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Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:20132019

DOI 10.1007/s13369-013-0739-2

RESEARCH ARTICLE - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Comparison of Fuzzy Identification Schemes for Robust Control


Performance of an Adaptive Fuzzy Controller
Muhammad Bilal Kadri

Received: 14 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published online: 8 September 2013
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013

Abstract Fuzzy identification schemes play a vital role in


the control performance of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Nonlinear uncertain systems are difficult to model and control. A
good fuzzy model of an uncertain non-linear system can be
guaranteed if the adaptation mechanism is computationally
efficient as well as robust in the face of noisy data coming from the sensors. The prediction accuracy of the fuzzy
model depends on the quality of learning provided by the
identification algorithm. In adaptive fuzzy control problems
the control performance is heavily dependent on the parameters estimates produced by the identification scheme. In this
paper the controller develops an inverse model of the plant
online. The problem of inverse model identification becomes
more challenging when external disturbances and plant delays are present in the control loop. In this research work
two different computationally efficient fuzzy identification
schemes are discussed. They are used for estimating the rule
confidences of Fuzzy Relational Models and are based on the
probabilistic learning approach. Both the classes of learning
schemes are compared on the basis of robustness, rate of
convergence and dependence on other controller parameters
such as learning rate and forgetting factor. The control objective is a tracking problem when the plant under control is
non-linear and controlled output is corrupted by sensor noise.
Keywords Fuzzy identification schemes Fuzzy relational
models Robust learning schemes RSK

M. B. Kadri (B)
Electronics and Power Engineering Department, PN Engineering
College, National University of Sciences and Technology,
Islamabad Pakistan
e-mail: bilal_kadri@yahoo.com; bilal.kadri@pnec.edu.pk

1 Introduction
Fuzzy logic controllers have shown exceptional performance
when the plant under control is non-linear and little a priori
information is available about the system. Adaptive fuzzy
logic controllers are able to update the controller parameters
when the system dynamics changes over time. The adaptive mechanism depends on the information available; this
information includes all the sensor outputs, e.g. controlled
variable, other states which are used in the control law, etc.
Sensors no matter how they are designed can never be ideal
and they introduce noise into the measured variables. The
noisy data produced by the sensors are hazardous for the
learning schemes. The adaptive mechanism might de-tune
the fuzzy controller based on the poor information available

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from the sensors. The learning schemes used to adapt the


fuzzy controllers play an essential part in the overall control
performance of the system. Robustness of the fuzzy identification schemes guarantees tight control performance. The
aim of the investigation was to compare the control performance of different fuzzy identification schemes which are
used to estimate the parameters in a direct adaptive fuzzy
controller.
In order to test the performance of the identification
schemes the measured output is heavily corrupted with sensor noise. Two different fuzzy identification schemes have
been used to identify an inverse plant model from the plant
data. The paper discusses fuzzy identification schemes with
special focus on their performance in the presence of ideal
and non-ideal data. The paper is organized as follows: Sect. 2
defines the fuzzy models with a special focus on fuzzy relational models, adaptive fuzzy controller is discussed in Sects.
3, and 4 includes a detailed explanation of the fuzzy identification schemes used in conjunction with the fuzzy controller.
The simulation setup and the control performance are given
in Sects. 5, 6, respectively.

the output. The output of a multi input single output fuzzy


relational model can be described [3,4] by
Y = R X 1 X 2 . . . X n
n
y(x) =

(1)

i=1 { f Ai (x i )[ R Ai ,B1 U1
n

i=1 { f Ai (x i )[ R Ai ,B1

+ R Ai ,B2 U2 ]}
,
+ R Ai ,B2 ]}

(2)

where Y and y(x) are the fuzzified and defuzzified output of


the fuzzy model, respectively. Y is a N 1 array whose elements are the membership grade of the output in the reference
sets B1 , B2 ,, BN . It is assumed without loss of generality
[5] that N = 2 in this thesis. Ui is the position of the apex
of the ith output set. x = [x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ]T are the crisp inputs to the fuzzy model. X i = [ Ai (xi )] is an array whose
entry is the membership grade of the input xi , in the multidimensional fuzzy set Ai which describe the ith input space.
f Ai (xi ) = Ai (xi ). R is the fuzzy relational array containing N n elements (rule confidences) and o is the fuzzy
composition operator. Choosing sum-product as the fuzzy
composition operator and using height defuzzification, the
output of the FRM is calculated by Eq. (2).

