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Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia



( TSL 3133 )



(IC No. 750423075286)



Februari 2012





Tarikh Hantar

28hb MARCH 2015


Table of Content




1.0 Background of Study

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Reflection


2.0 What is the Focus of my Study?

2.2 What have I learnt about my research issue?

2.2.1 Definition of terms


3.0 What are the research objectives and research questions?


4.0 Who will be my research participant be?


5.0 How will I collect my data?


6.0 What is my recommended intervention?


7.0 How will I analyze my data ?


8.0 Conclusion



Saw Sock Phei

Mdm. Yashwanora Bt Yahaya

1.0 Background of the Study

1.1 Introduction
SJKC Hing Hwa is a SKM (Sekolah Kurang Murid )school. The total enrolment is 86
pupils for year 2015.I was built in the year of 1924. The purpose for building this
school is due to the constraints faced by people who lived around Tambun area in
sending their children to school, where on that time, parent have to travel quite a
distance to send their children to school in Ipoh and they are facing problems in
So, this problem had caught the attentions of a few locals such as Mr. Kok Kim Siew,
Mr. Fan Siew and Mr. Kok Kim Seng to come out with the idea to built a school
nearby to provide a formal Chinese education for the villagers children. Soon, this
people become the pioneers of this school. This school has been established after
three years later with an enrolment of 80 pupils.
Now in the year of 2015, SJKC Hing Hwa is a school consisting multi races and
cultural pupils such as 80% of Chinese , 10 % of Malay and 10% of Indian. There are

also one slow learner and three pupils that need special attention and training. This
school is situated in Tambun which is a small town area, the population here are
mostly Malay, follow by Chinese and Indian. As the school building is behind Sekolah
Kebangsaan Tambun which is a larger school so it is hardly seen by people who
passed by this area. In my opinions, maybe due to this reason, many residences
around Ipoh still do not notice the existing of this school, so SJKC Hing Hwa is not in
the list of the choices of school that parents wish to sent their children. Parents prefer
to sent their children to town schools such as SJKC Min Sin, SJKC Sam Tet, SJKC
Ave Mariah and so on.

1.2 Reflection on the past teaching and learning experience

I have been teaching English language for fifteen years now. When I was just freshly
graduated as a teacher in the year of 2000, I have been sent to a very rural area
school name SK Kampung Dew, in Kampung Dew , Semanggol. Kampong Dew is a
small village, where the villager earn their living by working in charcoal making
industry, rubber estate, oil palm estate and others.

There was an enrolment of 100 over pupils during my first posting. The pupils here
had very limited English background and exposure to English language. They learnt
English in the classroom only and their mother tongue is Malay language. It was like
writing English words on a piece of white paper, learning English depend on
everything I have taught them, they have no interest and effort to study English
language. I had a very hard time teaching in this school, as like scribbling on white
paper is easy but to make pupils to understand English it will take a lot of effort and

On the other hand, as I am not a well experienced teacher, I have no place to seek
for help in handling and teaching the pupils here. In teaching English, the most
difficult and challenging is teaching pupils grammar. During teaching in the class, I
used to translate words from English to pupils mother tongue. This enable my pupils

to pay their attentions because it helped them to understand. I also drilled my pupils
in the target language. This was when I was determined and decided to use
Grammar Translation Method as the method in my teaching.

Praetor and Celce-Murcia (1979, p.3) listed the major characteristic of Grammar
Translation Method, some of them are such as first, classes are taught in the mother
tongue, with a little use of target language. Second, vocabulary is taught in the form
of skill of isolated words. Third, long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of
grammar are given . Forth, drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences
from the target language into the mother tongue.

Drillings had become the most activities I did with my pupils but still my effort caused
bad result in pupils examination. Richard and Roger (2001,p.7) pointed out ,it has
no advocates. It is a method for which there is no theory. There is no literature that
offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to examine language teaching
methodology in this book. Drilling and translating is not a good way of teaching as
pupils will just rememberised what had been taught by me but

they did not

understand the lesson on that time, this caused pupils to make lots of mistakes and
at last they will be fed up with the target language.
In the year of 2002, I have asked for a transfer and was shifted back to Ipoh to SK
Pasukan Polis Hutan in Ulu Kinta, Ipoh. It was a school with almost 900 enrolments
of Malay students where almost 95% pupils parents, either father or mother works
as a police officer.
My teaching became more difficult as the pupils were still not from English
background and with very limited exposure to English language. The pupils mother
tongue is Malay language and it got worse when I have to face pupils in a class of 40
to 45 pupils. Class control had become another issues. It is not easy to think of
activities that will involved a large number of pupils when you are teaching a
language that pupils could not even understand. I have to use the pupils mother to
teach English language. I have to do some translations in order to help my pupils to
understand my teaching and still drilling was my favourite activities with them.

