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AKSHARA06

P.Sowjanya

K.Sunitha

LAKIREDDY BALIREDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

Image fusion can be used to combine two different source images into a single improved image. For

example, consider a pair of objects that appear in two digital camera images in one image, only the

nearer object is out of focus, while in the second image only the farther object is out of focus.

Multiscale transforms can be used to produce a fused image in which both objects appear in focus.

A simple way to produce a fused image is to take pixel-by-pixel averages of the two source images.

However, this method results in reduced contract.

This paper discusses schemes to fuse multiscale decomposition images. In the framework Zhang and

Blum present each scheme includes a method for each of the following steps.

One of the most commonly used methods for performing multiscale decomposition has been the

pyramid transform. This method typically begins with blurring of images followed by other processes,

including subsampling, interpolation, and pixel-by-pixel subtraction of one image from another. A

second decomposition method, called the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is similar to the pyramid

transform.

The activity level of multiscale decomposition coefficients can be computed by coefficient-based

methods where each coefficient is considered separately.

based methods, grouping or window of coefficients are considered, and weighted averaging or ranking

and filtering is used. Region based activity-level computation methods use specially shaped coefficient

windows, such as objects or portions of objects in the image.

The goal of this paper is to present a frame work for classifying MSD image fusion schemes.

Introduction :

Multisensor fusion refers to the synergistic combination of different sources of sensory information

into one representational format.

monitored over a common period of time or from a single sensor monitored over an extended time

period.

A simple image fusion method is to take the average of the source images pixel by pixel. However,

along with simplicity comes several undesired side effects including reduced contrast.

AKSHARA06

The basic idea is to perform a multiscale transform ( MST) on each source image, then construct a

composite multiscale representation from these. The fused image is obtained by taking an inverse

multiscale transform (MST).

MST

FUSION

PROCESS

MST

Registered

Source Images

Fused multiscale

Representation

Mutliscale

Representation.

Fused

Image

The frame work involves five different aspects if image fusion. The most basic of these, for example,

is the MSD method. In previous research, the most commonly used MSD methods for image fusion

where the pyramid transform and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). In this paper, a type of shiftinvariant DWT is also suggested for image fusion. This shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform uses

an over complete version of the wavelet basis, which is called a discrete wavelet frame (DWF). This

paper is one of the first to consider the DWF for image fusion. Fusion schemes based on DWF will be

called DWF fusion schemes. In many cases, the DWF fusion schemes outperform the previous

schemes. More detailed discussion of the existing work is delayed until we discuss our framework for

MSD image fusion. Once the framework is presented, a more lucid discussion can be provided.

MSD based fusion schemes provide much better performance than the simple methods. Their good

performance appears to be due to the following facts.

The human visual system is especially sensitive to local contrast changes, i.e., edges.

Apparently, rapid contrast changes contain extremely useful information for the human observer.

MSD provides information on the magnitude of rapid contrast changes in the image.

Different combinations of MSD methods and fusion procedures yield different performance.

Pixel-based

DWT

DWF

Windowbased

No

Grouping

Single-scale

No.

Verification

Chose

max

Window-based

Verification

Grouping

Weighted

DWF

Regionbased

Multiscale

Grouping

Average

Region-based

Verification

The paper is organized as follows. Section II presents a generic framework for MSD-based image

fusion schemes. Some frequently used MSD methods such as LPT. DWT, and DWF are briefly

reviewed. Different alternatives in the fusion procedure are then described. Some existing image

fusion schemes are also

experimental results. Some performance measures are suggested and the different alternatives in the

AKSHARA06

fusion procedure are compared using these performance measures. Some image fusion schemes which

provide better performance than existing methods are uncovered. Section IV summarizes the paper.

A Generic Frame Work for Image Fusion Schemes :

Fig. 4 illustrates a generic framework for image fusion schemes. At each sample position. We will

make a decision on how the MSD representations of the source images should be used to construct the

MSD representation of the fused images. This decision is based on a quantity we call the activity-level

measurement. The activity-level measurement attempts to determine the quality of each source image.

Some grouping methods and combining methods are also used to obtain the composite MSD

representation of the fused image. A consistency verification procedure is then performed which

incorporates the idea that a composite MSD coefficient is unlikely to be generated in a completely

different manner from all its neighbors.

There are multiple alternatives in the procedures noted by the dashed boxes in Fig.b. Different

combinations of these alternatives lead to different fusion schemes.

