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Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development





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2012 Minimum Service Standards for Quality Improvement of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programmes

Published by: Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development

P.O. Box 46205 00100, Nairobi Kenya
Tel : +254 -20-2228411
MGCSD 2012

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Table of contents........................................................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................................................... iv
List of

Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 1
Operational Denition of Terms ............................................................................................................................... 2
Denition of Quality Care (QC)............................................................................................................................... 4
Objectives of Quality Standards.............................................................................................................................. 4
Scope and Rationale for Quality Standards........................................................................................................... 4
Denition of Quality Service Standards (QSS)....................................................................................................... 5
Methodology of Standards Development.................................................................................................................5
Components of Service Standards............................................................................................................................ 5
Implementation of Quality Service Standards (QSS).............................................................................................6
The Intended User of the Quality Service Standards............................................................................................6
Guiding Principles of the Quality Service Standards............................................................................................. 6
Monitoring and Evaluation......................................................................................................................................... 7
Denition of the Dimensions of Quality.................................................................................................................. 8
Quality Service Standards ..................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Food and Nutrition..............................................................................................................................................9
2.2 Education............................................................................................................................................................... 14
2.3 Health..................................................................................................................................................................... 19
2.4 Psychosocial Support (PSS)............................................................................................................................... 24
2.5 Shelter and Care.................................................................................................................................................. 29
2.6 Child Protection................................................................................................................................................. 33
2.7 Household Economic Strengthening.............................................................................................................. 38
2.8 Coordination of Care ....................................................................................................................................... 43
APPENDIX A: Participating Organisations..................................................................................................... 47
APPENDIX B: References.................................................................................................................................. 48
APPENDIX C: Members of the QI technical working group.....................................................................49

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he Minimum Service Standards for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) care and support
document has been developed with support from different players.The Kenya National Steering
Committee on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) under the leadership of the Ministry of
Gender, Children and Social Development, approved the process of developing the Minimum Service Standards
for Quality Improvement document and appointed a Technical Working Group to lead the process.

Gratitude goes to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) for providing funds and
the University Research Co., LLC (URC) through USAID Health Care Improvement Project, for providing
technical support.
The exercise could not have been completed without the participation of the key implementing partners who
included the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Public
Health and Sanitation, Ministry of Local Government, Orphans and Vulnerable Children, whose valuable ideas
and experience not only made the document more realistic, but also issue-based.
Special thanks go to the Technical Working Group (TWG) members who included representatives from the
World Vision, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), SOS Childrens Villages Kenya, UNICEF, USAID, URC USAID
Health Care Improvement Project, PSI/Kenya, FHI 360, Child Fund, HOPE Worldwide Kenya and OVC

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he Minimum Service Standards for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) care and support is a
Government of Kenya response to unharmonised interventions targeting OVC. Lack of standards
has resulted in mushrooming of uncoordinated programmes and projects in the country, which is
manifested in unfair distribution of interventions targeting OVC.

The Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development in collaboration with the Ministry of Public
Health and Sanitation, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Local Government and implementing partners have
developed the Minimum Service Standards for OVC Care and Support so as to:

Harmonise interventions by various stakeholders;

Encourage fair distribution of interventions within the country; and

Provide framework for monitoring and evaluation of impact of interventions.

The process of developing the Minimum Service Standards for OVC Care and Support started in November
2009 and was completed in January 2012. The process involved several steps aimed at incorporating the views
of various stakeholders including OVC themselves.
The Minimum Service Standards for OVC consists of eight key service areas of focus. Each of these areas has
specic operational denition of service, desired outcome and outcome indicators. Further, the document
identies essential actions with suggested activities.
The Minimum Service Standards for OVC is based on the provisions of The Children Act 2001 which
recognises the central role the Department of Childrens Services play in supervision and coordination of
services and programmes for children run by various stakeholders in the country.
It is estimated that 30% of children in Kenya are OVC; this constitutes a signicant proportion of our
population aged below 18 years. What this means is that, if all interventions geared towards their support
are properly implemented, the country would greatly move towards the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals by 2015.
I therefore appeal to all implementing partners for orphans and vulnerable children programmes and projects
to utilise the provisions of the Minimum Service Standards for OVC under the leadership of the Department
of Childrens Services.

Dr James Nyikal, CBS

Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Gender, Children & Social Development

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Area Advisory Council


Antiretroviral Therapy


Community Owned Resource Persons


Community Based Organisation


Community Care Coalitions


Community Child Protection Units


Child Status Index


Faith Based Organisation


Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets


Kenya Essential Package for Health


Most Vulnerable Children Committee


National Council for Childrens Services


National Plan of Action for OVC


Orphans and Vulnerable Children


Provincial Child Rights Networks


Psychosocial Support


Quality Improvement


Rapid Assessment, Analysis and Action Plan


Situational Analysis


Village Committees


Voluntary Childrens Ofcers

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The situation that Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) nd themselves in is an issue of national concern in
Kenya. It is estimated that there are over 2.4 million orphans in the country, 47% of whom are orphaned as a
result of HIV/AIDS.
The HIV/AIDS scourge compounded with high poverty levels and other factors exposes the orphaned and
vulnerable children to stress and trauma, in addition to the loss of parental love, care and protection. Orphans
and vulnerable children are also exposed to different forms of abuse, neglect and exploitation, a situation that
diminishes their capacity to participate in matters that impact on their lives.
Traditionally, OVC were best cared for within their extended family system. The existence of a strong social
fabric ensured that all children belonged to the entire community. The breakdown of the traditional coping
mechanisms due to the changing socio-economic status has resulted in most of the orphaned children being
left on their own. With 46% of the Kenyan population living below the poverty line, the situation of OVC is
expected to get worse if adequate mitigation measures are not put in place.
Efforts to provide care and support to OVC have expanded rapidly within the Government and civil society
organisations characterised by increased funding from the Government and development partners. It has been
noted that more emphasis has been given to the expansion of coverage and outputs without corresponding
attention to the impact of these programmes on the lives of OVC.
A situational Analysis (SITAN) was conducted in 2009 to assess the quality of services provided to OVC and
determine the extent to which the interventions make a difference in the lives of the targeted children. The
SITAN identied various gaps that include:

Failure of service providers to adhere to the universally accepted denition of OVC hence leaving out
other vulnerable children.

Quality of services offered by some of the organisations has been inappropriate leading to
stigmatisation and discrimination of OVC by the rest of the community and wastage of resources.

Existing interventions only support a small proportion of OVC.

Lack of social mapping of OVC service providers making it difcult for the Department of Childrens
Services (DCS) to monitor and coordinate their operations.

Lack of regulation on the duration a service provider should support a beneciary.

Inadequate and inaccurate data on the needs of the children before the intervention is launched.

Dependence on volunteers as programme staff, an arrangement that is not sustainable.

To support and help streamline the quality of OVC care, the Government through the Ministry of Gender,
Children and Social Development (MGCSD) and stakeholders initiated the process of developing service
standards for quality improvement of service delivery.

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Operational Denition of Terms

Alternative care

The placement of a child in a care setting other than the immediate or

extended family setup, including foster care, adoption and institutional care in
Charitable Childrens Institutions.

Asset building

Increasing capacity of OVC households to purchase and own items/resources

that they would not have been able to afford previously.

Case management

Provision of the correct mix of services to each OVC as a response to their

identied individual needs and circumstances.

Child labour

Any form of work, either within or outside the family arrangement, that
is likely to be hazardous and/or that is likely to interfere with a childs
education or desired growth and development.


A group of people with a common goal, shared values and norms who come
together to improve the well being of OVC.

