You are on page 1of 5

Assessment of hybrid renewable energy system

considering a new feature called degradation of

system components
B. Tudu1, K. K. Mandal2, N. Chakraborty3
Power Engineering Dept.
Jadavpur University
Kolkata, India
AbstractThe effect of degradation of each component of
hybrid renewable energy system is addressed in this study. The
effect is directly on the system performance which in turn
affects the cost of energy of the system. Initially, the test
system comprised of hydro-wind-solar-fuel cell is considered
without degradation of the system components. In this
scenario, the system capacity and cost of energy & generation
cost are calculated. This techno-economic analysis is carried
out with the help of a optimization technique called particle
swarm optimization (PSO). But this analysis is not a true
reflection of the real system because the system component
performance will degrade gradually during the lifespan of the
system. Therefore, system is again tested considering this effect
and modified system capacity and cost are presented. It is seen
that the system performance degrades and also the cost is more
if degradation parameters are considered. This result may help
researchers and engineers to understand the system more
accurately and precisely.
Index TermsHybrid energy system, Unit sizing,
Degradation, PV system, Wind turbine, Particle swarm

Since the availability of the conventional resources for
energy production is limited and sparse, all nations are in
search of alternative resources. Green energy production
meets the desired load and reduces the carbon footprint
making civilization more environmental friendly. Research is
being carried out extensively all over the world to make a
better use of these available resources. Many nations
including India are investing lot of money on these energy
production technologies. Though the solar PV system or
wind energy system are installed in many places and running
successfully but due to their intermittent nature of power
production, they cant provide the power continuously
throughout the day or year. Therefore, researchers are
looking for more reliable hybrid renewable energy system
comprising different resources like wind, PV etc. and storage
to meet the local demand. Thus, the research on hybrid
renewable energy system needs special attention and system
modeling and design is to be carried out precisely for the
specific site & load of that site and its performance is to be
analyzed closely.

Different meta-heuristic optimization techniques were

applied to find out the solutions for complex, practical
engineering problems all over the world and optimization
problems of hybrid systems consisting of different energy
sources were tested with these techniques [1- 4]. The
different methods like Genetic algorithm (GA) [5-13],
Particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) [14-20],
Differential Evolution (DE), Simulated Annealing (SA),
Bees algorithm (BA) and Ant colony optimization (ACO)
techniques are popular methods for optimization of hybrid
systems [1, 3 and 4]. Apart from these algorithms, various
other techniques such as Linear programming [21, 22],
Evolutionary algorithms [23, 24], and Dynamic
programming [25] etc. have been explored by many
researchers to design, model and optimize of the hybrid
non-conventional energy systems.
Although, many literatures including above mentioned
works are available for the modeling and design of the
hybrid system across the world, nonetheless degradation of
the component is not taken into account while system
performance and feasibility of the hybrid systems are
The present work focuses on the sizing and technocommercial analysis of the hybrid test system consisting of
PV, wind, and fuel cell considering degradation of the
components with the help of PSO and comparative results
are presented highlighting the impact on the performance
especially on system capacity and energy cost of the system.
The test hybrid system is modelled with different
renewable resources. The resources are chosen for the
specific site because of their availability. The system is
designed for a remote site far away from grid line and the
extension of the existing grid line may incur high cost. The
system consists of wind, PV, micro hydro, and fuel cell. The
global data for the solar irradiance, wind speed and load data
for the specific site are obtained and hourly variations of
these data are shown in Fig. 1 [19]. The solar irradiance and
the variations of wind speed are considered to be fixed for
the lifetime of the project time of 25 years whereas load is
assumed to be increased by 10%.


Net present cost (NPC) of system acts as the objective
function here. The annualized system cost is the summation
of cost of each component. The component annualised cost
of hybrid systems may be expressed with the equations
shown below [26].
C ann,

= C acap, component + C arep, component +


+ C afc, component

C aom, component


Where, Cacap = annual capital cost of component.