Multiscale Decomposition :

A pyramid structure can be described as a collection of images at different scales which together

represent the original image. Each level of the Laplacian pyramid is recursively constructed from its

lower level by the following four basic procedures; blurring (low-pass filtering); sub sampling (reduce

size); interpolation (expand in size); and differencing ( to subtract two images pixel by pixel) in the

order we have given. Thus a blurred and subsampled image is produced by the first two procedures at

each decomposition level. These partial results taken from different decomposition levels can be used

to construct a pyramid known as the Gaussian pyramid.

In computing the Laplacian and Gaussian pyramids, the blurring is achieved using a convolution mask

which should obey certain constraints [42]. Let G k be the kth level of the Gaussian pyramid for the

image I then G0

(i.j) = G ( 2i,2j), i.j. = 0 M/2-1 for an M X M image]. The kth level of the Laplacian pyramid is

defined as the weighted difference between successive levels of the Gaussian pyramid

Lk = Gk 4W * [ Gk+1]

Where

. 2

M image ]. Here convolution by w has the effect of interpolating the inserted zero samples. Alternative

pyramid decomposition methods for image fusion, such as the gradient pyramid (GP) and the ratio-oflow-pass pyramid (RoLP). A GP for an image I can be obtained by applying a gradient operator to

each level of the Gaussian pyramid representation. The image can be completely represented by a set of

four such GPs can be completely represented by a set of four such GPs which represent horizontal,

vertical, and the two diagonal directions.

Activity-Level Measurement :

AKSHARA06

The activity level of an MSD coefficient reflects the local energy in the space spanned by the term in

he expansion corresponding to this coefficient. There are three categories of methods to compute the

activity level A1 (P) at position

based measure. The coefficient-based activity (CBA) measures consider each coefficient separately.

The activity level is described by the absolute value or square of corresponding coefficient in the MSD

representation.

The window-based activity (WBA) measures employ a small (typically 3 x 3 or 5 x 5 ) window

centered at the current coefficient position.

Coefficient Grouping Method :

After the MSD process, each coefficient will have a set of corresponding coefficients in other

frequency bands and other decomposition levels. All the shaded coefficients relate to the same group

of pixels in the source image. For the majority of image fusion approaches, when determining the

composite MSD representation, these coefficients are not associated with each other. We call these

schemes no-grouping (NG) schemes. If the corresponding coefficients in the same decomposition scale

are jointly constrained to take the same decision.

Coefficient Combining Method :

When combining the source MSD representations to produce the composite MSD representation there

are at least two alternatives.

One is the choose-max (CM) scheme, which means just pick the

coefficient with larger activity level and discard the other. If Z is the fused image, this can be described

as Dz

A P = max ( A P . A P )

i

The weights WX and WY may depend on the activity levels of the source MSD coefficients and the

similarity between the source images at the current position. Suppose

AX

P < A P .

Y

Consistency Verification :

Consistency verification attempts to exploit the idea that it is very likely that a good fusion method will

compute neighboring coefficients in the composite MSD in a similar manner. While it is easy to

imagine applying consistency verification to other combining schemes.

Performance Comparison for Different Fusion Schemes :

One way to achieve this in a controlled setting is to generate pairs of distorted source images from a

known test image, then compare the fused image and the original test image. This approach is

reasonable to judge performance for cases where the fused image and the original test image. This

approach is reasonable to judge performance for cases where the source images come from the same

type of sensors.

AKSHARA06

Evaluation Criteria :

Three evaluation criteria were used.

The root mean square error (RMSE) between the reference image R and the fused image Z ( ij denote

pixel location)

N N

R(i, j) Z(i, j)

RMSE =

i 1 j1

N2

The mutual information ( (MI) between the reference image R and the fused image Z

MI(R:Z)

hR ,Z (i1 , j2 )

hR ,Z (i1, j2 ) log 2

i1 1 j2 1

Where hR,Z indicates the normalized joint gray level histogram of images R and Z, h R, hZ are the

normalized marginal histograms of the two images, and L is the number of gray levels.

The percentage of correct decisions

Ne

pe

X100

N1

Where Ne is the number of correct decisions and N t is the total number of decisions. For CM

combining, Nt is the size of MSD representation. For the WA combining, both N e and Nt are counted

based only on those cases when WX in is equal to zero or one. In our examples, W X was zero or one

very often ( half the time or more)

Conclusion :

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The

result of images fusion is a single image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or

further image-processing tasks a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is

studied.

References:

1.

P.K.Vershney, Scanning the special issue on data fusion. Proc.IEEE, vol.85, pp.3-5, Jan.

1997.

2.

J.J.Clark and A.L.Yuille, Data Fusion for Sensory Information Processing System.

Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1990.

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