Community validation
Curative care
Food secure
Orphans and vulnerable
children (OVC)
Vulnerable child
Preventative promotive
health care

Pro bono
Regular meals

The participatory processes of the community to approve proposals for

services, including mechanisms for targeting and selecting OVC households
that should receive services at a stakeholders forum.
The specic and appropriate treatment to cure an illness or injury.
The ability of OVC to access the right food in the right quantity on a regular

A child whose mother (maternal orphan) or father (paternal orphan) or both

(double orphan) are dead.
A child who is living in circumstances of high risk whose prospects for
continued growth and development are seriously threatened.
Any human being under the age of 18 years.
Any medical intervention, management or treatment that is directed at
maintaining a persons general well-being and good health. For example,
immunisation, safe water supply, good nutrition and good hygiene to prevent
malaria and HIV.
Voluntary and free legal services provided by lawyers to OVC.
Promotion of OVC safety and welfare by preventing and responding to
violence, exploitation and abuse.
OVC have daily meals, similar in frequency to other members of the same

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Rehabilitative care &


A process that involves both medical and social interventions aimed at

enabling children to reach their desired developmental maturity in terms
of physical, cognitive, language, socio-emotional temperament in order to
achieve a degree of self or higher level of self reliance.

Special needs

Children who have additional needs beyond those typically experienced by

OVC and who might require special attention or services, in addition to the
usual OVC services provided. For example, OVC with disabilities and those
with chronic health conditions.


Any person with a vested interest, concern or responsibility in the care and
support of OVC and their households.

Sufcient food

OVC, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to enough safe
and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences to
support an active and healthy life.

Value addition

Extent to which the services provided makes a difference in the lives of OVC
by improving their well-being.


Degree to which OVC are exposed to risk and uncertainty, leading to

possible physical, mental and emotional harm as a result of reduced

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Denition of Quality Care (QC)

Quality care is dened as the provision of the correct mix of services for each child, family and community,
and is offered based on current best practices and expert knowledge. It shows the degree to which the cluster
of services provided to children, families and communities maximises benets and minimises risks, so that
children may grow and develop properly. This also enables children, families and communities to make their
own decisions about the care and services they receive, leading to quality improvement (QI) of the quality of

Objectives of Quality Standards

1. To develop outcome based standards to improve the quality of OVC services.
2. To improve the quality of programmes for OVC.
3. To support the implementation of various Government policies and guidelines at family and community level.

Scope and Rationale for Quality Standards

Considerable effort is currently being made to provide services for OVC in the country resulting in the
implementation of many intervention programmes. The programmes are, however, initiated with inadequate
standards to guide their establishment and management. The operation of these initiatives is therefore left to
the wisdom of the implementers and the conditions stipulated by the funding organisations. In the absence of
service standards, it is difcult to determine the quality of service provided to the OVC by these programmes.
In the legal and regulatory framework, Kenya has been ranked highly among the 52 African countries especially
for putting in place a legal and regulatory regime, that is protective of and promotes the rights of children by
implementing a budgetary policy and programme that favours children.
Furthermore, the Government strives to ensure that children access basic social services such as nutrition,
shelter, education and health care, besides providing an enabling environment for their growth and
development. The above is enshrined in The Kenya Constitution and The Children Act of 2001. The Children
Act incorporates the spirit of The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and The
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC).
A National Social Protection Policy is being nalized in order to harmonise social protection interventions in
the country and ensure a better and well-coordinated, effective and efcient social protection system.
Furthermore, a National Children Policy is in place to support and protect the rights of children including
OVC in four key areas: child survival, child development, child protection and child participation.
The Quality standards will therefore form the basis for the operationalization of the legal framework as they
address implementation gaps at the point of service delivery.

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Denition of Quality Service Standards (QSS)

The quality service standards dene what constitutes quality care for OVC. The standards are an important
step in improving OVC programming and reect evidence from locally developed best practices. The standards
clearly state desired outcomes per service area based on the dimensions of quality. They also articulate
minimum essential actions to reach the desired outcomes.

Methodology of standards development

To initiate the process of developing the required service standards, a team of Government and partners
nancing the process participated in a regional workshop on quality improvement facilitated by the Health
Care Improvement Project. A work plan for Kenya was developed as the product of the meeting. Subsequently,
a Technical Working Group comprising of Government ofcials and partners was formed to coordinate the
An original draft of the service standards was developed at a workshop in Naivasha, Kenya, from 1st - 5th
December 2009. The workshop was attended by 48 participants drawn from 28 organisations who included
ofcers from the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, Ministry of Education, Ministry of
Science and Technology, USAID and other civil society organisations.
The content of the draft covered seven core service areas: Food and Nutrition, Education, Health, Psychosocial
support, Shelter and care, Child Protection, Household Economic Strengthening. An additional service area on
Coordination of Care was added later during the review of the draft. To date, the draft has been reviewed four
times by various groups that include the OVC themselves. The standards were piloted for nine months in the
country and the results used to inform the nal document.

Components of service standards

The service standards have three main components that are basically interdependent as shown in the diagram
o Desired outcome with indicators
o Essential actions

Guidelines to achieve essential actions with indicators




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Implementation of Quality Service Standards (QSS)

The QSS are yardsticks for measuring the outcome of services and detect gaps between current practices and
what is desired. The QI approach is aimed at improving coverage (reach more children), effectiveness (make a
difference for each child) and efciency (coordinate providers of various services to avoid duplication, wasted resources
and uncoordinated care).
The QSS will enhance efforts by programmes to mobilise additional resources, both from inside and outside
the community. The standards will also empower children and households to take responsibility for their
survival by adopting sustainability mechanisms. Finally, the QSS are to harmonise implementation standards
among service providers and ultimately, everyone stands to benet.

The intended user of the Quality Service Standards

The Quality Service Standards are for those working at the point of service delivery to harmonize content and
process of care for each service area among stakeholders.

Guiding principles of the Quality Service Standards

In implementing QSS across programmes, a number of issues that touch on general programming principles
will be taken into consideration to ensure harmonious application. The most critical principles include
democracy, human rights, good governance, childrens rights, rights of indigenous people, gender equality, a
sustainable environment and HIV and AIDS.
Collaboration among various service providers is critical for the success and effective implementation of the
QSS. In addition, service providers and communities are expected to build their own capacity by identifying
and facilitating training of their resource persons, and to create appropriate networks and linkages for better
services delivery.
The quality service standards require service providers to adhere to the following guiding principles during the
implementation of their programmes.

Stakeholder mapping and establishment of an effective referral and linkage network among all OVC
service providers and stakeholders.


Identication of individual needs of OVC and their families and provision of appropriate services on
an ongoing basis. Needs assessment is a continual process and the results of each assessment should be
compared to the previous assessment to determine the level of progress.


Ensuring the participation and involvement of OVC, households and communities in mainstreaming
monitoring and evaluation activities.


Continued lobbying of institutions and the Government for provision of services not currently and/or
adequately provided for OVC.

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Monitoring and Evaluation

The implementation of the QSS will be monitored at the point of service delivery and outcome of their
interventions established and documented.
The Technical capacity of the District Childrens Ofcers will be strengthened to enhance consistent
monitoring of OVC service provision activities. This monitoring will be done (half yearly) through data review
and supportive supervision.

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Denition of the Dimensions of Quality

There are 10 dimensions of quality, which should guide service provision. Although each dimension of quality
is relevant in all eight of the service areas, certain dimensions should be priorised to show how they have
been designed in the Quality Service Standards. Here are the denions of the 10 dimensions of quality:


Degree to which risks related to care are minimised; do no harm.


Extent to which a service can be reached and utilised. There are no geographic,
economic, social, cultural, organisational or linguistic barriers to obtaining service.


Degree to which desired results or outcomes are achieved.


Degree to which tasks are carried out in accordance with programme standards and
current professional practice.


Extent to which resources needed to achieve the desired outcomes is minimised, while
the reach and impact of programmes are maximised.


Delivery of ongoing and consistent care by the same person, including timely referrals
and effective communication among providers.


Establishment of trust, respect, condentiality and responsiveness achieved through

ethical practice, effective communication and appropriate socio-emotional interactions.


Adaptation of services and overall care to needs or circumstances based on gender,

age, disability, community context, culture or socio-economic factors.


Participation of caregivers, communities and children in the design and delivery of

services and in decision-making regarding their care.


Degree to which the service is designed so that it can be maintained at the community
level, in terms of direction and management, as well as procuring resources, in the
foreseeable future.