C arep = annual replacement cost of component.
Fig.1. Hourly solar insolation, wind velocity and load

The hybrid solar-wind-fuel cell system in conjunction

with hydro is optimized for total load of site for a year.
Power balance equation is satisfied for each hour. Depending
on the hourly wind velocity, solar radiation and water flow,
the hourly generated power of solar modules, wind turbines,
and micro-hydro are computed based on their power output
equations. Initially, random values are generated for the
wind and solar panels. For any specific hour, if load is more
than the combined power output from the wind, solar and
micro-hydro plant, then deficit power is supplied with the
fuel cells. If there is excess power generated form the wind,
solar and hydro plants then electrolysers are operated to
utilize the excess power and produced hydrogen thereof is
stored in the hydrogen tank for future use during the
operation of fuel cell. The stored hydrogen is used during the
deficit hours of the day and this reduces the cost to buy extra
hydrogen from market and this regenerative process thus
gives the system more flexibility to operate and system
performance is increased. Hydro plant, wind turbine are
providing power to Alternating Current bus and electrolyzers
are taking power from it and this AC bus feeds the requisite
power to load and whole block diagram arrangement is given
in Fig. 2.

Solar PV

AC bus
Micro hydro

Wind turbine

AC load

Fuel cell


Hydrogen tank

Fig.2. Schematic diagram of test hybrid system

C aom = annual O & M cost of component.

C afc = annual fuel cost of component.
The aggregate annual cost of system is given by [26]

C ann,



C ann,

s = 1

c = 1


C ann,

e = 1

+ C ann,

C ann,

w = 1

C ann,

solar, s


t = 1

+ C ann,


tank, t

C ann,

f = 1




Where N s = solar module numbers, N w = wind turbine

numbers, N c = converter numbers, N t = hydrogen tank
numbers, N e = electrolyzer numbers and N f = fuel cell
The NPC is derived from annualized cost expressed
C ann, tot
CRF proj

energy cost of
ann, tot
total system load





And the generation cost of the system can be expressed as:

Cann, tot
GC =
total system generated power
The COE and GC are two parameters which give the
performance of the system under consideration and system
feasibility is checked with these parameters.
The most widely and well-established optimization
technique is particle swarm optimization (PSO) and many
works based on PSO have been reported by the researchers.
It is an efficient population based optimization procedure
for multi-objective, non-linear complex problem and was

originally developed by Kenedy and Eberhart [28]. The

algorithm mimics the swarms behaviour. Each possible
solution is represented by the position of the particle in
multi-dimensional search space. The position of each
particle is updated in each iteration depending on its own
experience and its neighbour particles experiences.
The i-th particles position and velocity (i.e. i-th particle)
in a d-dimensional space, are represented by the vectors Xi
= (Xi1, Xi2, , Xid) and Vi = (Vi1, Vi2, , Vid)
respectively whereas i-th particles previous best position is
expressed as pbesti = (pbesti1, pbesti2, pbestid). The best
particles index in group is represented by gbestd.
The modified position of each particle is determined by its
current velocity and the distance from pbestid to gbestd and
modified velocity is as shown [28, 29]

Vidk+1 = wkVidk + c1r1( pbestid Xidk ) + c2r2 (gbestid Xidk )


i =1, 2, ....Np , d=1, 2, ......, Ng

Where Np is the number of particles, Ng number of
dimensions in a particle, Vkid is the velocity of the i-th
particle in k-th iteration, w is weight parameter, c1 and c2
are constants, r1 and r2 are random numbers generated in the
range [0, 1] and Xkid is the position of the i-th particle in k-th
The updated velocity based on which the position of each
particle is changed and the modified position is expressed is
expressed as [28, 29]:

Xidk+1 = Xidk + Vidk+1


The considered values of different parameters are based

on the experiment with different values and values for
obtaining best result. Here, c1 & c2 both are taken as 1.49
and w in the range [0.5, 1.0] to obtain the best result for
present problem.
Degradation of the system components affects the system
performance largely. Therefore, it is very essential to
consider the effect of degradation to design the system more
accurately and for more real world presentation. There are
many research works reported on the techno-economic
feasibility analysis of the hybrid system but none of them
included the effect of power output degradation issue over
the lifetime of the components. But recently, integration of
degradation features into the technical and economic analysis
of the hybrid system is getting attention from the researchers
[30, 31]. Two different approaches may define the
degradation issue [31]. First approach takes the lifetime of
the component into account while considering the
performance of the component constant over that lifetime.
The second approach considers the degradation of
performance over the time whereas lifetime remains
constant. The first approach directly affects the cost of the

system whereas second approach affects the performance of

the component which in turn affects the cost of the system.
This feature is incorporated component wise and this
consideration will vary for each component and the real time
management of each component will be required for
successful implementation of the feature.
The PSO algorithm is applied while performing the
optimization of the system and for determination of the cost
and optimized sizing. MATLAB code is generated for this
purpose. The algorithm is started with the assigning random
values for wind and solar numbers for pre-defined
populations and combination of the wind, solar, fuel cell,
electrolyzer, tank and cost is represented by each swarms
and their position gives the possible solution of the
optimization problem. The merit of the solution is
determined by the cost function given in Eq. (3). The new
velocity and position are updated according to Eq. (6) and
(7) in each iteration and accordingly cost changes. The
optimal sizing obtained is presented in Table I. After
considering the effect, simulation results are presented I n
Table II.




Optimal Sizing
(No. of Units)

Wind Turbine
Solar Panel
Fuel Cell
Hydrogen Tank
Net Present Cost (NPC): Rs. 39105.07k
Cost of Generation (GC): Rs. 11.70/kWh
Energy Cost (COE): Rs. 15.96/kWh


4 kg.




Optimal Sizing
(No. of Units)

Wind Turbine
Solar Panel
Fuel Cell
Hydrogen Tank
Net Present Cost (NPC): Rs. 47744.41k
Cost of Generation (GC): Rs. 14.64 /kWh
Energy Cost (COE): Rs. 19.50 /kWh

4 kg.

The optimal cost of the hybrid system after considering

the degradation effect is presented in Fig. 3.

This present work is carried out with the financial
assistance from Departmental Research Scheme (DRS) &
UPE-II of University Grants Commission (UGC), GoI.

Fig.3. Comparative cost parameters considering degradation

From above table, the optimal capacity for considered

system consists of 90 kW of Wind, 0.15 kW of solar PV, 15
kW of Converter, 15 kW of fuel cell, 9 kW of Electrolyzer
and 4 kg of hydrogen tank. The optimal cost of energy and
generation cost are Rs. 15.94 and Rs. 11.7 respectively.
Whereas in case II where degradation feature is incorporated,
the system optimal sizing as well as cost changes and for the
same system power output is less and cost is more. Case-II
chooses the hybrid system of 100 kW of wind and 8.4 kW of
solar instead of 0.15 kW and accordingly costs change.
PSO is widely used algorithm for obtaining optimized
results. Here also we have applied the PSO techniques
considering the algorithm a benchmark in solving these types
of problems. Fig. 4 shows the net present cost vs. number of
iteration graph. It shows that PSO is efficient to provide the
global solution for the optimization problem.

x 10

NPC vs. No. of Itr.









No. of Itr.

Fig.4. NPC vs. iterations for particle swarm optimization.

The present paper highlights the optimized results for the
hybrid system considering the degradation effect of the
system components for a specific stand-alone site with the
help of PSO. The system is designed and optimized
depending on specific site and its characteristic. The
performance of the system is analyzed closely under the
two scenarios and it is observed that the system sizing
changes if we consider the degradation effect and cost of
the system is increased as well. This reflects the real
world system more closely and it will help researchers and
engineers to take right decision while implementing the
system in real world.