I drilled my pupils with vocabulary, phrases,

grammar, sentence patterns and

others. Whenever I had conducted group activity in English language, it will ended up

a Malay language class, where pupils will do their discussion in Malay

language, I got frustrated and this had changed my teaching style. My teaching
become dull and I got fed up but there was nothing I can do. Still there is no
satisfaction I could gain in teaching, the pupils result still not good. I have been so
used with Malay language in teaching rather than the subject language that I have to
teach after many years feeling comfort with translations to Malay language during my
teaching all these years. I think I could be a better Malay language teacher than an
English teacher.
After eight years of teaching in SK Pasukan Polis Hutan, I have been shifted to
another school which it might be a dream school for all English teachers, SK
Tarcisian Convent, Ipoh. It was a totally different experiences if compared to the two
previous schools that I have taught. I got a shocked to see their teaching and
learning culture and it later motivated me to keep on upgrading my knowledge and
skills in my teaching.
SK Tarcisian Convent is a school with enrolment of around 600 pupils. About 80% of

are from English educated family background and can speak fluently in

English, mostly parents are both working. Quite of a number of parents are working
as supervisors, own family businesses, teachers and others, there are some pupils
where their parents are from higher social-economy stage society such as owner of
big companies, lawyers, doctors and others.
In SK Tarcisian, I was teaching a class of standard one and three classes of standard
three pupils in this school. Teaching the pupils especially all girls in this school was a
relief and a turning point in my teaching life after ten years of teaching. It was totally
different and challenging. I could do many kind of activities and conducted them in
fully English language. Although the pupils have been streamed according to their
final examinations every year, there were many pupils that are still could be
considered as very good in English subject in the lower intermediate class. I have not
much problems in teaching pupils vocabularies but again teaching grammar is the
most difficult part. I have gain more confident and knowledge teaching pupils here.

Teaching grammar in a convent school was much different than teaching grammar in
my two previous schools. The usage of mother tongue was less. Pupils here were
able to converse well in English, although sometimes with a number of mistakes, it
was still at an acceptable and understandable level of language. It was the first time,
I was able to deliver my lesson in English. Some pupils speaks better English
language than me, this group of pupils not just fluent but can comprehend well in
English, English would be the first language for some of the pupils. Their level of
acquisitions of English language gave me the motivation to work harder or else they
will not show respect to me as their English teacher. Just then, I discovered that I
have been so far left behind in learning and upgrading my English language. I was
struggling for three months in the good class in order to speak and communicate
with them in English, I did less speaking and more activities were planned to allow
pupils to express their ideas more.
But luckily, I managed to overcome these problems. I had changed my teaching
style, I started to practice the Direct Method.

Richard and Rodgers(2001, p.12)

summarized the principle of the Direct Method as classroom instruction was

conducted exclusively in the target language, only everyday vocabulary and
sentences were taught, grammar was taught inductively , the important of building up
communication skills and others.
At last, after teaching in Tarsician Convent for nine months again I was shifted to a
Chinese school, SJKC Hing Hwa. Pupils communicate formally 100% in Chinese
language at school. I am glad that I have been sent to the convent school before I
reached SJKC Hing Hwa. I have gone through many differences and done lots of
changes to my weaknesses in teaching before this.
Until now, it has been the fifth year of my teaching in this school. I am now teaching
the standard one, standard four, five and six pupils. Five years of teaching, together
with another English teacher, Miss Kuah, we have made many changes in this
school. We manage to increase the students results in school and UPSR
examination. It was a very motivating achievement but yet there still are some
improvements that can be done to help my pupils in learning English language
especially in learning grammar.

