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STATE LEVEL STUDENTS PAPER CONTEST

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EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
S.Bhagath

P.Kiran Kumar

III Year B.Tech CSE & CSIT


ST.Johns College of Engg & Tech
Introduction:
In contrast, an embedded system performs a single well-defined task. An embedded system can be
described as one consisting of a processor, associated peripherals and software used for a specific purpose.
A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is
housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that
have a digital interface watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars utilize embedded systems. Some embedded
systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented
as a single program.
What is a System?
A system is a way of working, organizing or doing one or many tasks according to a

fixed plan, program or set of rules.

A system is also an arrangement in which all its units assemble and work together according
to the plan or program
What is an Embedded System?
Definition
Embedded systems is a device that includes a programmable computer but is not

itself intended to be a general-purpose computer


----- Wayne Wolf
Embedded systems are electronic systems that contains a microprocessor

or

microcomputer, but we do not think of them as computers the computer is hidden or embedded in the
system
-----Todd D. Morton
People use the term embedded system to mean any computer system hidden in any

of these products

-----David E. Simon

Broadly it is one that has computer-hardware with software embedded in it as one of


its most important component.

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Components in Embedded Systems


Embedded systems software usually embeds in ROM. It does not need secondary memories as in a
computer. An embedded system has three main components.
a. Hardware.
b. Main application software.
The appllication software may perform concurrently the series of tasks or multiple tasks.
c. And a real time operating system (RTOS)
RTOS supervises the application software and provides a mechanism to let the processor run a process as
per scheduling and do the context switch between the various tasks.
Hardware Architecture
The hardware architecture of an embedded system with functional blocks is shown below.

External
RAM

Processor

Reset
Circuitry

Crystal

Application
specific
control
security

ADC/DAC

Chip
Select

LCD
Display

Address
Latch

External
ROM

Latch for
External
Device
Control

Tri-state
Buffer

LED
Indicator

Communicati
on interface

Processor
A processor is the heart of an embedded system. For an embedded system designer, knowledge of
microprocessors , micro controllers and digital signal processors, are as similar.
Each of these processors are specified by clock speed (100MHz, 200MHz,etc .) and data word length (8bit ,
16 bit ,32 bit ,etc.). Higher the clock speed, the faster will be the processor.
Microcontroller
A typical microcontroller contains a CPU, timer/counter memory (RAM, ROM or both) and other
peripherals in the same integrated circuit.

If processing power and memory requirements are high, one

needs to choose a 16-bit or 32-bit processor in place of 8-bit processor.


Microprocessor

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A microprocessor executes a collection of machine instructions that conveys to the processor what to do?
Those are arithmetic operations, data movements from one memory location to another memory location.
Making decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions.
Digital signal Processor (DSP)
The DSP is a specially designed processor to handle signals rather than data processing signals (whether
audio or video).
External RAM
RAM is a type of memory that can be accessed randomly without touching other locations. RAM is of two
types:
a. Static RAM
b. Dynamic RAM
External ROM
ROM is a memory device for which the processor can read data but to which it cannot write data. A variety
of Rom devices available are:
a. Programmable ROM (PROM)
b. Erasable PROM (EPROM)
c. Electrically EPROM (EEPROM)
Latches and Buffers
The buffers isolate the external from the common bus by using the tristate feature of these chips.
Crystal
The CPU needs a crystal oscillator that generates the clock. It is better to choose the crystal based on the
clock frequency of the processor.
Reset circuit
The reset circuit handles software hang-ups, power supply failures, etc. Periodically the processor sends a
status signal to this circuit. If this signal is not received, it is an indication that something is wrong with the
processor, which is then reset by this circuit.
Chip select logic
In a processor-based system, many digital chips share the common bus to carry out a transaction with a
particular chip. The processor must be able to uniquely identify that chip. The processor performs this
identification throw a signal called chip select signal.
ADC/DAC
Embedded systems receive their input from the external word in the form of analog signals.
The conversion of an analog signal to a digital signal is performed by an Analog to Digital Converter,
(ADC) and the reverse action i.e. the conversion of a Digital signal to an Analog signal is by a Digital to
Analog Converter (DAC).
Display units

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Embedded systems that require user interaction must have display units, which can be either Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) displays or Light Emitting Diode (LED).
Communication Interface
Embedded systems that are to interact with external devices need communication interfaces. Most
processors provide a serial interface to send and receive data in serial format.
Application software
Developer can select suitable language and develop best application software to run the embedded system
hardware. This is called as embedded software
Embedded Software Development
The Embedded Software development sections are

Processors

Memory

Operating Systems

Programming languages

Development tools
Categories of Embedded Systems
Embedded system can be broadly divided into four categories. These categories are based on whether the
system has to work as an independent unit or it has to be networked, and whether it has to perform realtime operations or not.
Stand-alone embedded systems
Stand-alone embedded system work, as the name suggests, in a stand-alone mode (as opposed to a
networked mode) taking input and producing output. The input can be electrical signals from sensors or
commands from a human being such as the pressing of a button. The output can be electrical signals to
drive another system or a LED or LCD displaying information to users. Many embedded systems for
processes control in manufacturing units and automobiles fall into this category.
Real-time embedded systems
Some embedded systems are required to carry out specific tasks in a specified amount of time. Such
systems are called real-time embedded systems. Consider, for example a system that has to open a value
within 30 milliseconds when the humidity crosses a particular threshold. If the job is not carried out within
that 30-milliseconds period, a catastrophe may occur. Such systems in which real constraints have to be
strictly met are called hard real time embedded systems.
Systems in which real-time constraints are present but not critical are called soft real-time embedded
systems.
Networked appliances
Some embedded systems are connected to a network typically one based on a TCP/IP protocol suite, such
as the Internet or a company intranet. They run the complete TCP/IP protocol stack and can communicate
with other nodes on the network.