[1] O. Erdinc and M. Uzunoglu, Optimum design of hybrid

renewable energy systems: Overview of different
approaches, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
vol. 16, 2012, pp. 1412 1425.
[2] A. Mellit, S.A. Kalogirou, L. Hontoria and S. Shaari,
Artificial intelligence techniques for sizing photovoltaic
systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, vol. 13, 2009, pp. 406419.
[3] R. Banos, F. Manzano-Agugliar, F.G. Montoya, C. Gil, A.
Alcayde and J. Gmez, Optimization methods applied to
renewable and sustainable energy: A review, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, 2011, pp. 17531766.
[4] M. Fadaee and M.A.M. Radzi, Multi-objective optimization
of a stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system by using
evolutionary algorithms: A review, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, 2012, pp. 3364 3369.
[5] B. Ould Bilal, V. Sambou, P.A. Ndiaye, C.M.F. Kb, and M.
Ndongo, Optimal design of a hybrid solar-windbattery
system using the minimization of the annualized cost system
and the minimization of the loss of power supply probability
(LPSP), Renewable Energy, vol. 35, issue 10, 2010, pp.
[6] Eftichios Koutroulis, Dionissia Kolokotsa, Antonis Potirakis,
and Kostas Kalaitzakis, Methodology for optimal sizing of
stand-alone photovoltaic/wind-generator systems using
genetic algorithms, Solar Energy, vol. 80, 2006, pp. 1072
[7] E. Koutroulis and D. Kolokotsa, Design optimization of
desalination systems power-supplied by PV and W/G energy
sources, Desalination, vol. 258, 2010, pp. 171181.
[8] Yang Hongxing, Zhou Wei, and Lou Chengzhi, Optimal
design and techno-economic analysis of a hybrid solarwind
power generation system, Applied Energy, vol. 86, issue 2,
2009, pp. 163169.
[9] M. Kalantar, S.M. Mousavi G., Dynamic behavior of a
stand-alone hybrid power generation system of wind turbine,
microturbine, solar array and battery storage, Applied
Energy, vol. 87, issue 10, 2010, pp. 30513064.
[10] J. Lagorse, D. Paire, and A. Miraoui, Sizing optimization of
a stand-alone street lighting system powered by a hybrid
system using fuel cell, PV and battery, Renewable Energy,
vol. 34, issue 3, 2009, pp. 683691.
[11] R. Dufo-Lopez and J. L. Bernal-Agustn, Design and
control strategies of PV-Diesel systems using genetic
algorithms, Solar Energy, vol. 79, issue 1, 2005, pp. 3346.
[12] R. Dufo-Lopez and J. L. Bernal-Agustn, Influence of
mathematical models in design of PV-Diesel systems,
Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, 2008, pp. 820
[13] B. Tudu, S. Majumder, K. K. Mandal and N. Chakraborty,
Comparative Performance Study of Genetic Algorithm and
Particle Swarm Optimization Applied on Off-grid Renewable
Hybrid Energy System, In proc. International Conference on
Swarm Evolutionary and Memetic Computing (SEMCCO
2011), Part I, vol. 7076, LNCS, pp. 151158, Dec. 19-21,
2011,Vizag, India 2011.
[14] V. Snchez, J.M. Ramirez, and G. Arriaga, Optimal sizing of
a hybrid renewable system, In: IEEE international
conference on industrial technology (ICIT), 2010, pp. 94954.
[15] S. Dehghan, H. Saboori, A. Parizad, and B. Kiani, Optimal
sizing of a hydrogen-based wind/PV plant considering













