermic , (4) increases , (5) zinc ,
(6) copper(II) sulphate , (7) more , (8) 190 kJ , (9) zinc , (10) copper(II) sulphate,
(11) one , (12) one , (13) 190 , (14) produced // released
(15) hydrogen gas, (16) iodine gas, (17) endothermic , (18) decreases,
(19) hydrogen gas (20) iodine gas, (21) less , (22) 53 , (23) hydrogen gas ,
(24) iodine gas , (25) two , (26) 53 (27) absorbed.
(b) (i) (1) bond(2) breaking , (3) bond , (4) formation
(ii) (1) requires / absorbs (2) releases
(iii) (1) releasing , (2) exothermic
(iv) (1) absorbing , (2) endothermic
(c) (i) (1) sports injuries , (2) water , (3) solid ammonium nitrate , (4) ammonium nitrate ,
(5) water
(ii) Uses a sodium acetate crystallization . By bending the metal disc in the bag, the
sodium acetate crystallizes and gives off heat.
Activity 4
Match the chemical equation with the type of reaction below :
Chemical equation
HNO3 + KOH KNO3 + H2O
C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O
Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu
Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3

Type of reaction
Precipitation reaction
Displacement reaction
Neutralization
Combustion

Activity 5
(a). The heat of precipitation is the heat change when one mole of a precipitate is formed
from their ions in aqueous solution.
(b) (1) 630 J , (2) Ag+ + Cl- AgCl (3) one , (4) one , (5) one , (6) 0.0125 , (7)
0.0125 , (8) 0.0125 , (9) 0.0125 , (10) 630 J , (11) 630 = 50400 J = 50.4 kJ
0.0125
(12) - 50.4 kJ mol -1
(13) Energy level diagram
Energy
Ag+ + ClH = - 50.4 kJ mol -1
(c) 1.26 kJ // 1260 J
(d)

AgCl

3.9 0C

Activity 6
(a) The heat of displacement is the heat change when one mole of a metal is displaced from

WAJA F5 Chemistry

Chapter 4 : Thermochemistry

its salt solution by a more electropositive metal.


(b) (1) 1050 J , (2) one , (3) one , (4) 0.2 x 25 = 0.005, (5) 0.005 mol , (6) 0.005
1000
(7) 1050 J , (8) 1050 = 210000J = 210 kJ , (9) - 210 kJ mol-1
0.005
(10) Energy level diagram
Energy
Zn + CuSO4
H = - 210 kJ mol -1
Cu + ZnSO4

(c) H = - 16. 8 kJ mol -1


(d) 33.8 0C
Activity 7
(a) The heat of neutralization is the heat change when one mole of water is formed from the
reaction between an acid and an alkali.
(b) (1) 13.0 , (2) 13.0 , (3) 5460 J , (4) HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O , (5) H+ + OH- H2O
(6) 1 , (7) 1 , (8) 1 , (9) 0.1 mol , (10) 0.1 mol , (11) 0.1 mol , (12) 0.1 mol , (13) 5460 J,
(14) 5460 = 54600J = 54.6 kJ , (15) - 54.6 kJ mol-1
0.1
(16) Energy level diagram
Energy
HCl + NaOH
H = - 54.6 kJ mol -1
NaCl + H2O

(c) 5.5 kJ
(d) 6.8 0 C
Activity 8
(a) The heat of combustion is the heat change when one mole of a substance is completely
burnt in oxygen under standard conditions.
(b) (1) 25200 J, (2) 3O2 , (3) 2CO2 , (4) 3H2O , (5) 0.75 , (6) 0.75 = 0.0163 mol , (7) 0.0163
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WAJA F5 Chemistry

Chapter 4 : Thermochemistry

(8) 25200 J, (9) 25200 = 1546012.2 J = 1546 kJ ,


0.0163
(10) Energy level diagram
Energy
C2H5OH +3O2
H = - 1546 kJ mol -1
2CO2 + 3H2O

(c) (1) 32.0 , (2) 30.0 , (3) 31.0 , (4) CH3OH , (5) C3H7OH , (6) C4H9OH , (7) 1 , (8) 3 , (9) 4
(10) 32 , (11) 60 , (12) 74 , (13) 0.037 , (14) 0.0125 , (15) 0.0097 , (16) 26880 J
(17) 25200 J , (18) 26040 J , (19) 726.5 kJ , (20) 2016 kJ , (21) 2684.5 kJ
(i) The more carbon atoms in the molecular formula of an alcohol, the higher is the
heat of combustion // The heat of combustion is proportional to the number of
carbon atom per molecule in alcohol ,
(ii) 3300 kJ mol-1 to 3400 kJ mol-1
(d) 1.793 g
(e) (i) 60g mol-1
(ii) 33.6 kJ g-1