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Quality Service Standards

2.1 Food and Nutrition

Denition of Service
The provision of regular and adequate food to OVC and their households, the food should be of good
quality and correct quantity to ensure desired growth and development. The food provided should be easy
to access, sustainable and appropriate for the age of recipients, the local diet and any special needs.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

OVC and members of their households are

food secure and enjoy good and regular
nutrition, adequate for normal growth and

a) Percentage of OVC households with sufcient food all

year round.
b) Percentage of OVC at the right weight and height for
their age.

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Dimensions of Quality for Food and Nutrition

Food must be safe for human consumption, available to all OVC to avoid social conict and distributed
in a manner that does not put OVC or their households at risk.
Food production, storage, transportation and preparation methods must be safe and relevant.

Food supplies need to be cost-effective in order for OVC, households and programmes to be able to
buy, use and distribute them.
Households need to be able to obtain food and utilise it to benet OVC with minimum effort
Quality food needs to be available in appropriate quantities.

Food should be accepted by households and should meet the required/approved micronutrients
standards by GOK.
Food provided should be appropriate to the age, culture and special needs of all OVC.

Community involvement is crucial at all levels of food and nutrition activities to enable collaboration,
ownership and enhance sustainability.

OVC and their households need to have access to opportunities for continued food production to
ensure healthy living for OVC, hence the involvement of communities and stakeholders at all levels.

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Essential Action 1: Conduct ongoing assessments of the communitys food and nutrition needs


1.a.) Organise forums to discuss and gauge the communitys

food and nutrition needs.
1.b.) Conduct ongoing household needs assessments on
food and nutrition from a representative sampling
of households across the community and compare
assessments, in order to determine progress.
1.c.) Mobilise and sensitise the community on the importance
of proper food and nutrition.
1.d.) Establish feedback mechanisms within the community to
regularly monitor the communitys needs.

Guideline Indicators

Notes and observations from the

community forums.
Number of households and children
Periodic assessment reports.
Meetings with community resource

Essential Action 2: Map and link stakeholders and resources available for food and nutrition support


Guideline Indicators

A current inventory of stakeholders

2.a.) Conduct community mapping of stakeholders and
and resources in the community.
resources available for food and nutrition support.
2.b.) Create food and nutrition networks among stakeholders Number of functional networks
to allow for collaboration and the creation of quality

and quality of nutrition
food and nutrition programming.
programmes created.

Essential Action 3: Institute effective referral and linkage services with organisations involved in food
and nutrition support services

3.a.) Utilise existing networks and linkages to provide
OVC with appropriate referrals for food and nutrition
3.b.) Establish new and strengthen existing relationships with
organisations involved in food and nutrition support
services to provide greater access and timely delivery of
support to OVC and their households.
3.c.) Create mechanisms to identify and quickly administer
food and nutrition support to malnourished OVC.
3.d.) Monitor and follow up on all referrals to ensure OVC
and their households are receiving adequate food and
nutrition support.

Guideline Indicators
Number of effective referrals
Number of new relationships
established to assist with OVC food
and nutrition support.
Number of malnourished OVC
identied and provided for in a
timely manner.

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Essential Action 4: Promote knowledge on nutrition to OVC, their households and the community

4.a.) Create community awareness on nutrition through the
use of media, public meetings, information sessions, etc.
4.b.) Educate caregivers, OVC and their families on nutrition.
4.c.) Establish mechanisms to promote good nutritional
practices among OVC and their families, including
proper preparation and utilisation of food.
4.d.) Link OVC and their households with nutritional
programmes, including relevant Government ministries.

Guideline Indicators
Number of community members,
caregivers, OVC and households
trained on nutrition.
Household assessments to
determine if the nutritional
information is understood and is
being implemented.

Essential Action 5: Increase access to nutritious food by OVC and their households


5.a.) Build OVC and household capacity on proper food

production, storage and preservation.
5.b.) Link OVC and their households to livelihood
5.c.) Encourage OVC and their households to diversify food
5.d.) Create access points to safe and clean water for OVC
and their households.

Guideline Indicators

Number of households that are food

Number of households with daily
nutritious meals.
Number of households with access
to clean water.

Essential Action 6: Provide targeted food and nutrition interventions for OVC and their households


6.a.) Provide food support for OVC households without

access to adequate food supplies.
6.b.) Enable OVC households to access micronutrient
6.c.) Create linkages and effective referral systems for OVC
requiring specialised or emergency food and nutrition

Guideline Indicators

Number of OVC and their

households provided with direct
food support.
Number of households receiving
micronutrient supplementation.
Number of specialised or
emergency support referrals
effectively administered.

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Essential Action 7: Advocate to stakeholders to ensure that OVC receive regular and adequate food
and nutrition


7.a.) Mobilise and sensitise all stakeholders on the need

for OVC to be food secure and provided with quality,
nutritious food.
7.b.) Lobby stakeholders to provide regular and adequate
food and nutrition services.
7.c.) Lobby the Government and service providers to
institute mechanisms that can ensure regular and
sustainable access to food and nutrition.
7.d.) Facilitate the collection of data on existing gaps and
weaknesses in food and nutrition services and propose

Guideline Indicators

Number of advocacy sessions

conducted with relevant
Number of stakeholders responding
to OVC food and nutrition needs.
Assessment reports on service gaps
and weaknesses.

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2.2 Education
Denition of Service
The provision of a structured, age-appropriate and relevant teaching and learning process, provided by
registered educational and/or training institutions. Teaching and learning is delivered through both formal
and non-formal approaches, based on government-approved curricula and encompasses early childhood
development (kindergarten, pre-school and pre-primary), primary, secondary and tertiary levels.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

OVC is enrolled, retained and progresses

through education and/or training as a result
of receiving appropriate and quality education,
enabling him/her to become a responsible and
contributing member of society.

a) Percentage of OVC enrolled in school and or learning

institution and training.
b) Percentage of OVC who attend school/training
c) Percentage of OVC who complete their education
and/or training.

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Dimensions of Quality for Education

Barriers that hinder OVC from accessing quality and appropriate education and training must be
reduced. These barriers include long distances between homes and schools, added responsibilities at
the household level and inadequate resources for households supporting OVC, etc.

Exposure of OVC to a variety of risks that increase their vulnerability must be eliminated, including
distance from services, crime, inappropriate infrastructure, child abuse, truancy, stigma, discrimination,

Programmes targeting OVC should ensure retention, progress and completion of education and/or
Programmes providing vocational training to adolescent OVC should create effective linkages for
internships and/or employment/entrepreneurial opportunities.

OVC should be involved in decisions that affect their education and training.
Programmes should recognise the role that parents/caregivers can play and seek to involve them in
the design and implementation of education/training interventions.

The community and OVC should be consulted on the role they can play and be involved in all
activities, to enable the continuation and maintenance of interventions beyond the life of a programme.

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Essential Action 1: Create a support base by identifying, keeping track of and linking community
resources available to support education and training for OVC


Guideline Indicators

1.a.) Work with community members to dene geographic

boundaries that will guide the community resource
mapping exercise.
1.b.) Conduct community resource mapping exercise to
identify the existing educational and training resources.
1.c.) Conduct networking sessions to introduce and link
existing educational and training resources.
1.d.) Collaborate with existing educational and training
resources to create opportunities for OVC.

Completed inventory of existing

educational and training resources in
the community.
Number of networking sessions held.
Number of new opportunities for
OVC education and training created.

Essential Action 2: Sensitise and mobilise the community, especially key stakeholders, to support ageappropriate education and training for OVC


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Encourage education and training institutions to enhance Number of education or training
institutions with OVC support
their support for continuity of education for OVC.
2.b.) Hold meetings with community members to create
Number of community/stakeholders
awareness of the educational needs and rights of OVC,
meetings held.
as well as the barriers OVC face in accessing education

of stakeholders supporting
and discuss the role stakeholders can play to support
OVC education programmes.
OVC access to education and/or vocational training
2.c.) Collaborate with relevant Government ministries to
support educational and training opportunities for OVC.
2.d.) Discuss the importance of education with OVC and the
members of their household, especially caregivers, and
emphasise the importance of educating both boys and
girls equally.