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Another example is a network enabled web camera that can transmit its video output over the Internet.
These are known as Internet information appliances.
Mobile devices
With the advent of wireless networks that can support very high speeds, mobile devices are capable of
supporting high data rate services in addition to the voice services. Accessing Internet services such as email, the World Wide Web, and so on can be done while a person is on the move. Such devices need to run
a powerful mobile operating system and download information from Web sites.
The special requirements of these mobile devices are threefold. They should have powerful computing and
communicating capabilities. They should be able to perform some real-time tasks in addition to non-realtime tasks and capable of handling multimedia applications.
Requirements of Embedded Systems
Despite the varying types of embedded systems, they all have some common requirements.
Reliability
Embedded systems have to work without the need for the rebooting or resetting typical of many desktop
systems. This calls for very reliable hardware and software. If for example the embedded system comes to a
halt because of a hardware error .the system should reset itself without the need for human intervention.
Cost effectiveness
If an embedded system is designed for a very special purpose cost may not be an issue. However if the
embedded system is for the mass market such as those used in CD players, toys, and mobile devices, cost is
a major consideration in choosing the right processor. Choosing right processor, memory devices, and
peripherals to meet the functionality and performance requirements while keeping the cost reasonable is of
critical importance. In such cases the designers will develop an Application Specific Integrated Circuit to
reduce the hardware components and hence the cost.
Low Power Consumption
Many embedded systems are powered by batteries rather than a main supply . In such cases the power
consumption should be minimized to avoid draining the batteries. It is better to place sleep mode when
there is no operation to perform.
Efficient use of processing power
A wide variety of processors with varying processing powers are available to embedded systems.
Developers must keep processing power, memory and cost in mind when choosing the right processor.
Processor is the term generally used to refer to a micro controller, a microprocessor or a Digital Signal
Processor used in embedded systems. This Processing power requirement is specified in million
instructions per second.
Efficient use of memory

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As most embedded systems do not have secondary storage, flash memory is used to store the program
including the operating system. Micro controllers and DSPs come with onboard memory . Such processors
are used for small-embedded systems as the cost generally is low and the execution generally is fast.
Appropriate execution time
In real-time embedded systems, certain tasks must be performed within a specified time. Special operating
systems, known as real-time operating system, run on these embedded systems.

In hard real-time

embedded systems, which are subject to very strict deadlines for performing specific tasks, the timing
analysis is of great importance. In soft real-time system, occasionally the task may not be performed in a
timely manner.
Applications of Embedded Systems
Application in Market Segments
To understand the various applications of embedded systems, the applications are divided into the
following market segments.

Consumer electronics

Control systems and industrial automation

Biomedical systems

Field instrumentation

Handheld computers

Data communication

Networked information appliances

Telecommunications

Wireless communications
Explanations for few applications
Consumer electronics
Consumer electronic items such as toys, air conditioners, refrigerators, microwave ovens, CD players, MP3
players, Web enabled TV sets, etc are embedded systems with varying processing power and memory
requirements. Different software needs to be written for each type of item by each manufacturer.
Control systems and industrial automation:
The functional block diagram of an embedded system used in process control is shown in the below figure

LCD

LEDs

Keypad

Sensors
A
D
Processor
C
ELECTRONICS
Transd-AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
ucers

D
A
C

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Inputs

Outputs

Host
System

EPROM

RAM

IO interfaces

The embedded systems take electrical signals into input .A IC is used to sense the temperature and convert
it into an electrical signal, the amplitude of the signal being proportional to the temperature. The processor
can process only digital signals. The ADC converts the analog signals into its equivalent digital signal,
which is an electrical representation of a bit stream

of ones and zeros. The processor processes these

signals
Using the software that resites on the memory chip. The embedded system has to control another system or
if it has to directly control another appliance, a DAC is used to convert the output digital signal into analog
format.
Biomedical Systems
Hospitals are full of embedded systems, including X-ray controlling units, EEG and ECG units and other
equipment used for diagnostic testing such as endoscopies. Now a days Pc based ECG and EEG equipment
which belongs to a different type of embedded systems is available . These systems use Pc add on cards
which take the ECG signals and process them; the Pc monitor is used for the display and the Pcs secondary
is used to store the ECG records

Conclusion
Now a days embedded system plays a major role in marketing, business applications and medical analysis.
These are mainly applicable in hard real time applications. By using these systems can do work very
efficiently and effectively. These embedded systems are also cost-effective systems.
REFERENCES
Kamal, R. Embedded Systems Architecture, Programming and Design
Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
Dream Tech Software Team, Programming for Embedded Systems,
WILEY Publishing, India.

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