reliability indices, In: International conference on electric

power and energy conversion systems (EPECS09), 2009, pp.
A. K. Kaviani, G.H. Riahy, and S.H.M. Kouhsari, Optimal
design of a reliable hydrogen-based stand-alone wind/PV
generating system, considering component outages,
Renewable Energy, vol. 34, issue 11, 2009, pp. 23802390.
S.M. Hakimi and S.M. Moghaddas-Tafreshi, Optimal sizing
of a stand-alone hybrid power system via particle swarm
optimization for Kahnouj area in south-east of Iran,
Renewable Energy, vol. 34, 2009, pp. 18551862.
L. Wang and C. Sing, Multicriteria design of hybrid power
generation systems based on a modified particle swarm
optimization algorithm, IEEE transaction on energy
conversion, vol. 24, No. 1, Mrach 2009. pp. 163-172.
B. Tudu, K. K. Mandal and N. Chakraborty, Optimal Design
and Performance Evaluation of a Grid Independent Hybrid
Micro hydro-solar-wind-fuel cell Energy System using Metaheuristic Techniques, In Proc. 1st International Conference
on Non-Conventional Energy ( ICONCE 2014 ) pp. 125-129,
Jan. 16-17, Kalyani, India 2014.
B. Tudu, P. Roy, S. Kumar, D. Pal, K. K. Mandal and N.
Chakraborty, Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis of
Hybrid Renewable Energy System using Improved Version of
Particle Swarm Optimization, In Proc. International
Conference on Swarm Evolutionary and Memetic Computing
(SEMCCO 2012), LNCS, Volume 7677, 2012, pp. 116-123
Dec. 20-22, Bhubaneswar, India, 2012.
A. B. K. Patil, R. P. Saini and M. P. Sharma, Integrated
renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of
remote area, Renewable Energy, vol. 35, issue 6, pp. 1342
9, 2010.
R. Chedid and S. Rahman, Unit sizing and control of hybrid
windsolar power systems, IEEE Transactions on Energy
Conversion, vol. 12, issue 1, pp. 7985, 1997.
X. Pelet, D. Favrat and G. Leyland, Multi-objective
optimization of integrated energy systems for remote
communities considering economics and CO2 emissions,
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 44, issue 12,
pp. 11809, 2005.
J.L.B. Agustin, R.D. Lopez and D.M.R. Ascaso, Design of
isolated hybrid systems minimizing costs and pollutant
emissions, Renewable Energy, vol. 31, issue 14, pp. 2227
44, 2006.
J. Margeta and Z. Glasnovic, Feasibility of the green energy
production by hybrid solar-hydro power system in Europe and
similar climate areas, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, vol. 14, issue 6, pp. 158090, 2010.
A. J. Razak, M. Z. Nopiah, K. Sopian and Y. Ali, Genetic
algorithms for optimization of hybrid renewable energy
system, in Proc. Regional Conference on Engineering
Mathematics, Mechanics, Manufacturing & Architecture
(EM3ARC), 2007.
A.Y. Katsigiannis, S. P. Georgilakis, and S. E. Karapidakis,
Genetic algorithm solution to optimal sizing problem of
small autonomous hybrid power systems, In: Proceedings on
Artificial Intelligence: Theories, Models and Applications,
6th Hellenic Conference on AI, SETN 2010, Athens, Greece,
May 4-7.
J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, Particle swarm optimization,
In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on
Neural Networks, IV, 1995, pp. 19421948.
K.K. Mandal and N. Chakraborty, Daily combined economic
emission scheduling of hydrothermal systems with cascaded
reservoirs using self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm
optimization technique, Expert Systems with Applications,
vol. 39, issue 3, 2012, pp.34383445.

[30] O. Erdinc and M. Uzunoglu, A new perspective in optimum

sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems: consideration of
component performance degradation issue, International
Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, issue 14, pp. 10479-88,
[31] B. Guinot, Y. Bultel, F. Montignac, D. Riu, E. Pinton and I.
Noirot-Le Borgne, Economic impact of performances
degradation on the competitiveness of energy storage
technologies-Part 1: Introduction to the simulation
optimization platform ODYSSEY and elements of validation
on a PV-hydrogen hybrid system, International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 15219-15232 , 2013.