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Essential Action 3: Ensure that non-discriminatory, comprehensive education and training is delivered to
OVC, which is appropriate according to age, gender and context

3.a.) Involve OVC, caregivers and other stakeholders in
conducting a market assessment to inform vocational
training opportunities and needs relevant for OVC and
use that assessment to guide OVC in their education,
training and career choices.
3.b.) Work with the community and relevant stakeholders,
including OVC, in dening appropriate and stigma-free
education and training responses.
3.c.) Develop written agreements with participating schools
and institutions creating clear roles and responsibilities
in providing education and training support to OVC.
3.d.) Visit schools to monitor progress of OVC in the
3.e.) Establish mechanisms for referrals and linkages with
appropriate stakeholders, including community and
public private partnerships, to ensure appropriate,
comprehensive and continued educational and
vocational support to OVC.

Guideline Indicators
A career guidance document for
OVC developed.
Number of schools that have signed
agreements with OVC support
programmes in favour of OVC
Number of school visits conducted.
Number of referrals and linkages

Essential Action 4: Develop and implement appropriate mechanisms that address educational barriers
and enable OVC to enrol, continuously attend and complete school and/or training


4.a.) Hold community forums and work with stakeholders to

identify OVC who do not attend school, the reasons for
non-attendance and to collect data on household and
other barriers to education for OVC.
4.b.) Design guidelines to address and overcome barriers to
education at the household level; share these guidelines
with other stakeholders.
4.c.) Create community and household awareness of the
barriers to education that OVC face and the solutions
for how to overcome those barriers.
4.d.) Develop interactive relationships with OVC and
caregivers to promote continuous learning for OVC.
4.e.) Conduct site visits to schools to monitor OVC
attending and to address any problems or barriers at the
school or training centre.
4.f.) Collaborate with CORPS to create links between the
community, schools and programmes in support of OVC
education and training.

Guideline Indicators

Number of community forums held

to address barriers to education.
Number of OVC identied,
reintegrated and retained in school.
Guidelines on identication of and
addressing barriers to education
developed and shared.
Number of school visits to monitor
Number of active CORPS supporting
and strengthening linkages
between schools, communities and

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Essential Action 5: Engage in policy advocacy to ensure regular and consistent reforms in the education
sector which support the needs and aspirations of OVC


Guideline Indicators

5.a.) Develop partnerships at all levels of schools, the

Number of partnerships developed
community and government to provide continuous
in support of OVC education, needs
and aspirations.
advocacy in the education sector.
5.b.) Liaise with school administration, education ofcials
Number of responses to advocacy
and other OVC stakeholders to generate evidence for
that inuence action for OVC
advocacy in support of effective policies addressing OVC
education and training.
5.c.) Engage policy makers and develop policy briefs to
outline the current state of OVC education and training
and to suggest solutions to current challenges.

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3/2/12 10:03:41 AM

2.3 Health

Denition of Service
The facilitation of OVC and household access to preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health
care services in order for OVC and the members of their households to maintain physically, mentally and
socially healthy lives.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

OVC and their households have reliable

access to preventive, promotive, curative and
rehabilitative health services when needed
and all members of the household are able to
maintain a healthy lifestyle.

a) Percentage of healthy OVC, meaning OVC showing no

signs or symptoms of physical or emotional illness.
b) Percentage of OVC and members of their household
with access to comprehensive affordable health care

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Dimensions of Quality for Health

Health safety guidelines and protocols should be available and adhered to at points of service delivery.

Barriers that hinder OVC to access health services should be addressed and eliminated.

Health services should reect awareness of the unique health care needs of OVC and their
households, and consequently meet them.

Technical Performance
There should be continuous training of service providers to ensure high quality health services are
provided to OVC at all levels of service provision.

Health services should be delivered to OVC within an appropriate time period and with minimum
cost to realise maximum impact.

Services provided to OVC and their households must be followed up, referred and/or linked
appropriately to make sure all needed services are available and accessible.
Capacity of existing local health facilities including the Government, should be strengthened and work
collaboratively to ensure continuity of services.

Compassionate Relationship
Services should be provided in a way that does not elicit stigma and discrimination, such as de-worming
all pupils, not targeting only OVC.
Condentiality of records and personal information, such as HIV status, disability and impairment status
must be maintained and, when necessary, information disclosure should be handled appropriately.

Programmes are designed so that culture, age and gender dimensions and disability status or chronic
illness of OVC and their households are taken into consideration.

OVC, CORPS and the general community need to be actively involved in training, implementation and
monitoring of health standards in the community and at the OVC household level.

Service is maintained at the community level in terms of direction and management, as well as
procuring resources in the foreseeable future.

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Essential Action 1: Assess the health needs, services and costs for OVC and their households

1.a.) Develop an assessment tool and, using that tool, conduct
an assessment of the health needs of OVC and their
1.b.) Carry out OVC identication by age, gender and the
level of vulnerability.
1.c.) Refer to NPA when identifying OVC health needs per
age group.
1.d.) Map and keep track of the health services, service
providers and costs in the area, both at facility and
community levels.
1.e.) Identify the common health problems in the community.
1.f.) Support and work with Community Health Strategy
units in addressing the health needs of OVC and their

Guideline Indicators
Number of OVC and households
Complete and commonly available
assessment report.
Number of OVC identied.
Inventory of health service providers
developed and shared.

Essential Action 2: Prevent childhood illnesses in OVC, as per KEPH age groups

2.a.) Educate and sensitise parents, caregivers, community
health workers and older children on childhood illnesses,
preventive methods, basic treatment and referral (for
example, immunisations, diarrhoeal diseases, etc.)
2.b.) Strengthen the capacity of community health workers,
locational OVC committees and caregivers to deliver
disease prevention activities focusing on OVC
2.c.) Train service providers and primary caregivers on basic
health care for children.
2.d.) Collaborate with the Ministry of Health and other
partners in the acquisition of essential health prevention
commodities such as ITN,Vitamin A, water treatment
and oral rehydration therapy and establish communitybased distribution mechanisms by linking them to the
Ministry of Healths KEPH strategy.
2.e.) Conduct community education activities on the signs
and prevention of childhood illnesses, such as malaria
and diarrhoea.
2.f.) Collaborate with the Ministries of Health and other
partners to improve access to preventive promotive
health care services for OVC and their households.

Guideline Indicators
Number of clinic and home visits
conducted to educate on childhood
Percentage of essential health
prevention commodities acquired
compared with the percentage
distributed in the community.
Number of community education
activities held.
Number of OVC accessing ageappropriate preventive health

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Essential Action 3: Enhance access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for OVC

3.a.) Collaborate with other HIV prevention programmes
to create age-appropriate messages, programming and
activities and ensure the information and activities are
delivered to OVC and their households.
3.b.) Train service providers on HIV prevention, including
behaviour change communication, life skills and
adolescent sexual reproductive health.
3.c.) Facilitate and support the formation of age-specic peer
education clubs, either through educational institutions
or within the community.
3.d.) Promote HIV counselling and testing for OVC, in
partnership with the Ministry of Health and other
service providers.
3.e.) Provide treatment literacy and ART adherence support
interventions to community health workers, caregivers
and HIV+ OVC.
3.f.) Identify HIV+ OVC and OVC at risk of HIV and link
them to appropriate care and treatment services; follow
up to ensure OVC are receiving necessary care and
3.g.) Support the formation of HIV support groups for
affected OVC and their caregivers.

Guideline Indicators
Number of HIV prevention activities
delivered to OVC households.
Number of service providers trained
on HIV prevention, behaviour
change communication, life skills
and adolescent sexual reproductive
Number of active peer education
clubs formed.
Number of OVC whose HIV status is
Number of HIV+ OVC receiving care
and treatment support.
Number of active HIV support
groups formed.

