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LB3 Civil Engineering ITS

Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

1 / 39

References

Burns, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.

Prestressed Concrete, a Fundamental Approach, Edward G.

Nawy, 5th Ed, Prentice Hall, 2006.

Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design, Fundamentals,

Antoine E. Naaman, 2nd Ed, Tecno Press 3000, 2004.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

2 / 39

Objectives

Understand basic concept of prestressed concrete.

Understand the effect of low strength steel and high strength steel

to prestressing.

Distinguish three principle of prestressed concrete.

Understand the advantages and disadvantages of prestressed

concrete.

Understand the loading stages of prestressing.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

3 / 39

Introduction

General principle of prestressed concrete.

Classification and Types.

Stages of Loading.

Reinforced vs. Prestressed vs. Partial Prestressed Concrete.

Design Codes for Prestressed Concrete.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

4 / 39

Definitions:

Leonhard F.

The basic idea of prestressing is that the concrete should,before

external loading is applied, be put under compression in all parts

where the loading produces tensile stresses, so that on the tensile side

these compressive prestresses will first have to be cancelled before any

tension actually occurs in the concrete.

Naaman A.E.

Prestressing is the deliberate creation of permanent internal stresses in

a structure or system in order to improve its performance. Such

stresses are designed to counteract those induced by external loading.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

5 / 39

Definitions:(cont.)

Abeles,P.W. ;Bardhan-Roy,B.K; Turner,F.H.

Prestressing may be defined as the purposeful creation and controlled

creation of permanent stresses in a structures member, before the full

dead and live loads are opplied, so as to counteract all of part of these

loads. It serves two main purposes: to inprove the resistence of the

member to the dead load and live loads(service load) and to modify

the behavior of the members or structure in such a way as to make it

more suitable for its intended purpose.

Precontraindre est une construction, cest y crer artificiellement avant

application des charges exterieures ou simultanement avec celle-ci, des

contraintes permanentes tellque composes avec les conterintes due

aux charge exterieur les contraint totales restent en tout point, et pour

tous les cas envisage de compris entre les limites au contraintes que la

matiere peut uporter infinement.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

6 / 39

Concept

Basic Concept

Prestressed concrete is basically concrete in which internal stresses of a

suitable magnitude and distribution are introduced so that the stresses

resulting from the external loads are counteracted to a desired degree.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

7 / 39

History

The application of pre-stressing in concrete structures is not the only

instance. There were some earlier attempts made.Two of the instances

are provided below

Force-fitting of metal bands on wooden

barrels.

The metal bands around the barrel induce a

state of initial hoop compression to

counteract the hoop tension caused by filling

of liquid in the barrels.

Pre-tensioning of spokes in a bicycle wheel.

The pre-tension is applied in the spoke to

such an extent that there will always be a

residual tension in the spoke

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

8 / 39

Prestressed History

1886

1888

1908

1923

1924

Introduced the concept of tightening steel tie rods in artificial stone and concrete arches.

Doehring, C. E. W., (Germany)

Manufactured concrete slabs and small beams with embedded tensioned steel.

Stainer, C. R., (USA)

Recognised losses due to shrinkage and creep, and suggested retightening the rods to recover lost prestress.

Emperger, F., (Austria)

Developed a method of winding and pre- tensioning high

tensile steel wires around concrete pipes.

Hewett, W. H., (USA)

Introduced hoop-stressed horizontal reinforcement around

walls of concrete tanks through the use of turnbuckles.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

9 / 39

1925

1926

1938

1940

Used high strength unbonded steel rods. The rods were

tensioned and anchored after hardening of the concrete.

Eugene Freyssinet (France)

Used high tensile steel wires, with ultimate strength as high

as 1725 MPa and yield stress over 1240 MPa. In 1939,

he developed conical wedges for end anchorages for posttensioning and developed double-acting jacks. He is often

referred to as the Father of Prestressed concrete.

Hoyer, E., (Germany)

Developed long line pre-tensioning method.

Magnel, G., (Belgium)

Developed an anchoring system for post-tensioning, using

flat wedges.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

10 / 39

MATERIAL

RESISTING

COMPRESSION

MATERIAL

RESISTING

TENSION

STONES

BRICKS

BAMBOOS

ROPES

CONCRETE

IRON BAR

STEEL WIRE

STRUCTURAL

STEEL

CONCRETE

HIGH

STRENGTH

STEEL

ACTIVE

COMBINATION

Reference:

TIMBER

REINFORCED

PASSIVE

COMBINATION

HIGH

STRENGTH

CONCRETE

MATERIAL

RESISTING TENSION

AND COMPRESSION

PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

11 / 39

First Patent

Steel is Prestressed

lengthening of steel

= 0.00062L

Prestressed is Lost

Shrinkage and creep

of concrete

= -0.00062L

successful because the low tensile

prestress in the steel was soon lost

as result of the shrinkage and creep

of concrete.

Consider an ordinary steel bar

prestressed to a working stress of

124 MPa. If modulus of elasticity of

steel approximately 200 103 MPa,

the unit lengthening of the bar is

given by:

124

f

=

= 0.00062

E

200000

Shrinkage and creep of concrete induce comparable amount of

shortening in concrete.

