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2 views5 pagesThe effect of degradation of each component of hybrid renewable energy system is addressed in this study. The effect is directly on the system performance which in turn affects the cost of energy of the system. Initially, the test system comprised of hydro-wind-solar-fuel cell is considered without degradation of the system components. In this scenario, the system capacity and cost of energy & generation cost are calculated. This techno-economic analysis is carried out with the help of a optimization technique called particle swarm optimization (PSO). But this analysis is not a true reflection of the real system because the system component performance will degrade gradually during the lifespan of the system. Therefore, system is again tested considering this effect and modified system capacity and cost are presented. It is seen that the system performance degrades and also the cost is more if degradation parameters are considered. This result may help researchers and engineers to understand the system more accurately and precisely.

May 04, 2015

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The effect of degradation of each component of hybrid renewable energy system is addressed in this study. The effect is directly on the system performance which in turn affects the cost of energy of the system. Initially, the test system comprised of hydro-wind-solar-fuel cell is considered without degradation of the system components. In this scenario, the system capacity and cost of energy & generation cost are calculated. This techno-economic analysis is carried out with the help of a optimization technique called particle swarm optimization (PSO). But this analysis is not a true reflection of the real system because the system component performance will degrade gradually during the lifespan of the system. Therefore, system is again tested considering this effect and modified system capacity and cost are presented. It is seen that the system performance degrades and also the cost is more if degradation parameters are considered. This result may help researchers and engineers to understand the system more accurately and precisely.

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The effect of degradation of each component of hybrid renewable energy system is addressed in this study. The effect is directly on the system performance which in turn affects the cost of energy of the system. Initially, the test system comprised of hydro-wind-solar-fuel cell is considered without degradation of the system components. In this scenario, the system capacity and cost of energy & generation cost are calculated. This techno-economic analysis is carried out with the help of a optimization technique called particle swarm optimization (PSO). But this analysis is not a true reflection of the real system because the system component performance will degrade gradually during the lifespan of the system. Therefore, system is again tested considering this effect and modified system capacity and cost are presented. It is seen that the system performance degrades and also the cost is more if degradation parameters are considered. This result may help researchers and engineers to understand the system more accurately and precisely.

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system components

B. Tudu1, K. K. Mandal2, N. Chakraborty3

Power Engineering Dept.

Jadavpur University

Kolkata, India

1

bhimsen_ju@yahoo.co.in; 2kkm567@yahoo.co.in; 3chakraborty_niladri2004@yahoo.com

AbstractThe effect of degradation of each component of

hybrid renewable energy system is addressed in this study. The

effect is directly on the system performance which in turn

affects the cost of energy of the system. Initially, the test

system comprised of hydro-wind-solar-fuel cell is considered

without degradation of the system components. In this

scenario, the system capacity and cost of energy & generation

cost are calculated. This techno-economic analysis is carried

out with the help of a optimization technique called particle

swarm optimization (PSO). But this analysis is not a true

reflection of the real system because the system component

performance will degrade gradually during the lifespan of the

system. Therefore, system is again tested considering this effect

and modified system capacity and cost are presented. It is seen

that the system performance degrades and also the cost is more

if degradation parameters are considered. This result may help

researchers and engineers to understand the system more

accurately and precisely.

Index TermsHybrid energy system, Unit sizing,

Degradation, PV system, Wind turbine, Particle swarm

optimization

I. INTRODUCTION

Since the availability of the conventional resources for

energy production is limited and sparse, all nations are in

search of alternative resources. Green energy production

meets the desired load and reduces the carbon footprint

making civilization more environmental friendly. Research is

being carried out extensively all over the world to make a

better use of these available resources. Many nations

including India are investing lot of money on these energy

production technologies. Though the solar PV system or

wind energy system are installed in many places and running

successfully but due to their intermittent nature of power

production, they cant provide the power continuously

throughout the day or year. Therefore, researchers are

looking for more reliable hybrid renewable energy system

comprising different resources like wind, PV etc. and storage

to meet the local demand. Thus, the research on hybrid

renewable energy system needs special attention and system

modeling and design is to be carried out precisely for the

specific site & load of that site and its performance is to be

analyzed closely.

applied to find out the solutions for complex, practical

engineering problems all over the world and optimization

problems of hybrid systems consisting of different energy

sources were tested with these techniques [1- 4]. The

different methods like Genetic algorithm (GA) [5-13],

Particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) [14-20],

Differential Evolution (DE), Simulated Annealing (SA),

Bees algorithm (BA) and Ant colony optimization (ACO)

techniques are popular methods for optimization of hybrid

systems [1, 3 and 4]. Apart from these algorithms, various

other techniques such as Linear programming [21, 22],

Evolutionary algorithms [23, 24], and Dynamic

programming [25] etc. have been explored by many

researchers to design, model and optimize of the hybrid

non-conventional energy systems.