Essential Action 4: Ensure access to appropriate curative services for OVC and their households


4.a.) Train and sensitise community health workers

and caregivers to know how to identify signs of
childhood mental and physical illnesses and to respond
appropriately to those signs.
4.b.) Establish linkages with health facilities and other service
providers to ensure OVC and members of their
households receive timely curative services; always
provide follow up to make certain all necessary services
were provided.
4.c.) Refer sexually abused children to the Ministry of Health
or other appropriate service providers for clinical and
psychosocial management; and follow up to ensure
service is provided.
4.d.) Advocate for waivers for OVC treatment from Ministry
of Health and other service providers.
4.e.) Identify existing health nancing mechanisms and link
OVC households to benet from them, for example
community health funds and insurance schemes.
4.f.) Adhere to the Ministry of Health guidelines in the
treatment and management of childhood illnesses.

Guideline Indicators
Number of community health worker
and caregiver training sessions held.
Number of linkages established with
health facilities.
Number of OVC and/or members
of their households accessing
appropriate curative services.
Number of sexually abused children
who have been referred and received
appropriate support.
Number of waivers obtained.

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Essential Action 5: Promote safe water, hygiene and sanitation practices in the community and in OVC


Guideline Indicators

Number of household assessments

5.a.) Conduct household assessments to determine the
and a complete report of the
current access to safe water and sanitation practices.
5.b.) Educate and mobilise communities on the use of safe
Number of community education
practices, including hand washing with soap, use of
activities held on the use of safe
latrines, water treatment (boiling), proper storage of
water and proper waste disposal.

of OVC regularly using safe
5.c.) Engage communities in identication and protection of
water sources.
5.d.) Discuss and demonstrate proper sanitation practices
with OVC and encourage them to support others to
use safe practices.
5.e.) Discuss with girl OVC and their caregivers about proper
female hygiene during menstruation and ensure access
to necessary female products.

Essential Action 6: Advocate service providers and the Government to enhance access to quality health
services for OVC


Guideline Indicators

6.a.) Advocate and lobby the Government to implement the

national policies regarding health for OVC.
6.b.) Identify emerging health needs of OVC and lobby for
their inclusion in the existing Government policies.
6.c.) Lobby the Government to avail more personnel,
essential drugs and infrastructure within health facilities
for the care of OVC, depending on needs (this could
include training middle level medical cadre).

Number of lobbying and advocacy

forums on OVC health care needs.
Percentage of emerging health needs
of OVC that are included in the
Government policies.

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2.4 Psychosocial Support (PSS)

Denition of Service
The provision of emotional, social, spiritual, mental and physical support to OVC and their households,
provided in an enabling and supportive manner, which promotes the holistic growth and development of
each individual.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

OVC is emotionally well-adjusted (happy, self

condent, expressive, hopeful for the future,
interactive and participatory), relates well
with peers and adults and is aware of available
support systems and structures for OVC at the
household and community levels.

a) Percentage of emotionally healthy OVC who

communicate and relate well with adults and peers.
b) Percentage of OVC who are actively involved in their
households, schools and communities.

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Dimensions of Quality for Psychosocial Support

All staff and volunteers working with OVC and their households ensure condentiality, privacy, respect
and safety, as well as avoid stigma and discrimination.
All staff and volunteers condemn and report all instances of physical, emotional and sexual abuse, if

PSS should be integrated with other OVC services in a sustained, timely and need-responsive manner.

Interventions targeting OVC and their households are ongoing and consistently available and
appropriate referrals are made.

Compassionate Relationship
PSS services must be anchored on empathetic and committed relationships that allow for children to
feel safe and appreciated, with a sense of belonging that allows them to interact freely.

PSS interventions are delivered in a customised manner that reects the unique and individual needs
of each OVC.

To implement PSS programmes, it is important to involve OVC and their households in determining
the suitable response for a specic situation.

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Essential Action 1: Conduct community mobilisation and sensitisation activities to create awareness of
the PSS needs of OVC and their households


Guideline Indicators

1.a.) Utilise appropriate available community forums, including Number of available community
national and international days and events, to inform the
forums utilised.
Number of communication systems
community on PSS, particularly for the care of OVC.
providing PSS information.
1.b.) Utilise appropriate existing communication systems to
provide guidance to community members, particularly
Number of community PSS
awareness and education events.
community health workers, service providers and
caregivers, on the provision of PSS to OVC.
1.c.) Conduct participatory PSS awareness and education
sessions for the community, particularly focusing on
schools, clinics and other places OVC typically visit.
1.d.) Promote safe and interactive platforms for OVC to
express their needs and ideas for appropriate responses.

Essential Action 2: Build the capacity of OVC to recognise, understand and meet their PSS needs, as
well as to obtain necessary PSS services


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Discuss PSS needs and concerns with OVC and

document their responses in order to nd relevant
support services.
2.b.) Empower OVC to recognise their PSS needs and not be
ashamed to ask for support, as well as to encourage and
support other OVC.
2.c.) Distribute information and ensure OVC know where
and how to access PSS services.
2.d.) Facilitate the formation of peer PSS groups through
schools or in the community.
2.e.) Provide PSS to OVC and, when necessary, make referrals
and provide follow up on all PSS services.

Number of documented discussions

with OVC on their PSS needs.
Percentage of OVC who know how
and where to access PSS services.
Number of active peer PSS groups
Number of effective referrals made.
Percentage of OVC who are
receiving necessary PSS services.

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Essential Action 3: Strengthen community and household capacities to provide PSS to OVC and their


Guideline Indicators

3.a.) Conduct PSS needs assessment among community PSS

providers to identify gaps and determine training needs.
3.b.) Facilitate needed trainings for PSS providers.
3.c.) Create an inventory of current PSS materials which
could be useful in working with OVC.
3.d.) Build the capacity of PSS providers by making PSS
materials available and applicable in the local context.
3.e.) Provide ongoing support and mentorship for caregivers
and home visitors engaged in PSS provision.
3.f.) Collaborate with other service providers and PSS
experts to develop a standardized national PSS
3.g.) Collaborate with the Department of Childrens Services
and other partners to identify relevant stakeholders in
PSS to aid the development of the PSS Protocol.

Number of trainings held for PSS

Completed inventory of PSS
materials made available to PSS
Standardised national PSS curriculum
PSS Protocol developed.

Essential Action 4: Establish and strengthen effective PSS referral systems and linkages among service
providers to enhance the level of care provided to OVC and their households


Guideline Indicators

4.a.) Conduct a mapping exercise of existing PSS providers

Inventory of PSS providers developed
and resources and share the completed inventory with
and shared.
all relevant stakeholders.
Effective PSS referral mechanisms
4.b.) Collaborate with other service providers to establish
and procedures created and shared.
effective and well-coordinated PSS referral mechanisms
Percentage of referrals effectively
and procedures, including follow up and reporting
4.c.) Mainstream PSS into appropriate OVC interventions and

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Essential Action 5: Advocate for the provision of quality PSS services to OVC at all levels


Guideline Indicators

5.a.) Lobby OVC caregivers and service providers to ensure

quality PSS services to OVC.
5.b.) Collect data on gaps and weaknesses in the existing PSS
systems to educate advocacy efforts on the necessary
mechanisms to strengthen PSS services.
5.c.) Lobby the Government on the importance and
consequent need to provide nancial and logistical
assistance for PSS services to OVC and their

Number of households reached with

information to enhance PSS to OVC.
Qualitative and/or quantitative data
collected to support PSS service
Increase and/or consistent nancial
and logistical support from the
Government to the PSS needs of

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2.5 Shelter and Care

Denition of Service
Ensuring OVC reside in a structure which is safe, secure, adequate and habitable, while receiving love,
support and protection from at least one responsible adult caregiver.

Desired Outcome
OVC lives in a safe, clean shelter and in a
healthy family environment or an alternative
care situation that provides adult care and
supervision, which ensures the childs wellbeing and provision of basic necessities.

Outcome Indicators

a) Percentage of OVC living in a healthy family or

alternative care environment.
b) Percentage of OVC who reside in a secure, clean
c) Percentage of OVC who have adequate and clean
clothing and bedding.