2 Fuzzy Models

3 Adaptive Fuzzy Control Structure

Fuzzy Models can be broadly classified into linguistic fuzzy


models and rule-based fuzzy models [1]. The linguistic fuzzy
models are the Mamdani fuzzy models in which the rule base
is developed from expert knowledge. When input output data
are available then a fuzzy model can be developed by defining
rules over the universe of discourse and by incorporating
some adaptive mechanism. The rule-based fuzzy models can
be further categorized into TakagiSugeno Models (TS) and
fuzzy relational models (FRM). FRM [2] have rules equal to
all the possible different combinations of the input and output
fuzzy sets. A rule confidence [0, 1] is assigned to each of the
rule, which measures the amount of information a particular
rule contains or to what extent a rule can contribute in forming

A block diagram of the fuzzy adaptive control is shown in


Fig. 1. The fuzzy control structure has shown robust control performance when the plant is non-linear and little a
priori information is available [3,6,7]. The fuzzy controller
is based on the model reference adaptive control (MRAC)
strategy. MRAC has been widely reported in literature [8,9].
The feedforward controller develops an inverse model of the
plant to be controlled. The inverse is developed by with the
help of the fuzzy identification scheme, which in turn incorporates the feedback error learning [10,11] mechanism to
estimate the correct control signal [12]. The estimated correct control signal along with the plant output and reference
signal is fed into the fuzzy identification scheme. The fuzzy

Fig. 1 Block diagram of fuzzy


model reference adaptive
controller

Measurable
Disturbances

Feedforward
Controller

uf (t)

Unmeasured
Disturbances

Fuzzy
Identification
Algorithm

r(t)

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Reference
Model

+
-

e(t)

Proportional
Controller

+ u(t)

ub(t)
+

Plant

Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:20132019

2015

identification scheme computes an estimate of the controller


parameters which are updated at every instant. The proportional controller guarantees acceptable control performance
when the rule base is empty, i.e. during the initial phase [3].
The reference model is used to make the reference trajectory
achievable. The control signal produced from the feedforward controller is uf (t) and the control signal generated by
the proportional controller is ub (t). In ideal conditions ub (t)
should be zero when the controller is perfectly trained.

R A1s1 ,...,Ansn ,B j (k)


N
N k f
A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) B j (y[k])
k=1
,
=
N
N
k f
A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k])
k=1

(4)

where 0 < 1 is the forgetting factor and N is the


number of times a particular combination of input sets is fired.
The RSK scheme can be converted into a recursive form to
save memory space and processing power. By defining an
n
si the denominator of Eq. (4) can be
F array of size i=1
written in recursive form:

4 Fuzzy Identification Schemes


The fuzzy identification schemes discussed in this paper belong to two different classes: the first class of identification
schemes is based on probabilistic model and is devised for
fuzzy relational models (FRM). In the first case RSK learning
scheme and modified RSK are discussed.

FA1s1 ,...,Ansn (k)

f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) + FA1s1 ,...,Ansn (k 1)

if f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) = 0


=

F
(k 1)

A1s1 ,...,Ansn
otherwise

(5)

4.1 RSK Fuzzy Identification (RSK)


The scheme was proposed by [1315] and is one of the
simplest schemes for estimating the rule confidences in the

R A1s1 ,...,Ansn ,B j (k) =

f A1s

The F array indicates the frequency with which a particular combination of input has been fired. The recursive form
of the RSK scheme will then be of the following form:

,...,Ansn (x[k]) B j (y[k])+R A1s ,...,Ansn ,B j (k1)F A1s ,...,Ansn (k1)


