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You are on page 1of 9

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN

SESSION 20142015

1st January 2015

Notes:

9 am 12 am

(ii) Candidates ARE permitted to use the Engineering Mathematics Handbook.

(iii) Candidates ARE permitted to use steam tables, which are attached in the

datasheet.

(iv) Data sheets are attached to the paper.

(i) You must not have in your possession any material other than that expressly

permitted in the rules appropriate to this examination. Where this is permitted,

such material must not be amended, annotated or modified in any way.

(ii) You must not have in your possession any material that could be determined as

giving you an advantage in the examination.

(iii) You must not attempt to communicate with any candidate during the exam,

either orally or by passing written material, or by showing material to another

candidate, nor must you attempt to view another candidates work.

Failure to comply with the above will be regarded as cheating and may lead

to disciplinary action as indicated in the Academic Quality Handbook

(www.abdn.ac.uk/registry/quality/appendix7x1.pdf) Section 4.14 and 5.

AND two questions from three in PART B.

1/9

15EG4530/2015

Question 1

A sphere of 25.4 cm of diameter is tested in a wind tunnel with standard air ( =

1.22kg/m3 , = 1.7893 106 P a.s) at 0.13 km/hr (0.0361 m/s).

a) At what speed must a 5 cm sphere be towed in water ( = 996.74kg/m3 , = 0.981

103 P a.s) for these spheres to have the same drag coefficient.

[5 marks]

b) What are the drag forces for these two spheres?

[5 marks]

A = Qin Cin

C 1 Cu1

uC + uu

max

[10 marks]

Question 2

It is desired to recover a solute from a solvent by crystallisation. The solubility of the

solute is described by the equation S = 1.5 104 T 1.3 , where S is the solubility in

kg solute/kg solvent, T is the temperature in C. The crystals have a volume (V ) and

surface area (A) described by the following equations:

V = L3

A = L2

where L is the characteristic length, with = 0.1, = 0.8. The heat generated by

crystallisation is 1.0 MJ/kg crystals. The density of the crystals is 2 500 kg/m3.

Crystallisation tests were carried out in the lab using 1 kg solvent with solute concentration 0.25 kg solute/kg solvent as starting material. Crystallisation was started by

adding 2 g seeds when the temperature was 35 C. The seed characteristic length was

1.0 m. Under these conditions, a heat generation rate of 10 W was observed immediately after the addition of the seeds.

At full scale, it is desired to run the crystallisation with 1000 kg solvent and an initial

solute concentration of 0.3 kg solute/kg solvent. It is desired to start the crystallisation

by seeding with 5 g seeds/kg solvent at a temperature of 35 C. The size of the seeds

is the same used in the lab scale tests. The maximum rate of heat generation that is

allowable for the full scale vessel is 20 kW.

Will it be possible to carry out the crystallisation in the full scale vessel without exceeding the maximum allowable heat generation rate?

Assume that agitation conditions are such that the mass transfer coefficient is the same

in the lab scale and in the full scale vessels.

[20 marks]

2/9

15EG4530/2015

Question 3

A classifier has the partition curve values given in Table 1.

Particle Size (m) Feed % Finer G(d) (%)

100

100.0

97.9

50

82.8

81.1

25

68.9

60.8

10

49.5

33.5

Table 1: Partition data for a classifier.

[8 marks]

[12 marks]

3/9

15EG4530/2015

Question 4

Filtration tests were carried out with a certain suspension in a batch pressure filter

with an area of 0.05 m2 . The pressure drop applied to the filter was P = 2 106 Pa.

The data obtained in the lab have been plotted to generate the graph below, where the

line is the linear regression of the experimental data.

In this graph, Y = t/V (s/m3 ), where t is the time from the start of filtration and V is

the volume of filtrate collected, and X = V (m3 ).

In the commercial process it is desired to filter the same suspension using a continuous

rotary drum filter, rotating at 2 revolutions per minute with an applied pressure drop

P = 50 000 Pa. It is required to produce the filtrate at a flow rate of 30 m3/hr.

The flow rate of clean water during washing has to be equal to 3 m3/hr. For operational reasons, the area available for discharge of the cake has to be equal to 20% of the

total lateral surface of the drum.

Calculate the required total area of the rotary drum filter.

Assume that the cake is incompressible and that the resistance of the filter medium can

be ignored in any cases.