In SJKC Hing Hwa, most pupils think that learning English language is a disaster as
they can hardly understand the language, they were forced to learn it and always this
is the subject that would dragged their academic achievement down.
Another words, for them English language is a monster and so do English teacher
too. I had a start with pupils in SJKC Hing Hwa, pretending that I did not speak other
language except English. I speak English more because I believe that my pupils
need to have more exposure. But it did not worked out well. So, I decided to do
some translations during the lesson but pupils are not allow to speak in their mother
As cited by Anna-Maria Pinter (2006, p.30) a Canadian researcher, Jim Cummins,
mentioned in his book entitled Language, Power and Pedagogy, has suggested that
bilingual education can be very beneficial for children with regard to their general
development, cognitive and other skills. One factor seems important in this process
is to develop childrens mother tongue and second language literacy skills in parallel
rather than neglecting the first language to make way for the second. I am totally
agree with this statement, so my teaching in SJKC HIng Hwa would be in some
translations in order to make students understand, I have increase oral
communication, group works and lesson drilling activities. It has been working well
until now but still I think that pupils in this school are still significantly weak in
constructing simple sentences. They tend to ignore the changes of the singular and
plural nouns with their verbs. I believe if I could help them to identify the differences
in between the relation on noun and verb and on how do they match them in a
simple sentences, this would give me more motivation and satisfaction teaching in
this school.
I have been teaching my year five pupils since they were in year one, together they
learnt the target language with me. But why there are still at the different levels in the
English language achievement? I have conducted my teaching with them as a class
but why they are still at the different levels? Why some can construct simple
sentences correctly and some failed to do that?

2.0 What is the focus of my study?

Based on the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah rendah (KSSR), writing skill is required to
teach solidly in one lesson for the English Language subject. The reason is because
writing skill is one of the most important skill which are essential for the pupils to
foster confident, self-expression and communication. In addition to that, grammar will
just be introduce when pupils reach year four class. With the limit vocabulary that
they have learnt in the year earlier sometimes cannot workout for pupils in this class.
Through my observation, I discover that pupils in year five class are facing difficulties
in constructing simple sentences as evidence in the writing task. As I have been
teaching them since they were in year 1, I notice that 3/14 pupils in this class are
able to construct correct sentences all the time. 7/14 of pupils have the ability to
construct simple sentences with minor mistakes where they sometime may have
forgotten the SVO rules that should be considered in constructing simple sentences.
4/14 pupils are slow learners and 1 of them is a special need pupil (OKU) with no
ability in constructing any sentences.
Next, I believe the pupils who are not able to construct simple sentences is due to
the interferences of the first language which affect second language. Further, as
mentioned by Abby Pavlikin in her journal (2012, p.11), Chinese dont change with
the subject, either, Fu (2003). For example, we eat, you eat, and he eats would
all be said the same way, with no change, as is carried out in English, for the third
person singular pronoun. Altogether, any kind of English verb inflection, whether
related to time or subject, is difficult for Chinese ELLs to acquire. This happened
frequently to pupils in this class.

Even though, when it is in pupils reading, pupils always omit the s sound at the end
of the verb, they would rather say, Amin eat an apple. Than saying Amin eats an
apple. I think pupils in Year 5 may be interfered by their first language at school and
tend to left out the s after every verbs for plural subject in their simple present
sentences construction. They are so used of making sentences without noticing the
form of subject as they do in Chinese and even Malay language.


In relation to the context of this action research proposal, the difficulty in constructing
simple sentences in pupils writing had create a tendency for them to make some
errors in the writing product. Pupils usually some errors in spelling, capitalization and
punctuation but the common errors that can be found in pupils writing is subject-verb
agreement. This has caused pupils for not be able to empower the writing skills and
they tend to lose marks in their examination especially in their English test , paper 2.
The difficulty in constructing simple sentences among pupils often demotivate them in
learning the target language.

2.2 What have I learnt about my research issue?

On a concern that I have comes from what I have observed in my career for the past
14 years of my teaching. Since I have been shifted to SJKC Hing Hwa five years
ago, I have discovered a majority of pupils do not have the ability to construct simple
sentences. Sentences construction is a common issue for most pupils in Chinese
school. If they cannot construct simple sentences properly this will affect their
accuracy in using the target language.
A research in second language acquisition by Fuller & Gundel (1987) suggests that
most learners pass through an early topic prominent stage regardless of their first
language. In analyzing the elicited oral narratives produces by low-intermediate
learners of English, these researchers found no significant differences between native
speaker of topic-prominent language and those of subject-prominent language in
their use of subject agreement in English Most of the nonnative speakers made more
than 10 errors demonstrating lack of agreement.