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Dimensions of Quality for Shelter and Care

Shelter is secure, clean, hygienic, well-ventilated and warm, as well as able to protect household
members from all types of weather and disasters, natural or manmade.
Shelter has adequate space for OVC, including a specic sleeping area and separate kitchen.
There is the presence of a responsible adult caregiver who undertakes the responsibility and care of
OVC in a household or in an alternative family care environment.

Technical Performance
When a structure is being constructed, indigenous knowledge should be utilised.
Technical knowledge is vital in all undertakings.
Location of the building is safe from natural disasters, has good sanitation and easy access to safe
water points.


Clothing and beddings are replaced for OVC as need arises.

Shelter is maintained properly.
When a structure is being constructed, local skills, knowledge and labour should be used.
Linkages and referrals are made for consumables in need of constant repair and replacement.

The shelter must meet acceptable community standards and take into consideration the variation in
OVC age, gender and other special needs.

The adult, OVC, and community must be actively involved in the decision-making on the
appropriateness of the structure, the materials used and their roles (who will do what).

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Essential Action 1: Conduct household needs assessments to determine and support appropriate
community shelter and care initiatives for OVC households


Guideline Indicators

1.a.) Conduct household needs assessment and community

Number of household and
community assessments conducted.
assessments using tools such as CSI or RAAAP to
identify households in need, needed services and current Number of households in need of
shelter renovation.
weakness or gaps in shelter and care services.
1.b.) Identify knowledge, skills and attitude gaps towards
Periodic reports monitoring progress
shelter and care provision for OVC households.
on identied households in need.
1.c.) Collaborate with other service providers to nd and
implement solutions to issues identied in the needs
assessment and to determine the appropriate course of
action for households in need of shelter renovations.
1.d.) Monitor and follow up to ensure action is being taken to
address needs identied in the assessment.

Essential Action 2: Map and link stakeholders and resources available to support OVC shelter and care


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Identify and keep track of available services, community

Completed inventory of services,
resources, knowledge and individual skills which could
resources and knowledge available to
be utilised for the provision of OVC shelter and care.
support OVC shelter and care.
2.b.) Establish networks and linkages with identied
Number of effective linkages and
structures, resources and services, including national
networks established and assisting
social protection systems.
OVC households.
2.c.) Hold consultative meetings with identied stakeholders Number of consultative meetings
and resources to determine mechanisms and procedures
for providing OVC shelter and care.

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Essential Action 3: Mobilise and sensitise the community and households on the importance of OVC
receiving regular and loving care from adults


Guideline Indicators

3.a.) Hold community sensitisation meetings to create

awareness on the care needs of OVC and to reduce
stigmatisation of OVC.
3.b.) Hold consultative and awareness forums with
community stakeholders and OVC.
3.c.) Regularly discuss with members of OVC households,
especially caregivers, the importance of consistently
providing loving support, appropriate ways to show
love, challenges caregivers are experiencing with OVC,
appropriate ways to discipline and reward, etc.
3.d.) Encourage community leaders, health workers and
teachers to reinforce the message and help support
OVC receiving regular loving support from adults.
3.e.) Regularly monitor OVC family/living environment to
ensure they are being properly cared for.
3.f.) Expand and promote both formal and informal foster
care services to provide substitute family care to more
3.g.) Facilitate after-care services that can enable OVC to be
integrated gradually into the community.

Number of community sensitisation

forums held to discuss care for
Number of consultative forums
held with stakeholders and OVC on
shelter and care.
Number of households providing
shelter and care to an OVC.
Percentage of OVC living in a caring
Periodic reports monitoring the
family situation for OVC.
Increase in the number of OVC
in safe and caring foster care
Number of reintegration activities
held for OVC.

Essential Action 4: Facilitate community and stakeholders implementation of shelter initiatives to

support OVC households


Guideline Indicators

4.a.) Provide training on basic skills to construct and maintain Number of community members
trained in basic shelter construction
4.b.) Train and empower OVC and caregivers with knowledge
and maintenance.
and skills on the needs of OVC regarding shelter,
Number of OVC households
including a safe structure, proper beddings, clean toilet
linked with community social
facilities, etc.
support mechanisms for shelter
4.c.) Establish linkages with income-generating activities,
social support programmes (i.e. local councils of elders
Amount of funding and logistical
such as Njuri Ncheke, Luo Council of Elders and Kaya
support committed for renovation of
Elders), religious organisations and community groups to
OVC households.
help construct and maintain shelter for OVC.
4.d.) Mobilise identied stakeholders and resources to
commit funding and logistical support for the renovation
of OVC households in need.
4.e.) Consult the community and OVC to ensure that the
shelter provided is according to the local standards and
does not stigmatise OVC.

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2.6 Child Protection

Denition of Service
The provision of safe community and household environments, free from all forms of abuse, neglect,
discrimination and exploitation of OVC, as well as the provision of all needed legal and protection services.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

OVC lives in a safe community and household

environment, free from all forms of abuse and
has access to legal and protection services
when needed.

a) Percentage of OVC with access to protection services.

b) Percentage of OVC with access to legal services, when
c) Percentage of OVC in procession of civil registration

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Dimensions of Quality for Child Protection

Care and service provision must not expose OVC to risks of abuse, neglect, discrimination or
exploitation at any time.

OVC and members of their household who require protection services should be provided with
adequate information on their rights and where to seek and access services.
Access to protection services for OVC and members of their household should not be hampered by
distance, cost, cultural practices, fear of intimidation, slow response, etc.

Where cases of child rights violations are identied and reported, interventions should be fast and
cases followed up to conclusion.
There is a need to ensure the existence of functional support systems and prevention mechanisms
that are responsive to identied needs of OVC.

Compassionate Relationship
In handling cases related to child rights violations, the code of conduct must be strictly adhered to,
the childs privacy must be respected and condentiality of OVC and household information must be

OVC and caregivers should be involved in service provision, as well as in decisions that affect them.

Community resources and structures should always be considered in determining sustainable
protection interventions.

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3/2/12 10:05:24 AM

Essential Action 1: Assess OVC protection needs, as well as available resources and structures


Guideline Indicators

1.a.) Conduct a comprehensive baseline survey on the

protection needs of OVC and share the results.
1.b.) Identify formal and informal structures for OVC
protection within the community.

OVC protection needs identied.

Number of formal and informal
structures for OVC protection

Essential Action 2: Educate OVC and communities on child rights, responsibilities and child protection


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Develop and implement a relevant, appropriate and

comprehensive communications strategy on child
2.b.) Train children and all stakeholders on child rights issues.
2.c.) Facilitate processes of civil registration for OVC and
members of their households (birth, identication card
and death certicates).
2.d.) Promote succession planning (inheritance, will writing,
memory books, etc.).
2.e.) Work with caregivers and stakeholders to educate them
on their role in child protection.
2.f.) Hold forums to sensitise the community and OVC on
gender-based violence prevention and what action to
take if gender-based violence is observed or suspected.

Availability of a comprehensive
communication strategy on child
rights and child protection.
Number of children and stakeholders
trained on child rights.
Number of OVC in possession of
civil registration documents.
Number of OVC households with
succession plans.
Number of caregivers and other
stakeholders educated on their role
in child protection.
Number of gender-based violence
forums held.

Essential Action 3: Build the capacity of and strengthen household and local community structures to
enhance OVC protection and maximise utilisation of available resources


Guideline Indicators

3.a.) Train members of existing community structures (e.g.

Number of community structure
AAC, Child Protection teams,Volunteer Childrens
members trained on identifying,
Ofcers, Court User Committees and CBOs) in
reporting and investigating child
identifying, reporting and investigating child rights abuses.
rights abuses.
3.b.) Train caregivers on how to recognise signs of abuse and Number of training sessions held
what action to take if abuse is observed or suspected.
with caregivers on child protection.
3.c.) Educate caregivers on their role in holding protection
Number of OVC placed in
services accountable to children and what action to
alternative family care.
take if a service provider is not upholding the rights of a
3.d.) Facilitate and promote alternative family care for OVC
in need of care and protection.