=

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

12 / 39

Modern Prestressed

Steel is Prestressed

lengthening of steel

= 0.0050L

prestressing. Such wire, with

ultimate strength as high as 1725

MPa, and yield point over 1240

MPa, are prestressed to about 1000

MPa, creating strain of:

100

f

=

= 0.005

E

200000

Assuming the total lost due to shrinkage and creep is 0.0008, the net

strain of 0.0050-0.0008=0.0042 would still be left in the wires, which is

equaivalent to a stress of:

Prestressed is Lost

of concrete = -0.0008L

effective strain in

steel = 0.0042L

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

13 / 39

General Principles

basic behavior of prestressed concrete.

Prestressed to transform concrete into an Elastic Material.

Prestressing for combination of High-strength Steel with Concrete.

Prestressing to archive Load Balancing.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

14 / 39

First concept Prestressing to transform concrete into elastic

material.

concentric tendon

(Force F )

F

A

My

I

F

A

F

A

Mc

I

Mc

I

Mc

I

F

A

Mc

I

f =

(ITS Surabaya)

F

My

A

I

Reinforced Concrete II

15 / 39

A beam of 200x300mm with the span of 8m, prestress with force

F = 240 kN placed at c.g of beam, Concrete weight= 25 kN/m3 , the

distributed dead load qDL = 1.5 kN/m

1

Moment at mid span MDL,mid = qDL L2 = 12 kN.m

8

3

Moment at 1/4 span MDL,L/4 =

qDL L2 = 9 kN.m

32

Stresses:

caused by Compression force:

240000

F

=

= 4 MPa

A

200 300

caused by moment at mid span:

12 106 150

MDL c

=

= 4 MPa, (3 MPa ,for L/4)

1

I

200 3003

12

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

16 / 39

concentric tendon

(Force F )

8

-4

Stress due to F

(ITS Surabaya)

-3

Stress due to M

Stress combination

Reinforced Concrete II

17 / 39

Put the prestressed 100mm below concrete center of gravity (c.g.c), the

stresses are:

c.g.c

c.g.s

h = 300

e = 100

b = 200

Stress at mid section

-8

f=

F

A

FIey MI y

4

F

A

F ey

I

-4

MDL y

I

8

f=

F

A

F ey

I

My

I

-8

MLL = f yI = 8 12

2003003

150

MLL = 24kN.m or

-1

qLL = 3 kN/m

4

F

A

F ey

I

(ITS Surabaya)

-3

MDL y

I

7

f=

F

A

F ey

I

Reinforced Concrete II

My

I

at top fiber on 14 L section

18 / 39

Parabolic tendon

The ideal tendon geometry is the same shape of the moment diagram,

which is:

1

1

1

Mx =

qL x qx2 or Mx = q(l x2 )

2

2

2

The ideal curve set by parabolic equation:

y = ax2 + bx + c

by finding a, b, and c we get:

y=

4fh(l x)

l2

by putting x = 41 l = 2000mm will get:

y=

(ITS Surabaya)

= 75mm

80002

Reinforced Concrete II

19 / 39

the stress at 41 l section is:

f =

Fec

240 103 75 150

=

= 6 MPa.

1

3

I

12 200 300

-6

F

A

F ey

I

-3

MDL y

I

7

f=

F

A

F ey

I

My

I

of the beam.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

20 / 39

Second Concept Prestressing for Combination of High-Strength

Steel with Concrete.

This concept consider prestressed concrete as a combination of

steel and concrete, similar to reinforced concrete. with steel taking

tension and concrete taking compression so that the two materials

form a resisting couple against external moment.

From figure it is evident that the C-line is varying distance a from

the T-line. The moment given by:

M = Ca = Ta

while excentricity e is known, so e0 = a e, since C = T, a = M/T

e0 =

M

e

T

from figure:

ft =

(ITS Surabaya)

Ce0 ct

C

Ce0 ct

C

+

and fb =

Ac

Ic

Ac

Ic

Reinforced Concrete II

21 / 39

w=0

w=0

C=0

e

T =p C=p

T =0

l/2

l/2

(a)

a=0

(b)

w = w1

w = w1

C = C1

C=p

a = a1 = e

T =p

T = T1

l/2

w=w

l/2

(c)

w=w

(d)

C = C2

C=p

0

e

e

T =p

T = T2

l/2

l/2

(e)

(ITS Surabaya)

(f)

Reinforced Concrete II

22 / 39

From previous parabolic tendon with excentrivity 100mm, at midle

section M = 12 kN.m , T = C = 240 kN

M

12 106

=

= 50 mm

T

240 103

e0 = a e = 50 100 = 50 mm below cgc

a=

ft =

fb =

Fe0 ct

240 103

240 103 50 150

F

=

=0

1

3

A

Ic

200 300

200

300

12

F

Fe0 cb

240 103

240 103 50 150

+

=

+

=8

1

3

A

Ic

200 300

12 200 300

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

23 / 39

This technique is based on utilizing the vertical force of the draped or

harped prestressing tendon to counteract or balance the imposed

gravity loading to which a beam is subjected. Hence, it is applicable to

nonstraight prestressing tendons.