Yet since speakers of topic-

prominent language are not prepared by their first language to expect the relationship
between subject and verb to be marked in any way. Pupils with this problem will not
be able to converse well in English as they are not be able to understand standard
grammatical treatments state for the verbs other than be, number agreement
between the subject and verb poses a problem in the present tense. Where third
person singular form are explicitly inflected while other forms are not.
I have learnt that my pupils tends to simplify and leave off altogether the third person
singular inflection. Example : Jenny live in Ipoh . However, sometimes pupils will

over generalize the inflection and apply it to uninflected forms such as auxiliaries or to
verbs following modals for examples, Jack cans dance disco. Or Jack can dances
disco. They may also overuse it as an agreement marker with subjects of
inappropriate person or numbers for examples, I goes to school., They goes to
school. Or You goes to school. Yet, another reasons what some pupils overuse
this form is that they interpret the-s ending as a plural marker on the verb to be used
in agreement with plural subjects, for example, They goes to the movies often. Or
The boys goes to the movies often. This has affected the qualities of their writing
especially in writing short essay. In their essays writing, I have found plenty of
mistakes caused by their lack understanding of the subject agreement. Although , I
still be able to identify their main ideas and know what do they were trying to express
in their writing but too many mistakes had distracted me to award them with higher
marks especially in their tests or examinations. Even in their daily writing works, with
a lot of correction that have been detected by teacher and correction that they have
to do, pupils begin to get demotivate and this have affected their level of confidence
in learning English language.
Pupils also having difficulties in their reading, where they tend to make mistakes
to left out of the-s at behind of the verbs. I have been correcting pupils regarding this
issue for many times but the same problems will occur during reading. It seems that
they do not bother about my explanations. They just read it because the teacher
asked them to do that. Why do pupils always omit the -s ? I think it is depend on the
pupils age , language background and what they have learn in class. A number
of studies have shown that students acquire English language morphemes in a fairly
predictable fashion, regardless of language background, age and what they learn in
class. I think maybe pupils are not clear with rule that perhaps was misunderstood or
only partially learned. I have tried to make students more sensitive to subject / verb
agreement in the input that surrounds them, the more they notice and re-notice the
third person -s outside the classroom, the more likely they are to restructure
their interlanguage. Besides that, encourage students to monitor their speech, which
might contribute to long-term overall accuracy is very important too.
According to Diane Larsen-Freeman (2003) , grammar is one of the three
dimensions of language that are interconnected. Grammar gives us the form or the
structure of language. It tells us how to construct a sentence. Pupils are having

difficulty in identifying the concept of writing simple sentences in English language. In

my opinions, first pupils should understand the concept of a simple sentence, that is
the correct words order, example the basic word order of main clauses and
subordinate clauses in present-day .
In addition to that, pupils should know that subject is the noun that should be place at
the beginning of each sentences, pupils must have sufficient list of

verbs and

understand that object is the person or thing that correspondent to the verb. This has
become the main difficulty for the year five pupils as I believe that pupils are
confused with the explanations of grammatical rule of SVO. I have observed and
learnt is in the form of pupils understanding towards grammar especially subject
verb agreement . Pupils can understand the concept in simple


construction during and after lesson by giving them the table, which was evidenced
by the worksheet after the lesson but still they keep on making mistakes after a few
days. I also drilled them with sentences patterns, pupils just repeat what I have read
to them many times without real understanding so it did not work out properly. Pupils
seemed to rely so much on the table, without the table they were not able to write.
Rememberising is another problems, pupils were asked to rememberize the
sentence pattern and the table but they will forget after a certain periods of time, So,
based on the things that I have learnt from pupils weaknesses.
I also asked them to copy down their notes in the exam paper once they have
received the test paper although it managed to increase the number of correct
sentences but it just worked out for other forms of sentences such as simple past
sentences and simple present continues sentences. This made my pupils depend on
the table all the time.
In addition to that it has created more confusions when they are speaking the
target language as they could not carry the table along with them all the time and
refer to it besides that speaking happened on the sport and spontaneously and
needed immediate feedback. Traditional table just not work out well enough in
helping my pupils. I got fed up from marking pupils works with the same mistakes.
Although there some improvements after using the SVO table in my teaching but it is
still not perfect as pupils still make mistakes.


