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1. In manufacturing process, temperature increase is problem for precision

machining. (For example: thermal expansion). Explain the method to
improve precision processing for the example of cutting by lathe machine,
considering the kind of material and measuring system with some sensors.

Variation in temperature of the machining environment causes expansion and

contraction of machine components owing to thermal effects. Temperature
variation can be caused by ambient temperature changes, self-generated
heat in machine ballscrews and spindles, local heating affects owing to
friction, and heat soak from major power sources. Temperature sensors built
into the machine can report conditions to the machine control so that it can
apply thermal compensation algorithms and can be used to improve machine
Technique to improve precision processing:



Control of the heat flow into the machine tool environment

High volume of coolant used
Temperature controlled boxes that enclosed the machine
Redesign machine tool to reduce sensitivity to heat flow
Use material with low expansion coefficient
Optimize design before compensation
Compensation through controlled movement
Real- time thermal compensation

1. Describe the definition of temperature, unit symbol, etc and various

description of temperature. Also describe the importance of standard units
regarding temperature, as an example.
A temperature is a comparative objective measure of hot and cold. It is
measured, typically by a thermometer, through the bulk behavior of a
thermometric material, detection of heat radiation, or by particle velocity or
kinetic energy. It may be calibrated in any of various temperature scales,
Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc.



The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin

The degree Celsius [] is an acceptable


non SI unit for temperature.

Symbol: Lowercase letters without a

Symbol: The reversed phrase Celsius

degree symbol [K].


The kelvin is a fundamental unit; that is,

temperature intervals (T).






it cannot be reduced to any simpler

By definition, the kelvin is 1/273.16 of

By definition, degree Celsius is 1/273.16

the thermodynamic temperature of the

of the thermodynamic temperature of

triple point of water.

the triple point of water like the kelvin,

but the triple point of water is assigned
the value 0.01 and absolute zero is
assigned the value 273.15 .

Therefore the triple point of water is the

The degree Celsius and kelvin have the

upper fixed point, absolute zero is the

same size, but assign zero to different

lower fixed point, and 273.16 K is the







temperature scale.

Relationship between Kelvin and degree

T [K]= T [C]
T [K] = T [C] + 273.15
T [C] = T [K] 273.15

Important of standard units:

Using a standard system of units can facilitate sharing of information

regarding temperature among people all around the world.

Using a standard unit can also facilitate data analysis.
Help to show another person the exact temperature you have;
Assist in solving a mathematical problem, especially in chemistry,

where you can follow the units to get to the answer

Show which measurement system the person is using.

2. Describe the kind of energy, the description and the unit. Also describe about
transformation of energy, conservation of energy.
Energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or
converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
Energy can be classified as either stored (potential) energy and working
(kinetic) energy. All energy can be measured in Joules.

Potential Energy

The energy that an object has as the result of its
position or state. Some examples of potential
energy include: chemical, elastic, gravitational,

Kinetic Energy

The energy that appears in the form of an objects
motion. KE = 1/2mv2. Some examples of kinetic

Mechanical Energy

energy include: sound, electrical, light

kinetic and potential energy (of lifting, bending,

Thermal Energy

stretching or twisting)
the total energy of the particles that make up a


mass. Thermal energy is internal.

A transfer of energy from one part of a substance
to another, or from one object to another, because
of a difference in temperature. Heat is a form of
energy associated with the motion of atoms or

molecules and is capable of being transmitted

through solid and fluid media by conduction,
through fluid media by convection, and through
empty space by radiation. Heat is not contained in
a mass; an object contains thermal energy.
Light Energy

Sometimes called radiant energy and is visible to

the human eye. It is emitted by moving charged
particles. Light sometimes behaves like particles,

Chemical Energy

called photons, and at other times like waves.

The potential energy held in the covalent bonds
between atoms in a molecule. Food is essentially

Nuclear Energy
Electrical Energy

stored potential energy

Energy that is released when the nuclei of atoms
are split (fission) or fused together (fusion).
Energy that runs our appliances.

The joule is the International System of Units (SI) unit of measurement for


kg m2 Nm
= 2

Transformation of energy
Energy transformation or energy conversion is the process of changing one
form of energy to another. In physics, the term energy describes the capacity
to produce certain changes within a system, without regard to limitations in
transformation imposed. Changes in total energy of systems can only be
accomplished by adding or removing energy from them, as energy is a
quantity which is conserved (unchanging), as stated by the first law of

Thermoelectric (Heat Electric energy)

Geothermal power (Heat Electric energy)

Heat engines, such as the internal combustion engine used in cars, or

the steam engine (Heat Mechanical energy)

Ocean thermal power (Heat Electric energy)
Hydroelectric dams (Gravitational potential energy Electric energy)

Conservation of energy
According to conservation of energy, energy can neither be created
(produced) nor destroyed by itself. It can only be transformed. The total
inflow of energy into a system must equal the total outflow of energy from
the system, plus the change in the energy contained within the system.
Energy is subject to a strict global conservation law; that is, whenever one
measures (or calculates) the total energy of a system of particles whose
interactions do not depend explicitly on time, it is found that the total energy
of the system always remains constant.

3. Investigate about Boltzmann Distribution and Boltzmann factors. And

describe the relation between temperature and thermal energy.
Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution) is a probability
distribution, probability measure, or frequency distribution of particles in a
system over various possible states. The distribution is expressed in the form


is state energy (which varies from state to state), and








of Boltzmann's

constant and thermodynamic temperature.

The ratio of a Boltzmann distribution computed for two states is known as
the Boltzmann factor and characteristically only depends on the states'
energy difference.

Temperature: Temperature is the average kinetic energy within a given object

and is measured by three scales of measurement (Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin)
Thermal Energy: Thermal energy is defined as the total of all kinetic energies
within a given system.
Thermal energy is directly proportional to the temperature within a given
system. As a result of this relationship between thermal energy and the
temperature of the system, the following applies: The more molecules
present, the greater the movement of molecules within a given system, the
greater the temperature and the greater the thermal energy.
+ molecules = +movement = + temperature = + thermal energy