w

w

F

wb

(b)

(a)

Let the parabolic function

y = Ax2 + Bx + C

represent the tendon drape; the force F denotes the pull to which the

tendon is subjected.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

24 / 39

y = 0,

dy

= 0,

dx

C=0

B=0

for x = l/2,

y = a,

A=

4a

l2

q=F

2 y

x2

4a

8Fa

2 = 2

2

l

l

Hence, if the tendon has a parabolic profile in the prestressed beam

and the prestressing force is denoted by F, the balanced-load intensity

q=F

wb =

(ITS Surabaya)

8Fa

l2

Reinforced Concrete II

25 / 39

As previous example, calculate balancing load:

wb =

8Fa

8 240 0.1

=

= 3 kN/m

l2

82

This upward balancing load will hold the dead load from structure,

the balancing load it self have twice the value of dead load (1.5kN/m).

The unbalance load (reserved capacity):

wub = 1.5 3 = 1.5 kN/m

or equivalent to:

1

1.5 82 = 12 kN.m

8

This potentially used to carry live load and supper imposed dead load.

M=

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

26 / 39

Based on method of

prestressing

Based on concreting

In-situ

Precast

pre-tensioning

Post-tensioning

Self stressing

Full prestressing

Partial prestressing

External prestressing

Internal prestressing

interface

Bonded

Unbonded

Linear

Circular

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

27 / 39

1

Reduction of steel corrosion: Increase in durability.

Full section is utilised: Higher moment of inertia, Less

deformations, Increase in shear capacity, Suitable for use in

pressure vessels, Improved performance (resilience) under

dynamic and fatigue loading

Reduction in self weight.

More aesthetic appeal due to slender sections.

More economical sections.

Rapid construction

Better quality control

Reduced maintenance

Suitable for repetitive construction

Multiple use of formwork

Availability of standard shapes.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

28 / 39

as reinforced concrete.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

29 / 39

Stages of Loading

Initial stage

Before Prestressing:

Support yield should be prevented,

Controlled curing is important,

Shrinkage crack should be prevented.

At transfer of Prestress:

Maximum tendon stress is limited (0.8fpu or 0.95fpy )

Crushing of concrete at the anchorage is prevented

Decentering and Retensioning:

False work maybe removed after prestressing

The stresses at various stages of tensioning must be studied

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

30 / 39

Stages of Loading

Intermediate stage

This is the stage during transportation and erection. It is occur only for

precast member when they are transported to the site and erected in

position. It highly important to ensure

The member are properly supported

The member are properly handled

proper support condition and loading.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

31 / 39

Stages of Loading

Final stage

This is the stage when actual working loads come on stuuctures.

Sustained load

Control of camber and deflection.

Working Load

Check for excessive stresses and strins.

Cracking Load

Investigate the cracking load due to use of structures.

Ultimate Load

For code requirement, ultimate load should be calculated using

load factor and strength reduction factor.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

32 / 39

Typical Load

Cracked with

deflection under

deadload and

full service load

Reinforced

Concrete

Reinforcing bar

Dead Load

Prestressed

Concrete

Prestressing Tendon

Uncracked with

likely camber

under dead load

and prestressed

Dead Load

Partial

Prestressed

Concrete

Uncracked under

dead load

Cracked under

Service Load

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

33 / 39

SNI 2847-2013 or ACI 318-11 already integrate the design of reinforced

and prestressed concrete design.

SNI 2847-2013 or ACI 318-11 already use unified provision, meanings

that there is no difference in strength reduction factors for reinforced

concrete or prestressed concrete.

Prestressed concrete sections shall be classified as either

tension-controlled, transition, or compression-controlled sections, in

accordance with 10.3.3 and 10.3.4. The appropriate strength reduction

factors, , from 9.3.2 shall apply.

The provisions of Chapter 18 of SNI/ACI were developed primarily

for structural members such as slabs, beams, and columns that are

commonly used in buildings.

For bridges structures AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

normally used or for indonesia RSNI T12 2004.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

34 / 39

Terminology

Tendon:

stretched element used in a concrete member of structure to

impart prestress to the concrete.

Anchorage:

A device generally used to enable the tendon to impart and

maintain prestress in concrete.

Pretensioning:

A method of prestressing concrete in which the tendons are

tensioned before the concrete is placed. In this method, the

concrete is introduced by bond between steel & concrete.

Post-tensioning:

A method of prestressing concrete by tensioning the tendons

against hardened concrete. In this method, the prestress is

imparted to concrete by bearing.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

35 / 39

Posttensioned Beam

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

36 / 39

Pretensioned Beam

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

37 / 39

External Prestressing

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

38 / 39

Home Work

Find the prestressed structures that you think it is most attractive and

most innovative use of prestressing.

Pictures/ figures/ skets is good.

(ITS Surabaya)

Reinforced Concrete II

39 / 39

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