The relationship between filtrate volume (V ), time (t), pressure drop (P ), filtration

area (A), cake properties and r and fluid viscosity is given by (neglecting the resistance of the filter medium):

(P ) A2

dV

=

dt

V r

[20 marks]

4/9

15EG4530/2015

Question 5

Answer both parts of this question:

a) Show and explain the typical profile of the rate of drying vs time which is obtained

during batch drying of a wet solid with an air stream. Explain the concepts of equilibrium and critical moisture content. Explain, using appropriate formulas, why the

temperature of the solid is lower than the temperature of the air stream. [6 marks]

b) A solid is dried in batch in the presence of an air stream. A solid, having a surface

area of 2 m2 /kg, is dried from an initial moisture content of 0.2 kg water/kg solid

to the final value of 0.05 kg water/kg solid in 3 h. The air stream has a humidity of

0.01 kg water/kg dry air and a velocity of 2 m/s. During drying, the temperature of

the solid is 35 C.

It is now desired to increase the rate of drying and to dry the solid in 2 h. Assuming that drying happens entirely during the constant-rate phase, calculate the required air velocity under the new conditions.

The vapour pressure of water (PS ) is given by:

Ps (T ) =

T 8.2

where Ps is in Pa and T is in K. The mass transfer coefficient of water in this system is given by:

k = G0.8

where G is the mass flow rate of air in kg/m2 /s.

[14 marks]

Question 6

In the fluidised roasting of iron pyrites, the following information was available:

Concentrate (slurry)

(-750 m)

1400 kg/hr

Air

Roaster

1650 m3 /hr

2.25 m diameter

1.5 m bed depth

Gangue (65%); = 2900 kg/m3

Water

650 C (controlled)

120 kPa abs

g/(cm s))

a) Assuming that the particles are spherical, calculate the modified Reynolds number

for the flow of air.

[6 marks]

5/9

15EG4530/2015

b) What gas flow is necessary to just fluidise the system?

[7 marks]

[7 marks]

END OF PAPER

6/9

15EG4530/2015

DATASHEET

Free settling:

Gravitational drag force:

Fgravity = Vsphere (sphere f luid ) g

Drag force:

CD =

R0

u2

R0 =

12

Re

12 + 0.22

CD Re

0.22

0.05

F

d2 /4

Re < 0.2

0.2 < Re < 5001000

5001000 < Re < 2 105

2 105 < Re

3.45

CD 1.84 Re0.31 + 0.293 Re0.06

Re < 105

Terminal velocities

Galileo/Archimedes number:

Ga =

2

18 Ret

Ga 18 Ret + 2.7 Ret1.687

1 2

Ret

3

Ga < 3.6

3.6 < Ga < 105

Ga > 105

Ret 2.33 Ga0.018 1.53 Ga0.016

g d2 (sphere f luid )

18

m ln(0.001)

=

3d

ut =

t99.9%

7/9

13.3

Ga < 3 109

Stokes regime

Stokes regime

15EG4530/2015

Thickener design:

A = Qin Cin

C 1 Cu1

uC + uu

max

Packed beds:

Cl =

Rl

e3

P 1

=

2

ul

Aspec. part. (1 e) L u2c

Carman-Kozeny equation:

uc =

e3

p

L K 00 A2spec. part. (1 e)2

where uc is the superficial bed velocity and Kozenys constant K 00 may be safely assumed as 5 for roughly spherical particles.

Rel =

part. (1 e)

uc

Aspec.

Erguns expression:

P

(1 e)2 uc

1 e u2c

= 150

+

1.75

L

e3

d2

e3 d

Solution for Erguns bed friction coefficient, assuming spherical particles and a voidage

of e = 0.4.

Cl = 4.17 Re1

l + 0.29

Pressure drop above minimum fluidisation:

P

= g(1 e) (solid f luid )

L mf

Minimum fluidisation using Erguns expression:

Ga = 150

1 emf

1.75 2

Re

+

Re

mf

e3mf

e3mf mf

Remf = 25.7 1

1 + 5.54

Bed expansion

u

Re

=

= en

ut

Ret

8/9

105

Ga

15EG4530/2015

Note: this equation does apply at incipient fluidisation (u = umf and Re = Remf ).

Quadratic formula

2

ax + bx + c = 0

x=

Constants

R = 8.314 kJ/kmol K

9/9

b2 4 a c

2a

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