1
1
FA1s ,...,Ansn (k)
1

A1s1 ,...,Ansn ,B j (k

1)

if f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) = 0

(6)

otherwise

presence of noise. It can be used online effectively due to


its computational simplicity. The algorithm is defined for
a multi-input single-output system. A rule confidence matrix is formed which stores the mapping between the inputs
x1 (k), x2 (k), . . . , xn (k) and the output y(k) where k is the
sampling time. The entry R A1s1 ,...,Ansn ,B j (k) in the fuzzy relation array measures the possibility of obtaining an output
y(k) in set B j from inputs x1 (k), x2 (k), . . . , xn (k) in sets
A1s1 , . . . , Ansn , respectively. The input space of each variable
is divided into r referential sets using r fuzzy membership
functions. The fuzzy relational matrix are determined by
N
k=1 f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) B j (y[k])
,
R A1s1 ,...,Ansn ,B j (k) =
N
k=1 f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k])

4.2 Modified RSK Fuzzy Identification (MRSK)


The MRSK algorithm was proposed by [17,18] in which the
author introduced a second fA1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) matrix given
in Eq. (7), which makes the algorithm more robust to the
non-ideal data. When data are encountered the strength with
which it fires the rules, i.e. f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) is calculated.
If the value is above the current activation level fA1s1 ,...,Ansn
(x[k 1]) then the rule is fired; otherwise, the rule confidence value is not updated. This methodology helps in reducing the effect of non-ideal data, which may corrupt the
previous learning. fA1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) matrix is calculated as
follows:

(3)
where, f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) is the product A1s1 (x1 [k]), . . . ,
Ansn (xn [k]) and the summation runs over the relevant observations. The RSK scheme can be modified to weight the
data exponentially [16]. This will enable the recent data to
have more impact on the rule confidences and to forget the
old data.

fA1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k])

= max( fA1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k 1), f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k])

(7)

The recursive form of the MRSK learning scheme utilizes


the F(k) array which is represented by

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Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:20132019

FA1s1 ,...,Ansn (k)

f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) + FA1s1 ,...,Ansn (k 1)

if f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) fA1s1 ,...,Ansn (k)


=

F
(k 1)

A1s1 ,...,Ansn
otherwise
(8)
The recursive form of the MRSK scheme will then be of the
following form:

The simulation is run for 1.0105 samples. The sampling


time of the controller is 10 s.
5.3 Control Objective and Disturbance Modeling
The control objective is setpoint tracking which varies between 0.25 and 0.75 with a time period of 4,000 samples.
The controller along with the plant and sensor is shown in
Fig. 2. The sensor dynamics is modeled as a first-order system

f
(x[k]) B j (y[k])+R A1s ,...,Ansn ,B j (k1)F A1s ,...,Ansn (k1)

A1s1 ,...,Ansn
1
1

R A1s ,...,Ansn ,B j (k) =


1

R A

F A1s ,...,Ansn (k)

(k 1)
1s1 ,....,Ansn ,B j

if f A1s ,...,Ansn (x[k]) fA1s ,....,Ansn (k)


1
1

(9)

otherwise

5 Simulation Results
In order to thoroughly test the control performance two different plants are considered. The first plant is a Hammerstein model of a cooling coil whereas the second plant is a
non-linear model of a three tank system. The fuzzy adaptive
controller is modeled as a FRM.

having a time constant of 1,000 s. The sensor noise is generated by a random number generator. The random number
is normally distributed with a zero mean () and a standard
deviation ( ).

6 Control Performance of the Adaptive Fuzzy


Controller

5.1 Cooling Coil Modeled as a Hammerstein Model

6.1 Parameter Convergence of the Learning Schemes

The first example is a cooling coil of an air-conditioning


unit. Many industrial processes can be approximated by a
Hammerstein Model (a combination of a static non-linearity
and linear dynamics). A cooling coil in an air-conditioning
system can be represented by such a model [19,20]. The
transfer function in Laplace form is given by

