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# 15EG4530/2015

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN

SESSION 20142015

1st January 2015

Notes:

9 am 12 am

## (i) Candidates ARE permitted to use an approved calculator.

(ii) Candidates ARE permitted to use the Engineering Mathematics Handbook.
(iii) Candidates ARE permitted to use steam tables, which are attached in the
datasheet.
(iv) Data sheets are attached to the paper.

(i) You must not have in your possession any material other than that expressly
permitted in the rules appropriate to this examination. Where this is permitted,
such material must not be amended, annotated or modified in any way.
(ii) You must not have in your possession any material that could be determined as
giving you an advantage in the examination.
(iii) You must not attempt to communicate with any candidate during the exam,
either orally or by passing written material, or by showing material to another
candidate, nor must you attempt to view another candidates work.
Failure to comply with the above will be regarded as cheating and may lead
to disciplinary action as indicated in the Academic Quality Handbook
(www.abdn.ac.uk/registry/quality/appendix7x1.pdf) Section 4.14 and 5.

## Candidates must attempt all questions from PART A

AND two questions from three in PART B.

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## PART A: Answer ALL Questions

Question 1
A sphere of 25.4 cm of diameter is tested in a wind tunnel with standard air ( =
1.22kg/m3 , = 1.7893 106 P a.s) at 0.13 km/hr (0.0361 m/s).
a) At what speed must a 5 cm sphere be towed in water ( = 996.74kg/m3 , = 0.981
103 P a.s) for these spheres to have the same drag coefficient.
[5 marks]
b) What are the drag forces for these two spheres?

[5 marks]


A = Qin Cin

C 1 Cu1
uC + uu


max

## Why is the maximum used and what is its meaning?

[10 marks]

Question 2
It is desired to recover a solute from a solvent by crystallisation. The solubility of the
solute is described by the equation S = 1.5 104 T 1.3 , where S is the solubility in
kg solute/kg solvent, T is the temperature in C. The crystals have a volume (V ) and
surface area (A) described by the following equations:
V = L3

A = L2

where L is the characteristic length, with = 0.1, = 0.8. The heat generated by
crystallisation is 1.0 MJ/kg crystals. The density of the crystals is 2 500 kg/m3.
Crystallisation tests were carried out in the lab using 1 kg solvent with solute concentration 0.25 kg solute/kg solvent as starting material. Crystallisation was started by
adding 2 g seeds when the temperature was 35 C. The seed characteristic length was
1.0 m. Under these conditions, a heat generation rate of 10 W was observed immediately after the addition of the seeds.
At full scale, it is desired to run the crystallisation with 1000 kg solvent and an initial
solute concentration of 0.3 kg solute/kg solvent. It is desired to start the crystallisation
by seeding with 5 g seeds/kg solvent at a temperature of 35 C. The size of the seeds
is the same used in the lab scale tests. The maximum rate of heat generation that is
allowable for the full scale vessel is 20 kW.
Will it be possible to carry out the crystallisation in the full scale vessel without exceeding the maximum allowable heat generation rate?
Assume that agitation conditions are such that the mass transfer coefficient is the same
in the lab scale and in the full scale vessels.
[20 marks]
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Question 3
A classifier has the partition curve values given in Table 1.
Particle Size (m) Feed % Finer G(d) (%)
100
100.0
97.9
50
82.8
81.1
25
68.9
60.8
10
49.5
33.5
Table 1: Partition data for a classifier.

[8 marks]

[12 marks]

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## PART B: Answer TWO Questions From THREE

Question 4
Filtration tests were carried out with a certain suspension in a batch pressure filter
with an area of 0.05 m2 . The pressure drop applied to the filter was P = 2 106 Pa.
The data obtained in the lab have been plotted to generate the graph below, where the
line is the linear regression of the experimental data.

In this graph, Y = t/V (s/m3 ), where t is the time from the start of filtration and V is
the volume of filtrate collected, and X = V (m3 ).
In the commercial process it is desired to filter the same suspension using a continuous
rotary drum filter, rotating at 2 revolutions per minute with an applied pressure drop
P = 50 000 Pa. It is required to produce the filtrate at a flow rate of 30 m3/hr.
The flow rate of clean water during washing has to be equal to 3 m3/hr. For operational reasons, the area available for discharge of the cake has to be equal to 20% of the
total lateral surface of the drum.
Calculate the required total area of the rotary drum filter.
Assume that the cake is incompressible and that the resistance of the filter medium can
be ignored in any cases.
The relationship between filtrate volume (V ), time (t), pressure drop (P ), filtration
area (A), cake properties and r and fluid viscosity is given by (neglecting the resistance of the filter medium):
(P ) A2
dV
=
dt
V r
[20 marks]