Although, many literatures including above mentioned

works are available for the modeling and design of the

hybrid system across the world, nonetheless degradation of

the component is not taken into account while system

performance and feasibility of the hybrid systems are

evaluated.

The present work focuses on the sizing and technocommercial analysis of the hybrid test system consisting of

PV, wind, and fuel cell considering degradation of the

components with the help of PSO and comparative results

are presented highlighting the impact on the performance

especially on system capacity and energy cost of the system.

II. MODELING OF TEST ENERGY SYSTEM

The test hybrid system is modelled with different

renewable resources. The resources are chosen for the

specific site because of their availability. The system is

designed for a remote site far away from grid line and the

extension of the existing grid line may incur high cost. The

system consists of wind, PV, micro hydro, and fuel cell. The

global data for the solar irradiance, wind speed and load data

for the specific site are obtained and hourly variations of

these data are shown in Fig. 1 [19]. The solar irradiance and

the variations of wind speed are considered to be fixed for

the lifetime of the project time of 25 years whereas load is

assumed to be increased by 10%.

Net present cost (NPC) of system acts as the objective

function here. The annualized system cost is the summation

of cost of each component. The component annualised cost

of hybrid systems may be expressed with the equations

shown below [26].

C ann,

component

+ C afc, component

C aom, component

(1)

C arep = annual replacement cost of component.

Fig.1. Hourly solar insolation, wind velocity and load

with hydro is optimized for total load of site for a year.

Power balance equation is satisfied for each hour. Depending

on the hourly wind velocity, solar radiation and water flow,

the hourly generated power of solar modules, wind turbines,

and micro-hydro are computed based on their power output

equations. Initially, random values are generated for the

wind and solar panels. For any specific hour, if load is more

than the combined power output from the wind, solar and

micro-hydro plant, then deficit power is supplied with the

fuel cells. If there is excess power generated form the wind,

solar and hydro plants then electrolysers are operated to

utilize the excess power and produced hydrogen thereof is

stored in the hydrogen tank for future use during the

operation of fuel cell. The stored hydrogen is used during the

deficit hours of the day and this reduces the cost to buy extra

hydrogen from market and this regenerative process thus

gives the system more flexibility to operate and system

performance is increased. Hydro plant, wind turbine are

providing power to Alternating Current bus and electrolyzers

are taking power from it and this AC bus feeds the requisite

power to load and whole block diagram arrangement is given

in Fig. 2.

Solar PV

AC bus

Micro hydro

Converter

Wind turbine

AC load

Fuel cell

H2

from

open

market

Electrolyzer

Hydrogen tank

C afc = annual fuel cost of component.

The aggregate annual cost of system is given by [26]

C ann,

tot

=

N

C ann,

s = 1

c = 1

N

converter,

C ann,

e = 1

+ C ann,

C ann,

w = 1

N

C ann,

solar, s

electro,

t = 1

+ C ann,

N

wind,

tank, t

C ann,

f = 1

fuelcell,

(2)

hydro

numbers, N c = converter numbers, N t = hydrogen tank

numbers, N e = electrolyzer numbers and N f = fuel cell

numbers.

The NPC is derived from annualized cost expressed

above

and

is

given

[19]:

C ann, tot

C NPC

=

CRF proj

The

energy cost of

C

ann, tot

COE =

total system load

hybrid

system

is

[27]:

(4)

Cann, tot

GC =

(5)

total system generated power

The COE and GC are two parameters which give the

performance of the system under consideration and system

feasibility is checked with these parameters.

IV. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

The most widely and well-established optimization

technique is particle swarm optimization (PSO) and many

works based on PSO have been reported by the researchers.

It is an efficient population based optimization procedure

for multi-objective, non-linear complex problem and was

algorithm mimics the swarms behaviour. Each possible

solution is represented by the position of the particle in

multi-dimensional search space. The position of each

particle is updated in each iteration depending on its own

experience and its neighbour particles experiences.

The i-th particles position and velocity (i.e. i-th particle)

in a d-dimensional space, are represented by the vectors Xi

= (Xi1, Xi2, , Xid) and Vi = (Vi1, Vi2, , Vid)

respectively whereas i-th particles previous best position is

expressed as pbesti = (pbesti1, pbesti2, pbestid). The best

particles index in group is represented by gbestd.