According to David H and Gloria R (2003), You may have been told that a verb
describes an action. However, just as with nouns, the notional definition of a verb
does not always work. For example, own is a verb, but it is hardly to identify any
action that takes place in sentence for example , John owns two houses.. I think my
pupils are having difficulties in identifying and

understanding the standard

grammatical treatments state for the verbs other than be, the agreement between
the subject and verb poses a problem in the present tense. Where third person
singular form are explicitly inflected while other forms are not. So, in my picture
substitution table I will provide pupils with the support of pictures showing them the
action and label them with the correct form of inflection -s. After that pupils will
construct sentences out of the substitution table.
Why do pupils make mistakes in constructing simple present sentences? Dont pupils
understand that English language is a very unique language that apply special rules
and regulations in its usage like other languages? What should I do? In line to this
matter, I manage to come out with a SVO substitution table by using pictures to guide
pupils to build up concepts on how simple present sentences can be constructed

2.2.1 Definition of Terms:

Picture Substitution Table
Picture is a visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or
otherwise rendered on a flat surface. Substitution table is a table of sentences in
which equivalents may be substituted for their elements and

which are used

especially in grammar drill. A technique used to practice new language. It involves

the teacher first modeling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. The
teacher then substitutes one or more key words, or changes the prompt, and the
learners say the new structure. In another words it is a substitution table which is
supported by visual.


Singular and plural form of verbs

Verbs can have singular and plural forms. There are some ways to indicate singular
form of verbs. The base form of a verb is the form from which singular and plural
forms of the verb are derived. The base form of any verb can be changed into a
singular or plural, present tense verb by adding different endings such as -, -s, and
Sentence Construction
Construction is the process of making something, how a sentence is put together
using words. The arrangement of words according to syntactical rules. For example,
She walks to school. She is the subject, walks to school is the predicate.
subjectverbobject (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first,
the verb second, and the object third. Languages may be classified according to the
dominant sequence of these elements. It is the most common order by number of
speakers and the second most common order by number of known languages.

3.0 What are the research objectives and research questions ?

Research Objectives:
1. To identify if picture substitution table improves pupils simple sentences
2. To determine the effectiveness of picture substitution table in helping Year 5 in
simple sentences construction.
3. To increase pupils ability and interest in simple sentences constructions using
picture substitution table.
Research Questions:
1. Does using picture substitution table help pupils in constructing simple
sentences ?
2. How can I improve the construction of simple sentences for Year 5 pupils using
picture substitution table?

3. How does the picture substitution table assist the pupils effectively to construct
the simple sentences?
4.0 Who will my research participant be?
The participants of this research consist of 15 pupils from Year 5 pupils, which will be
of mixed abilities class of pupils, who obtained marks from the range of highest to the
lowest marks for English Language in the previous semester examination. They have
a low proficiency in English language as shown in appendix 1.

Appendix 1:
Profile of the Respondents
Location of the student
Total number

: SJKC Hing Hwa Tambun

: Year 5
: 15 Pupils
: 7 males
: 8 females
: Mixed (Chinese, Indians and Malay)

Background Information of the Respondents



Family Background


Respondent 1

Father : Sales person , Mother : a

Cambodian housewife

English level


Respondent 2

Father : Soldier, Mother:



Respondent 3

Both parent working in

Singapore, staying with uncle.


Respondent 4

Father : Contractor, Mother:



Respondent 5

Both parents are working.


Respondent 6

both parents are working

Respondent 7

Staying with untie

Lower Intermediate
(slow Learner)
Special need child




Respondent 8

Single parent family.


Respondent 9

Single parent family.


Respondent 10

Single parent family.


Respondent 11

Father : Businessman , Mother :



Respondent 12

Mother : housewife


Respondent 13

Mother : housewife


Respondent 14

Father : hawker , Mother :



Respondent 15

Father : fruiterer , Mother :


Lower Intermediate
(slow Learner)

15 respondent

In the year 2014 KSSR pupils band achievement. The highest achievement was at
band 5 and the lowest was at band 1. It was not a very ideal achievement. As my
pupils family background are unique, so I think this might be one of the reason why
they are at the different levels. Although they are studying in a school located in
Tambun town, which is a place that is near to Ipoh town area but they have low
proficiency in English language. It is because they use their mother tongue to
communicate at home and do not belong to an English language speaking family as
mostly their mother is a full time house wife, or they stay with the grandparents
whom acted as their guardians. Their parents or guardians do not practice talking in
this language at home. Thus, they show less interest in learning English language
and English language is perceived to be for learning purposes only. The only time
they are exposed to English language is through the English lesson with me in the
classroom, so the pupils give less importance to learning the language.