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Question 5
Answer both parts of this question:
a) Show and explain the typical profile of the rate of drying vs time which is obtained
during batch drying of a wet solid with an air stream. Explain the concepts of equilibrium and critical moisture content. Explain, using appropriate formulas, why the
temperature of the solid is lower than the temperature of the air stream. [6 marks]
b) A solid is dried in batch in the presence of an air stream. A solid, having a surface
area of 2 m2 /kg, is dried from an initial moisture content of 0.2 kg water/kg solid
to the final value of 0.05 kg water/kg solid in 3 h. The air stream has a humidity of
0.01 kg water/kg dry air and a velocity of 2 m/s. During drying, the temperature of
the solid is 35 C.
It is now desired to increase the rate of drying and to dry the solid in 2 h. Assuming that drying happens entirely during the constant-rate phase, calculate the required air velocity under the new conditions.
The vapour pressure of water (PS ) is given by:
Ps (T ) =

## exp(77.34 + 0.0057 T 7235/T )

T 8.2

where Ps is in Pa and T is in K. The mass transfer coefficient of water in this system is given by:
k = G0.8
where G is the mass flow rate of air in kg/m2 /s.

[14 marks]

Question 6
In the fluidised roasting of iron pyrites, the following information was available:
Concentrate (slurry)
(-750 m)

1400 kg/hr

Air
Roaster

1650 m3 /hr
2.25 m diameter
1.5 m bed depth

## FeS2 (35%); = 4100 kg/m3

Gangue (65%); = 2900 kg/m3
Water

## 30 C (ambient inlet temperature)

650 C (controlled)
120 kPa abs

## Note: Air viscosity at 30 C is 190 micropoise, at 650 C is 410 micropoise. (1 poise = 1

g/(cm s))
a) Assuming that the particles are spherical, calculate the modified Reynolds number
for the flow of air.
[6 marks]
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b) What gas flow is necessary to just fluidise the system?

[7 marks]

## c) What gas flow will cause conveying?

[7 marks]

END OF PAPER

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DATASHEET
Free settling:
Gravitational drag force:
Fgravity = Vsphere (sphere f luid ) g
Drag force:
CD =

R0
u2

R0 =

## Drag coefficients for spherical particles:

12

Re

12 + 0.22
CD Re

0.22

0.05

F
d2 /4

Re < 0.2
0.2 < Re < 5001000
5001000 < Re < 2 105
2 105 < Re

## Alternatively, we have a more general expression

3.45
CD 1.84 Re0.31 + 0.293 Re0.06

Re < 105

Terminal velocities
Galileo/Archimedes number:
Ga =

2

## Drag coefficients related to Galileo number

18 Ret
Ga 18 Ret + 2.7 Ret1.687

1 2
Ret
3

Ga < 3.6
3.6 < Ga < 105
Ga > 105

## we also have the more general relationship

Ret 2.33 Ga0.018 1.53 Ga0.016
g d2 (sphere f luid )
18
m ln(0.001)
=
3d

ut =
t99.9%

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13.3

Ga < 3 109

Stokes regime
Stokes regime

15EG4530/2015
Thickener design:

A = Qin Cin

C 1 Cu1
uC + uu


max

Packed beds:
Cl =

Rl
e3
P 1
=

2
ul
Aspec. part. (1 e) L u2c

Carman-Kozeny equation:
uc =

e3
p
L K 00 A2spec. part. (1 e)2

where uc is the superficial bed velocity and Kozenys constant K 00 may be safely assumed as 5 for roughly spherical particles.
Rel =

part. (1 e)
uc

Aspec.

Erguns expression:

P
(1 e)2 uc
1 e u2c
= 150
+
1.75
L
e3
d2
e3 d

Solution for Erguns bed friction coefficient, assuming spherical particles and a voidage
of e = 0.4.
Cl = 4.17 Re1
l + 0.29
Pressure drop above minimum fluidisation:


P
= g(1 e) (solid f luid )
L mf
Minimum fluidisation using Erguns expression:
Ga = 150

1 emf
1.75 2
Re
+
Re
mf
e3mf
e3mf mf

## Solution at emf 0.4



Remf = 25.7 1

1 + 5.54

Bed expansion
u
Re
=
= en
ut
Ret
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105


Ga

15EG4530/2015
Note: this equation does apply at incipient fluidisation (u = umf and Re = Remf ).