The modified position of each particle is determined by its

current velocity and the distance from pbestid to gbestd and

modified velocity is as shown [28, 29]

(6)

Where Np is the number of particles, Ng number of

dimensions in a particle, Vkid is the velocity of the i-th

particle in k-th iteration, w is weight parameter, c1 and c2

are constants, r1 and r2 are random numbers generated in the

range [0, 1] and Xkid is the position of the i-th particle in k-th

iteration.

The updated velocity based on which the position of each

particle is changed and the modified position is expressed is

expressed as [28, 29]:

(7)

on the experiment with different values and values for

obtaining best result. Here, c1 & c2 both are taken as 1.49

and w in the range [0.5, 1.0] to obtain the best result for

present problem.

V. DEGRADATION MODELING APPROACH

Degradation of the system components affects the system

performance largely. Therefore, it is very essential to

consider the effect of degradation to design the system more

accurately and for more real world presentation. There are

many research works reported on the techno-economic

feasibility analysis of the hybrid system but none of them

included the effect of power output degradation issue over

the lifetime of the components. But recently, integration of

degradation features into the technical and economic analysis

of the hybrid system is getting attention from the researchers

[30, 31]. Two different approaches may define the

degradation issue [31]. First approach takes the lifetime of

the component into account while considering the

performance of the component constant over that lifetime.

The second approach considers the degradation of

performance over the time whereas lifetime remains

constant. The first approach directly affects the cost of the

the component which in turn affects the cost of the system.

This feature is incorporated component wise and this

consideration will vary for each component and the real time

management of each component will be required for

successful implementation of the feature.

VI. RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE STUDY

The PSO algorithm is applied while performing the

optimization of the system and for determination of the cost

and optimized sizing. MATLAB code is generated for this

purpose. The algorithm is started with the assigning random

values for wind and solar numbers for pre-defined

populations and combination of the wind, solar, fuel cell,

electrolyzer, tank and cost is represented by each swarms

and their position gives the possible solution of the

optimization problem. The merit of the solution is

determined by the cost function given in Eq. (3). The new

velocity and position are updated according to Eq. (6) and

(7) in each iteration and accordingly cost changes. The

optimal sizing obtained is presented in Table I. After

considering the effect, simulation results are presented I n

Table II.

TABLE I.

SYSTEM (CASE-I: WITHOUT DEGRADATION)

Component

Optimal Sizing

(No. of Units)

Wind Turbine

9

Solar Panel

1

Converter

3

Fuel Cell

3

Electrolyser

9

Hydrogen Tank

4

Net Present Cost (NPC): Rs. 39105.07k

Cost of Generation (GC): Rs. 11.70/kWh

Energy Cost (COE): Rs. 15.96/kWh

TABLE II.

Capacity

(kW)

90

0.15

15

15

9

4 kg.

SYSTEM (CASE-II: WITH DEGRADATION)

Component

Optimal Sizing

(No. of Units)

Wind Turbine

10

Solar Panel

56

Converter

4

Fuel Cell

4

Electrolyser

14

Hydrogen Tank

4

Net Present Cost (NPC): Rs. 47744.41k

Cost of Generation (GC): Rs. 14.64 /kWh

Energy Cost (COE): Rs. 19.50 /kWh

Capacity

(kW)

100

8.4

20

20

14

4 kg.

the degradation effect is presented in Fig. 3.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This present work is carried out with the financial

assistance from Departmental Research Scheme (DRS) &

UPE-II of University Grants Commission (UGC), GoI.

REFERENCES

system consists of 90 kW of Wind, 0.15 kW of solar PV, 15

kW of Converter, 15 kW of fuel cell, 9 kW of Electrolyzer

and 4 kg of hydrogen tank. The optimal cost of energy and

generation cost are Rs. 15.94 and Rs. 11.7 respectively.

Whereas in case II where degradation feature is incorporated,

the system optimal sizing as well as cost changes and for the

same system power output is less and cost is more. Case-II

chooses the hybrid system of 100 kW of wind and 8.4 kW of

solar instead of 0.15 kW and accordingly costs change.

PSO is widely used algorithm for obtaining optimized

results. Here also we have applied the PSO techniques

considering the algorithm a benchmark in solving these types

of problems. Fig. 4 shows the net present cost vs. number of

iteration graph. It shows that PSO is efficient to provide the

global solution for the optimization problem.

6.95

x 10

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NPC

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40

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VII. CONCLUSION

The present paper highlights the optimized results for the

hybrid system considering the degradation effect of the

system components for a specific stand-alone site with the

help of PSO. The system is designed and optimized

depending on specific site and its characteristic. The

performance of the system is analyzed closely under the

two scenarios and it is observed that the system sizing

changes if we consider the degradation effect and cost of

the system is increased as well. This reflects the real

world system more closely and it will help researchers and

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