5.0 How will I collect my data?

First I apply for the permission to carry out the research from headmistress. A copy of
the proposal is submitted together when applying. Once the I gets the approval from
her, I will gets approval from pupils as they will be the target participants.
The three instruments that will be used in colleting my research data are pre- and
post test, observations checklist and structured interview questionnaire. Pre- and post
test, observations check list and questionnaire fall under the category of quantitative
data. Structured interview fall under qualitative data.
The pre-test will be given to the students selected before the actual research is being
carried out. Students are given a worksheet answer individually within a time frame of
half an hour. All pupils are to do the test. The data will be collected by me. The scores
of both the groups will be recorded in a mark sheet before starting with the same
treatment using the worksheet. At the end of the research the post-test will be
imposed again just like the pre-test. The same test paper will be used to test the
students. The researcher will compare the marks of the experimental group and the
controlled group in terms of improvements in the test score.
A pre-test will be conducted to obtain the level of proficiency of the students and their
ability in sentences writing. Then the post-test will be given after the treatment . After
this, the mean of the scares from both the pre-test and the pos-test will be calculated.
The difference between the mean will be used to show the significance of the
differences. According to Jessica L. Gouldthorpe and Glenn D. Israel mentioned in
the journal The pretest-posttest model is a common technique for capturing change in
Extension programming (Allen & Nimon, 2007; Rockwell & Kohn, 1989). With
measurements being collected at the beginning and end of the program, program
effects are often revealed by calculating the differences between the two measures
(Pratt et al., 2000). Pre-test - post-test designs measure change resulting from







information. It is important to get the same respondents to take part in both pre &
post-tests in order to draw valid conclusions. Pre-and post test is focusing on


constructing simple sentences and identifying the tenses usage. This is where I
undertake measurement before and after an intervention Pupils will be given a
worksheet such as below each on simple sentences construction and identifying
mistakes in the text before and after pupils were expose to picture substitution table
as shown in appendix 2.
Appendix 2:
Pre- Post test
Name :__________________________

Class : Year _____

A. Write simple sentences based on the pictures and words given.

Picture 1:





1. _____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________

B. Circle the errors in the text and rewrite them in the space provided.
Picture 2:

Mrs. Tan and Mrs. Wong is at the beach. They brings along their children to
the beach. Both women sits on a mat under a shady tree. They talks about their
children while looking at them. Their children plays happily at the beach. Mrs. Tans
son, David, build a sandcastle next to Mrs. Wongs children. They builds a larger

sandcastle than David and Davids cousins plays ball in the water. They has an
enjoyable time together.

Next, observation will be used as a method of collecting research data, it involves

observing behaviour and will be systematically recorded the result of those
observations , it is conscious and planned. It will be guide by the research questions.
The observation will be systematically recorded by using an observation checklist. They
will be analyzed using quantitative methods. The rationale behind this type of
observation is mainly to enable me to identify pupils strengths and weaknesses that
might caused the errors in sentences constructing. The rubric of observation will be
prepared. Observation checklists allow teachers to record information quickly about how
students perform in relation to specific outcomes from the program of studies.
Observation checklists, written in a yes/no format can be used to assist in observing
student performance relative to specific criteria. They may be directed toward
observations of an individual or group. These tools can also include spaces for brief
comments, which provide additional information not captured in the checklist in appendix

Appendix 3:

Pupils Observation Checklist

Name : _______________________________

Class :

Put a ( / ) in the boxes below .



Tick ( /


Promote active participation






among pupils during writing

Able to increase Pupils
ability in sentence
Improve pupils ability in
identifying errors and rewrite
the sentences.
Pupils show understanding
by adding s or es to the
verb in a sentence, if the
subject of the sentence is a
singular noun.
Refer to the picture
substitution table in sentence
Change pupils attitude
towards the lesson into more
positive manner.
Is practical and relevant for
the use in teaching to be use
in the lower primary level.
Boost pupils interest in
sentence constructions.
Cater to different learning
Attract lesson by active

Other than that, structured interview questionnaire are another methods that will be one
of the instrument in data collection. I will be using a structured interview where the

will be administer to each respondent. Questionnaire Is practical and

large amounts of information can be collected from respondents in a short period of time
and in a relatively cost effective way. It also can be carried out by the researcher or by
any number of people with limited affect to its validity and reliability. In addition to that,
the results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily quantified by either a
researcher or through the use of a software package. The data can be analyzed more
'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research, when data has been
quantified, it can be used to compare and contrast other research and may be used to
measure change and lastly positivists believe that quantitative data can be used to


create new theories and / or test existing hypotheses. Structured interview questionnaire
as shown in appendix 4.