In the following discussion two terminologies ideal data


and non-ideal data are used. Ideal data signifies the fact
that the rule is completely fired, whereas non-ideal data
refers to those data points which do not fire a rule completely.
Figures 3 and 4 show that with ideal training data the rule
confidences converge, whereas with non-ideal data they do
not converge and change with the setpoint. Ideal training data
can be assumed to be the data at the steady state, whereas the
non-ideal data are related to the plants transient behavior.
Monotonic behavior for some of the rule confidences can be
observed in case of ideal data, but with non-ideal data there
is no such behavior. Whenever the rule is fired completely
the rule confidence moves towards its final value. Even with
ideal data the rule confidences do not reach the final value
in the first epoch. When the same data set is presented to
the algorithm then the rule converges after certain number
of iterations. With ideal data the initial rule confidence value
does not play an important role, but the initial F values (Eq.
[5]) have a great impact on the rule confidences. If the F
values are initialized to some high value this implies that the
initial rule confidences are close to their final values. If the
data coincide with the apexes of the membership functions
then the rule is fired completely, updating the rule confidence
to the maximum extent. However, if the data do not coincide
with the apexes, then the estimate of the rule confidence oscillates as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Figures 3 and 4 show
that when ideal data are presented to the system, most of

y(s) = L { f (u[t])} .

esTd
,
s + 1

(10)

where Td is the dead time of the plant and is the time


constant of the cooling coil. u(t) determines the position
of the control valve and y(s) is the Laplace transform of
the temperature difference across the coil. The static nonlinearity f (u) is defined as
1
ln(30u + 1)
3.433
Td =10 s and = 120 s in all of the simulations.
f (u) =

(11)

5.2 Identification of a Fuzzy Relational Model (FRM)


RSK and MRSK are used for training purpose. In both the
schemes, the R and F vectors are initialized to 0.01. The input
to the controller is x(t) = [r (t), y(t td )]. The apexes of the
membership functions for r (t), u(t) and y(t td ) are
at 0:0.25:1.0. The value of the forgetting factor () is 0.999.
Learning rate ( ) of 0.5 is used for feedback error learning.

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2017

Fig. 2 Block diagram of the


control loop

Reference
Signal
y(t)

u(t)
+

AFC

r(t)

10000

5000

10000

5000

time

5000

10000

5000

5000

5000

1
0

10000

5000

5000

time

Fig. 3 Rule confidences with RSK learning scheme

the rule confidences either grow up or down monotonically


and converge to some final values after prolonged training.
When the same rule is fired repeatedly then the update in the
rule confidences becomes smaller the reason being that the
F value which is updated by a value of 1 (in case of ideal
data with f A1s1 ,...,Ansn (x[k]) = 1) at every sample instant
making the denominator in Eq. (9) larger. This also indicates
that the weights are converging. If at the current operating
point the rules are fired fully and then the reference signal
slightly moves to another operating point such that the previous rules with some additional new rules are fired then this
algorithm will not learn the new behavior, which is a major
drawback. The pre-filter, i.e. Eq. (7), which is applied to the
data, can cause a constant steady-state error in the response
of the system. The convergence rate of the rule confidences is
also dependent on the forgetting factor () which is discussed
in the next section.
6.2 Impact of Sensor Noise on the Learning Schemes
In order to investigate the behavior of the learning schemes
when the controlled output is heavily corrupted by noise, the
standard deviation of the sensor noise was increased from
0.1 to 0.9 while maintaining all the other parameters constant. The RMSE of the control error is shown in Fig. 5. The
RMSE of the control error increases monotonically with both
the learning schemes. This is exactly what is expected: as the
level of the sensor noise increases the measurement will be
far less accurate and more noise is fed into the control loop.

10000

time

0.5
0

10000

10000

0.5

time

0.5
0

time

0.2
0

10000

0.5
0

10000

0.4
0

10000

R331

0.5
0

time
R332

R331

time

5000

5000

time

0.5
0

10000

time

1
0

10000

R321

R322

R321

0.2
5000

5000

10000

0.5

time

0.4

5000

R242

1
0.5

time

1
0.5

time
R241

1
0.5
0

10000

time
R242

R241

time

5000

R322

5000

1
0.5

R332

10000

1
0.5
0

5000

time

10000

time

Fig. 4 Rule confidences with MRSK learning scheme


Comparison of RMSE of RSK and MRSK
0.089
RSK
MRSK

0.088

RMSE of the control error

1
0.5

R222

0.5

Sensor

e(t)

R221

R222

R221

ym(t)