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3/2/12 10:05:25 AM

Essential Action 4: Promote OVC participation to enable them to contribute to matters impacting their

4.a.) Educate children on child rights and involve them as
key players in improving and upholding child rights and
4.b.) Ensure children know how to report an abuse and nd
protection services when needed.
4.c.) Facilitate the establishment of mechanisms to support
childrens participation in protection, such as creating a
childrens advisory group.
4.d.) Disseminate National Guidelines on Child Participation
through forums and community events.

Guideline Indicators
Number of children educated on
child rights.
Number of children participating in
matters regarding their protection.
Number of child participation
mechanisms established.
Number of forums for dissemination
of national guidelines on child
participation held.

Essential Action 5: Strengthen partnerships and linkages to ensure case management, law enforcement
and appropriate referrals and monitoring systems


Guideline Indicators

5.a.) Map and keep track of existing child protection service

providers, available at the point of service delivery.
5.b.) Hold regular consultative meetings with stakeholders on
child protection.
5.c.) Strengthen the capacity of the AAC and NCCS, in line
with Child Protection system to take up their core
mandate of coordination and supervision of provision of
relevant services to OVC.
5.d.) Advocate local authorities and juvenile justice service
providers to enforce relevant legislation and policies, as
well as to provide necessary services.
5.e.) Facilitate the development of professional participatory
processes in determining care options for each OVC.
5.f.) Strengthen referrals and linkages with other support
organisations in the community to ensure child
5.g.) Institute legal protection mechanisms for OVC through
the provision of legal services.

Inventory of service providers

developed and shared.
Number of consultative meetings on
OVC protection held.
Number of coordination structures
Number of advocacy forums held for
local justice structures to enforce
relevant legislation, policies and
service provision.
Number of effective child protection
referrals and linkages made.
Percentage of OVC provided with
legal services, when needed.

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Essential Action 6: Establish and strengthen data collection and documentation mechanisms on child
protection that build into a national data bank


Guideline Indicators

6.a.) Establish protocol for data collection, ow and feedback

between the community and national data bank and
make this protocol available to all stakeholders.
6.b.) Strengthen the capacity of AAC and other relevant
stakeholders to establish data banks.
6.c.) Create mechanisms to promote sharing and use of data.

Data protocol developed and shared.

Functional data management
framework at district, provincial and
national levels.

Essential Action 7: Advocate for the protection of the OVC at all levels


Guideline Indicators

7.a.) Lobby all formal and informal protection mechanisms

for prompt response to OVC needs for protection at all
7.b.) Facilitate collection of data on the existing gaps and
the weaknesses of OVC protection mechanisms and
advocate for efforts to ll in the gaps and strengthen the
weak areas in OVC protection at all levels.

Number of advocacy forums on child

rights and OVC protection held.
Numbers of gaps and weaknesses
identied and effectively addressed.

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2.7 Household Economic Strengthening

Denition of Service
A process of assisting and building the capacity of vulnerable households to mobilise and manage resources,
enabling the household to meet the basic needs of OVC and other members of the household to ultimately
become self-sufcient.

Desired Outcome

Outcome Indicators

Increased and sustainable income and other

resources for OVC households which are used
to meet their basic needs and ensure the wellbeing of the OVC.

a) Proportion of OVC households with increased and

sustainable income.
b) Percentage of OVC households able to meet the basic
needs of all members of the household.

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Dimensions of Quality for Household Economic Strengthening

The income generated should not put households at risk and the level of support provided should
match the local standards.
OVC should be involved in income generating activities and exit strategies should be gradual, bearing
in mind the degree of stability of the household.

Technical Performance
The degree to which tasks to economically strengthen OVC households are carried out in accordance
with programme standards and existing professional practice to improve the well-being of OVC.

Time taken from income generation to achievement of assets should be minimal and resources
generated from assets should reach members of the households in a timely manner and improve their
livelihoods over an extended period of time.

Interventions should not be a one-off activity. There should be effective referrals for microcredit facilities, marketing, development etc. The information provided to the household should be
comprehensive and complete in relation to the activity that they are engaged in and support provided
on a day to day basis.

The activities should be suitable, as per targeted community in the context of their culture. Skills
should be relevant to the needs of the individual and groups.

Caregivers and OVC should have maximum participation and involvement in the design of household
economic strengthening interventions.

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Essential Action 1: Conduct baseline assessment of OVC households and ongoing economic activities
in order to measure progress

1.a.) Identify OVC households through an economic needs
assessment and community validation exercise.
1.b.) Conduct a baseline assessment of OVC households and
share results.
1.c.) Collaborate with other stakeholders to determine
appropriate action, based on the baseline needs
1.d.) Conduct on going economic needs assessment of OVC
households and compare the results against the baseline
assessment to determine a households progress.

Guideline Indicators

Periodic household needs

assessment reports.
A baseline survey report.

Essential Action 2: Identify and mobilise stakeholders and resources in the community available for
economic strengthening activities for OVC households


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Map and keep track of existing stakeholders and

resources available in the community for economic
strengthening activities for OVC households and share
inventory with all stakeholders.
2.b.) Conduct focus group discussions with identied
stakeholders, the community and OVC households on
economic strengthening and possible interventions.
2.c.) Mobilise stakeholders to commit nancial resources and
logistical support to economic strengthening activities
for OVC households.
2.d.) Develop community action plans to respond to the
economic needs of OVC households.

An inventory of stakeholders
and resources for economic
Number of meetings held with
stakeholders, the community and
Report on focus group discussion
Number of active and effective
community action plans developed.

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Essential Action 3: Initiate and facilitate successful economic strengthening interventions for OVC
households, informed by the community action plans


Guideline Indicators

3.a.) Involve the community and households in identifying,

planning, implementing and monitoring economic
strengthening activities.
3.b.) Link OVC households with existing economic
strengthening service providers.
3.c.) Build the capacity of OVC and their households
to develop practical skills for household economic
strengthening activities.
3.d.) Assess emerging capacity gaps at the household level.
3.e.) Build the capacity of community structures and
mechanisms to ensure appropriate implementation and
monitoring of economic strengthening activities.
3.f.) Build the capacity of OVC households to identify and
maximise avenues for income generation, investment
promotion and asset building.
3.g.) Monitor and evaluate economic strengthening activities
and provide appropriate guidance to OVC households.

Number of households involved in

the process of developing economic
strengthening activities.
Number of OVC households linked
to existing economic strengthening
service providers and/or activities.
Number of households graduating
from high vulnerability to medium
and low vulnerability.

Essential Action 4: Institute mechanisms to ensure sustainability of economic strengthening in OVC



Guideline Indicators

4.a.) Determine and implement opportunities for value

addition in established activities.
4.b.) Link with other existing community structures for
continuous monitoring, reporting and referrals for OVC
4.c.) Encourage and assist households to plan for and develop
strategies to become self-sufcient in their economic
strengthening activities.
4.d.) Educate households on the availability and structure of
existing savings and loans programmes.
4.e.) Encourage and assist households to create and adhere
to a monthly budget.

Number of OVC households linked

with existing community support
Number of households that are
self sufcient as a result of their
economic strengthening activities.
Percentage of households effectively
using savings and loans programmes.
Percentage of households effectively
utilising monthly budgets.

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Essential Action 5: Advocate that all service providers prioritise household economic strengthening in
OVC programmes


Guideline Indicators

5.a.) Facilitate the collection of data to generate evidence

and inform advocacy efforts for economic strengthening
responses at the household level.
5.b.) Institute mechanisms for lobbying and advocacy to
ensure programmes respond to household economic
strengthening capacity gaps.

Database to inform advocacy efforts.

Number of service providers
reached through advocacy for
household economic strengthening
activities for OVC households.

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2.8 Coordination of Care

Denition of Service

Creating a structured, systematic and monitored process that enhances service providers networking and
linkages for provision of quality and essential services to OVC.

Desired Outcome

Harmonised and coordinated approaches for

effective and sustainable service delivery for
improved well-being of OVC.