Appendix 4:
Structured Interview Questionnaire
Name : _____________________________

Class :

Put a ( / ) in the boxes below .



I like to use the picture

substitution table as a guide
for me to write simple


I always speak English with

your family at home.

I have learnt that writing

simple sentences in English is
easy .
The exercises or practices
given by your English teacher
will help me to improve in
your sentences writing.

I understand that I need to

add s or es to the verb in a
sentence, if the subject of
the sentence is a singular

I can understand the form of

verb in a sentence by looking
at the subject.

I always refer to my teacher if

I have difficulties in writing

1 2 3 4 5



I can use and apply this skills

in constructing longer


I can understand the

instruction given by your
English teacher in the class.

1. Strongly disagree
2. disagree
3. slightly disagree
4. agree
5.Strongly agree
6.0 What is my recommended intervention?
The concept

of action research by Kurt Lewin appears in his 1946 paper Action

Research and Minority Problems. In that paper, he described action research as a

comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and
research leading to social action that uses a spiral of steps, each of which is composed
of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action as shown in
appendix 5 :

Appendix 5 : Kurt Lewins Action Research Model

The Lewinian Spiral summarizes the step that will be taken in the implementation of
action. I would like to organize my work and reports following his cycle of steps such
shown above. For this research, I will refer to the four steps in Kurt Lewin model. The
first step is to plan. Before planning, I will observe my pupils weaknesses as well as
initiate discussions after having determined their weakness is pronunciation skills. Later,
I will plan to use picture substitution table to treat this problem. For the acting stage, I will
collect the pupils data based on their past year PKSR 2 result. In the third step, I will
observe pupils achievements before, during and after the interventions. Before the first
intervention, I will give them a pretest to have allow me to identify their level of ability in

sentence construction. After the second intervention, I will ask my colleague from other
language panel to observe my pupils behavior. For this reason, I will plan another
observation by a the class teacher of the pupils progress and finally after the fifth
intervention, the post-test will be held. For the pupils, I will give them a structured
interview questionnaire to gauge their opinions on how the picture substitution table
could help them in improving their sentences writing s skills. The last step of this Kurt
Lewin model is reflect where the results of these three instruments which are the
posttest, behavioral observation as well as the structured interview, will be analyzed. A
reflection will be made so as to see whether the plan needs to be revised or modified for
the next cycle.





The Gantt chart shown, is the summarize of

the steps that will be taken in the

implementation of the action. Step 1,is on the first week , I have been reading and
searching inputs and to obtain knowledge regarding writing action research proposal.
Then, I reflect on teaching and learning to identify focus area and problems related with
focus area and related invention until the third week. From the third week to fourth
week , I will determine data collection techniques and instruments and do data analysis.
For step 2 , I write the first draft of research proposal, I also have discussion with by
lecturer on the research proposal on the fifth to eight week. In between this period of
time until the tenth week, I will carry out planned lesson with the intervention as
proposed , explore and monitor action. In the intervention I will use my


Substitution Table chart in the classroom instructional. As according to Sandra

McKays(1985) chart and graph are useful devices for practicing patterns, clarifying

grammatical relationships and even understanding sociolinguistic, discourse constraints

and the verb system. I will prepare two table charts, one will be on the singular subject
with singular verbs another one is with plural subject and plural verbs. By using the
same pictures but I make a little changes in order to show pupils the differences
between agreement between singular and plural nouns with their verbs. From the two
tables , I hope that my pupils will be able to identify that s will be added behind the verb
if they start their sentences with plural subject and the other way round for the singular
subjects. By preparing two different pictures substitution table charts as shown I
appendix 6 and 7, pupils will be able to compare and understand the SVO agreement.

Firstly, I will expose my pupils to the plural subject picture substitution table as shown in
appendix 6, on the first lesson, then show them to the singular subject picture
substitution table as shown in appendix 7 on the second lesson and on the third lesson I
will show them both of the tables. I think if I can do this with them, my pupils will be able
to improve in simple sentences construction as I believe this will help them to build up
the scaffolding in sentences construction.
The rational to my intervention is I believe that a picture is worth a thousand words.
This phrase emerged in the USA in the early part of the 20th century. Its introduction is
widely attributed to Frederick R. Barnard (1921). Pictures convey information more
efficiently and effectively than words do. It is much easier to learn what do actions or
verbs do by looking at pictures, rather than by hearing some describe them.
I am totally agree that the Year 5 pupils in SJKC Hing Hwa will learn better and
effectively through pictures, posters, videos, games and realias.
Appendix 6:
Plural Subject Substitution Table:
Plural Subject

Plural Verb


The twins






in the sea.