Plant

0.087
0.086
0.085
0.084
0.083
0.082
0.081

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Standard deviation of sensor noise

Fig. 5 Impact of sensor noise on the RMSE of the control error

The learning schemes are unable to estimate the correct controller parameters which will drive the system towards the
setpoint. It can be observed that the RMSE of the control error for MRSK is always higher than the RMSE with the RSK
learning scheme. RSK scheme instantaneously updates the
controller parameter as soon as a rule is fired, whereas MRSK
updates the rule confidences only when the firing strength is
greater than certain threshold.
The MAE of the control error is shown in Fig. 6. The MAE
of the control error for RSK is always greater than the MAE
of the control error for MRSK. This clearly indicates that the

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Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:20132019


-3

2.6

x 10

Comparison of MAE of RSK and MRSK


RSK
MRSK

x 10

Comparison of MAE of RSK and MRSK


RSK
MRSK

4.5

MAE of the control error

2.5

MAE of the control error

-3

2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2

4
3.5
3
2.5
2

1.9
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Standard deviation of sensor noise

1.5
0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

Forgetting factor

Fig. 6 Impact of sensor noise on the MAE of the control error

Fig. 8 Impact of forgetting factor () on the MAE of the control error

Comparison of RMSE of RSK and MRSK


0.1
RSK
MRSK

RMSE of the control error

0.098
0.096
0.094
0.092
0.09
0.088
0.086
0.084
0.082
0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

Forgetting factor

Fig. 7 Impact of forgetting factor () on the RMSE of the control error

control signal is more active when RSK learning scheme is


used with the fuzzy controller. Since RSK quickly updates
the controller parameters, the defuzzified control signal is
always different from the previously calculated control signal resulting in large control activity. It can be concluded
from the results presented in Figs. 5 and 6 that RSK learning scheme is more suitable for the plants where excessive
actuator movement (and hence the wear tear of the actuator)
does not degrade the actuator performance with time. The
large actuator movement results in tight control performance
which can be verified from the RMSE plots.
6.3 Impact of Forgetting Factor () on the Learning Scheme
Forgetting factor can be related to the window size of the
incoming data which has an impact on the control perfor-

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mance [17]. The larger the forgetting factor greater will be


the window size and hence more will be the dependence of
the rule confidences on the pat data. The standard deviation
of the sensor noise is zero during this experiment. It can be
observed from Fig. 7 that the RMSE of the control error increases for both RSK and MRSK learning schemes, when
the forgetting factor is increased from 0.6 to 0.9. As soon
as the forgetting factor is increased above 0.9 the RMSE of
the control error decreases continuously and drastically. The
minimum RMSE is achieved when the value of the forgetting
factor is 1. A value of 1 indicates that all the past data are used
in calculating the rule confidences. Coincidentally, RMSE of
the control error is same for both the learning schemes when
= 1. The impact of forgetting factor on the MAE of the
control activity is shown in Fig. 8; MAE reduces monotonically when the forgetting factor is increased from 0.6 to 1.0.
The control scheme becomes more robust with the increasing
forgetting factor; hence there is lesser control activity.

7 Conclusions
Fuzzy adaptive controllers based on the inverse model philosophy were investigated. The fuzzy controllers were modeled
as fuzzy relational models. Robustness of the fuzzy controller
is dependent on the fuzzy identification schemes. Two different fuzzy identification schemes, namely RSK and MRSK,
which are based on the fuzzy relational model have been
compared. Convergence of the rule confidences as well as
impact of the forgetting factor in the presence of heavily corrupted controlled output is discussed. Both learning schemes
were able to provide satisfactory control which is evident
from the RMSE and MAE of the control error and control

Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:20132019

activity, respectively. In most of the cases, RSK outperforms


Modified RSK but with a larger control activity. Future work
is directed towards the comparison of fuzzy identification
schemes when the adaptive fuzzy controller is modeled as a
TakagiSugeno (TS) fuzzy model.
Acknowledgments The research work was conducted in the Control
Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford,
UK, under the supervision of Professor Arthur Dexter. The research
was funded by the National University of Sciences and Technology,
Islamabad, Pakistan.

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