Outcome Indicators

a) Improved coordination and clustering of relevant core

services delivered to OVC and their households by
the Department of Childrens Services.
b) Effective communication, information sharing and
referral mechanisms established among service

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Dimensions of Quality for Coordination of Care

Service providers must always ensure that OVC and their households are not exposed to risks when
they are providing services access.
To enable communities, households and OVC to receive essential services in time and to ensure
linkages are made that eliminate duplication and enhance effective use of resources.

All OVC are effectively reached, with regard to numbers as well as essential and quality services,
through proper coordination of service providers.

Technical Performance
The programme standards and current professional practices are adhered to for realisation of
optimum results for OVC.

Resources available for OVC services are used to produce desired outcomes at a minimum cost to
ensure adequate coverage and delivery of quality services.

Organisations implementing OVC activities should have structured implementation and exit plans for
their beneciaries.

Compassionate Relationships
To ensure OVC and their households are treated, supported and communicated to in a dignied way.


Ensure the needs of each individual OVC in terms of age, gender, disability and other special needs are
met within the community context and cultural expectations.


Ensure that community, households and OVC are involved in all decisions that aim at improving
service delivery for OVC households.


Communities are actively involved in caring for their OVC during and after the life of the programme,
using locally available resources when designing continuum and coordination of care elements in OVC

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Essential Action 1: Establish and maintain a National Directory of Service Providers for the care of
OVC, informed by local level databases


Guideline Indicators

1.a.) Conduct local mapping of all OVC services and service

1.b.) Ensure that the local database is merged into the
national database of all OVC services and service
providers and shared with stakeholders.
1.c.) Maintain current service and service provider
information in both the local and national databases.

A comprehensive local database of

OVC services and service providers.
A comprehensive national database
of OVC services and service

Essential Action 2: Establish and develop an effective referral system for OVC services


Guideline Indicators

2.a.) Collaborate with other service providers to establish a

network of OVC service providers, with a clear method
of communication, regular meetings and for the distinct
purpose of coordinating and elevating OVC care and
service delivery.
2.b.) Develop tools to facilitate referrals, feedback and follow
up of services.
2.c.) Develop a system of checks and balances to ensure the
referral system is working effectively.

Effective network of OVC service

providers established.
Effective tools to facilitate referrals
Number of OVC referrals effectively

Essential Action 3: Establish and/or strengthen new coordination units for the integration and
harmonisation of OVC service provision at all levels to avoid duplication and encourage prudent utilisation
of resources


Guideline Indicators

3.a.) Establish and/or strengthen new structures to

Number of existing and effective
coordinate support for OVC at the community, district,
coordination structures trained on
provincial and national levels, e.g. CCC,VC, AAC, MVCC,
OVC support.
Number of VCO recruited.
3.b.) Create a common work plan from local to national level.
3.c.) Advocate for recruitment of more VCO.
3.d.) Strengthen the Department of Children Services
supportive supervision role to OVC implementers.

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Essential Action 4: Lobby and advocate the Government to establish mechanisms at the Department of
Children Services level for the coordination and improvement of service delivery to OVC


4.a.) Lobby the Government through the Department of

Children Services to institute mechanisms to coordinate
OVC services.
4.b.) Lobby various service providers to appreciate and
actively participate in the efforts to coordinate the
provision of OVC services at all levels in Kenya.

Guideline Indicators

Number of advocacy forums held

with government and service
Number of stakeholders actively
responding to advocacy efforts.

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APPENDIX A: Participating Organisations
Piloting Organisations
Nairobi Province

Nyanza Province
Eastern Province
North Eastern Province

Children of God Relief Institute - Lea Toto

Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development Kasarani Cash
Transfer programme for OVC
HOPE Worldwide Kenya
FHI 360 Speak for the Child Project (Okoka CBO)
Catholic Relief Services TCB Project (Catholic Diocese of Homabay)
Methodist Zoe Project Maua Methodist Hospital

Other Organisations
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Public Health and sanitation
Ministry of Medical services
USAID - Health Policy Initiative
URC - USAID Health Care Improvement Project
APHIA II Nyanza, Western, Coast, Nairobi, Rift Valley, Eastern, Central and North Eastern
AVSI - Associazone Voluntari per il Servizio Internazinale
CABDA - Community Asset Building and Development Action
Care Kenya
Child Fund Kenya
CRS Kenya
CWDs Children with Disability
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric Aids Foundation
ICF Macro
KAACR - Kenya Alliance for the Advancement of Children
KNA - Kenya News Agency
Maseno University
Municipal Council of Mombasa
Nairobi SB
National Council for Children Services
Olive Leaf Foundation
Plan International
RAPADO - Rural Aids Prevention and Development Organization
Ripples International
SOS Childrens Villages Kenya
St. Luciana
Transformed International
World Concern
World Vision International

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APPENDIX B: References
2009 Situational Analysis of Children,Young people and Women in Kenya. (November, 2010). Searching Kenyas future in the hands of
children and young people.
Carvelton, Maryland KNBS and ICF Macro, (2008-2009 June 2010). Kenya Demographic Health Survey.
Charitable Childrens Institution regulations, (2005). Nairobi, the Government printer.
Children Act. (2001). Kenya Gazette supplement No 95. Nairobi, the Government printer.
Department of Justice & Constitutional Development, (May 2010). Child Justice Act, (Act No 75 of 2008): National Policy Framework.
Nairobi, Government of Kenya.
Ministry of Education, (2009). SITAN Report. Republic of Kenya.
Keriga L. and Bujra A. (DPMF 2009). Development Policy and Mangement forume: An evaluation and prole of education in Kenya.
Laws of Kenya (1980). The Education Act (Cap 211). Revised Edition 2009. Nairobi, the Government printer.
Laws of Kenya, The Local Government Act (Cap 265). Nairobi, the Government printer.
Ministry of Education, (2005 - 2010 and July 2005). Kenya Education Sector Support Programme. Nairobi, Kenya.
Ministry of Education, (2008). Education Sector Report. Republic of Kenya.
Ministry of Health. (2006). Taking the Kenya Essential Package for Health to the Community: A strategy for the delivery of LEVEL ONE
NASCOP, Ministry of Health (2006). Kenya National Guidelines on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS.
National Aids Control Council Kenya (KAIS 2007). Kenya Aids Indicator Survey.
OAU (11 July 1990). African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Addis Ababa.
The National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Kenya, (2007-2010).
The World Banks Africa Region and the World Bank Institute, (2nd Edition, August 2005). The OVC Toolkit for SSA, A toolkit on how to
support Orphans and Other Vulnerable Childre (OVC) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
UNESCO, Education Sector (March 2005). Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya: Policy Review Report. Paris, UNESCO.
UN General Assembly. (10 December 1948). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Palais de Chaillot, Paris.
UN General Assembly. (1989). Universal Convention on the Rights of the Child (UCRC). Geneva.

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APPENDIX C: Members of the QI technical working group



Catherine Kimotho


Daniel Kinoti

Child Fund Kenya

Daniel Musembi

OVC Secretariat

Dorcas Amolo

URC USAID Health Care Improvement Project

Dorothy Anjuri

World Vision Kenya

Elizabeth Sifuma

OVC Secretariat

Esther Kirigo

OVC Secretariat

Flora Nyaga

OVC Secretariat

Grace Kenduiywa

Formerly of the OVC Secretariat

James Wabara

SOS Childrens Villages Kenya

Jeniffer Wasianga


Joseph Kajwang

Formerly of the OVC Secretariat

Kate Vorley


Lavender Busungu

OVC Secretariat

Lilian Karinga

OVC Secretariat

Malinda Wheeler

HOPE Worldwide Kenya

Mary Mbuga

OVC Secretariat

Michael Nanjira

OVC Secretariat

Peter Irungu

Inuka Kenya

Peterson Ndwiga

OVC Secretariat

Philip Kinyota


Roselyn Were

URC USAID Health Care Improvement Project

Samwel Ochieng

OVC Secretariat

Stanley Masamo

URC USAID Health Care Improvement Project

Steven Gichuki

CRS Kenya

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