Appendix 7:
Singular Subject Substitution Table:
Singular Subject

Singular Verb



a sandwich.




a letter.


in the sea.
The boy



a picture.


Back to our discussion that is on the 8th to 11th week, I will carry out intended
instrumentations regarding my foundlings from the invention.
On step 4, I will make it from the twelfth to 17th week, as I need more time to do
monitoring and interpret data, as well as to prepare me for the further steps.
On step 5, I have planned it from the 18th week to 21st week. The focuses are on
reflection, evaluation effects of action and making conclusion.
Step 5 will starts at the22nd week to 25th week. I this four weeks, I will draft, edit and
review the research report. Writing the research report will take me around three weeks
until the date of submission on the 27th week. The submission will be on the last day of
the 27th week.

Cost of Study
The estimate for the cost of the study is RM33.50. It can be seen in Appendix 8.
Appendix 8:
Cost of Study






A4 paper

1 pkt

RM 5.00


A4 paper ( Coloured)

3 pkts

RM 15.00


Mounting board

2 pcs

RM 25.00


UHU glue

2 bottles

RM 30.00


Paper clip

2 boxes

RM 6.00


Flash cards

2 pkt

RM 11.00


Photostatting services

Not recorded

RM 10.00

Total cost RM102.00

7.0 How will I analyze my data?
The scores of the pre-post test will be recorded in the descriptive statistics, it will be
calculated in order to evaluate on improvement made by using formula as below.
Percentage of pre-test scores
Scores obtained in
total scores

Percentage of pre-test
Scores obtained in X
total scores



Source : ( Prosiding Seminar , 2014)

The differences in the score will be used in order to represent the improvement in
respondents performance. This data will help to indicate the minority and majority
improvement in simple sentence construction. I will be able to identify the improvement
for each respondent from the lowest to the highest range.

The data then will be presented in a form of bar chart. Bar chart
a chart with rectangular bars

with lengths proportional






A chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons

categories of pupils that are good, intermediate and lower Intermediate. One

axis of the

chart shows the result of two categories that are Pre and Post test being

compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value.

From the that pupils observation checklist that I am going to carry out, I will collect
data based on the founding that I am going to discovered and gather during my
invention. The data analysis will be display on a table that will shows the result of the
respondents answer Yes or No. from the checklist , I would be able to identify
respondents problems and take further action to make changes to improve the
respondents simple sentences writing ability.

Lastly, structured interview questionnaire will enable me to collect data on

respondents perceptions towards my teaching and learning in the intervention that I
will carry out with them. The information in the structured interview will lead me to get
to know my respondents more, based on the information I will be able to identify their
strength and weaknesses.

The action study proposal will enable me to indicate a new method in dealing with my
Year 5 pupils problem in simple sentences construction that has been occurring
throughout the years. The steps from zero to the end will be a success and it will gives


a big impact to me in my instructional especially in teaching writing skill and it will allow
pupils to reach for a higher achievement in sentences construction in the future.

Books :
1. Dr. Goh Lay Huah (2012). A pratical guide to writing your action research.
Penerbitan Multimedia. Malaysia.
2. Patsy M. Lightbown & Nina Spada.(2006).How language are learned.
(fourth edition) Oxford, London.
3. Hyacinth Gaudart. (2006). English language teaching practices. Sasbadi
Sdn Bhd.Malaysia.
4. Pratt,C.C.,McGuigan, W,M.,& Katzev, A. R. (2000). Measuring program

outcomes:Using retrospective pretest methodology. American Journal of

Evaluation, 21(3),341349.
5. Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R.(2003). Educational research: An
Introduction (7th ed.). New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon.
6. Annamaria Pinter.(2005).Teaching young language learners.Oxford
University Press.London.
7. David H. Deterding, Gloria R.Poedjosoedarmo.(2000).Grammar basics.
Printice hall.London.
8. H.Douglas Brown. Teaching by principles.(third edition).(2009).Pearson
9. Scott Thornbury.How to teach grammar(2005).Longman.Uk.
6. Http://
7. Abby Pavlik.Teaching english language learner from china.(2012). University
of Hampshire.USA. Http://