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4 views4 pagesOptimization Model for Lathe Management (Paper)

May 04, 2015

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Optimization Model for Lathe Management (Paper)

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Optimization Model for Lathe Management (Paper)

© All Rights Reserved

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Lim Eng Aik, Syamir Alihan, and Tan Wee Choon

automatic lathe continuous process periodic inspection and

replacement of the cutting tool. One of the problems is to reduces

the management costs by integrate theory with probability

statistical method and establish a regular inspection that would

provides adjustment to the average management cost. By using

optimization model to perform computer simulation in order to

solve the process efficiency in term of finding the best period for

cutting tool replacement and also for running inspection for the

machine. Furthermore, with the use of probability adjustment on

the inspection interval, and enables the computing of the average

downtime loss caused during inspection time interval to establish

an objective function that capable to provide the best design

processes and tool replacement period for inspection intervals.

This model is design to effectively reduce the downtime losses

and improve process efficiency. Finally, based on the proposed

model evaluation, some suggestion on improving the

management efficiency and reducing costs are provided at the

end section of this paper.

Index TermsOptimization, modeling, lathe management,

cost function

I. INTRODUCTION

manufacturing times. Along with such objective, the

machine tools are also continually being improved in term

of speed, acceleration and force. However, this process is also

continually undergoing optimization. The problem arises

when the machine operates particularly fast but it does not

meet the requirement in terms of quality and tools have

shorter service lives. Thus, to enhance the quality of product

as well as to reduce the management costs in term of periodic

inspection and replacement of cutting tool, an optimization

model developed to fulfill such requirement.

Recently, Brecher et al. [1] has study the interaction

between manufacturing process and machine tool service lives

to improve the efficiency of production system. However, this

model is mainly focus on the process-machine interactions

instead of reducing the management costs which is the main

interest for industry. Neugebauer et al. [2] reported his review

on machine tools that would increase efficiency of

Lim Eng Aik is with Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia

Perlis, 02000 Kuala Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia (Phone: 604-985-5485; fax: 604985-5432; e-mail: ealim@ unimap.edu.my).

Syamir Alihan was with School of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti

Malaysia Perlis, Ulu Pauh, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.

Tan Wee Choon is with School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti

Malaysia Perlis, Ulu Pauh, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia (E-mail:

tweechoon@unimap.edu.my).

of comment on cutting tools technology that capable to

increase the output and reduce the loss on defective product,

but lack of discussion on the cost such advance tool and it

effect to small industry.

Lately, Mativenga and Rajemi [3] have introduced an

optimum cutting parameters using minimum energy footprint.

This model aim to reduce the energy consumption of lathe

machine and thus, reducing the production cost. Rajemi et al.

[4] reported on their work in modeling the optimum tool life

for minimum energy footprint. This model enables users to

select their corresponding cutting conditions that can

contribute to longer tool life and reduce tool replacement

costs. Finally, a critical review on metal cutting modeling and

optimization techniques is performs by Mukherjee and Ray

[5]. They revealed the some process parameter relationship

modeling condition that improves the manufacturing operation

process.

Obviously, all the mentioned works are lack of the focus

on cost management that involves a continuous process

periodic inspection cost along with cutting tool replacement

cost. This paper is mainly focus on building an optimization

model for lathe management for industry cost saving

purposes. The outline of this paper is as follows: in Section 2

gives a brief explanation on the problem statement that

become the main motivation for building the model; the model

description and the symbol conventions are provided in

Section 3; Section 4 shows the development of the

optimization model along with suggestion to optimize the

production process; finally, we conclude our finding in

Section 5.

Process to produce the products can be measured in some

units. In order to maintain the normal process, it is necessary

to conduct a regular inspections of the during whole

production process. This inspection process is part of the

procedure to maintain the quality of product which is also part

of industry production process implementation. If the

inspection is performs too often, then the production process

surely performs in normal state processes and tremendously

reduce the number of defective product. However, excessive

inspection consumes high cost and increase the diagnosis time

interval. Although the diagnosis cost can be reduce by the

industry management, but the risk may result in a large

number of defective products being produce which increases

the cost of defective losses. Therefore, this optimization

IJENS

l Number of product produce during inspection period;

p ' Ratio for cases where cutting tool life that less than the

average failure time interval;

Ratio for losses cause by other factor (not include

p1

cutting tool failure).

Based on statistical analysis for 100 sets of experimental

data, we obtained the normal distribution for this model

using test as N(280,91.05).

The average management cost for fix period of inspection

on single part, L, consists of the following four components:

I = average inspection fee for individual part;

II = average diagnosis costs for individual parts;

III = average loss generated by checking failure;

IV = average loss caused defective products during the

inspection time interval.

2

term of hour which able to minimize average industry

management cost.

To setup our model, we placed a few assumptions as

follows:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

of

these failures has the same probabilities;

The accumulated record of 100 tool failure is the count

for a tool that has complete each task and found to

produce a defective product during the process;

There are sufficient tool for replacement;

Each defective product produced during failure period is

count as cost losses per product;

During the inspection process, the production does not

stop. During this period, there a part being produced.

conventions involved in this paper:

f

t

d

1400

k

/

L

n

*

'

set

93 Ringgit / piece

The cost of each inspection, t = 5 Ringgit / times;

Cost of recovering the process failure to normal, d =

Ringgit / times;

Cost of replacing new tool before failure, k = 470 Ringgit

times;

Average management cost for fix period of inspection on

single part;

Time taken for each inspection (each inspection done

based on number of the product produce);

Average failure time interval;

Average failure time interval for fix period cutting tool

replacement;

Average time interval for tool replacement;

Average failure time interval for fix period cutting tool

replacement with taking consideration on other factor;

inspection cost for each part are divided into t / n, which yield

I=t/n

As they only perform diagnosis after inspected failure in the

process, while at average, there will be one failure for each

part. Therefore, the diagnosis fees for each part is divided into

II = d /

For III, due to the production process still continues during

the inspection execution and to carry out such inspection also

require a fix amount of time. Suppose that during the

inspection of a part there were products that have been

produced. Therefore, for every delay cause by inspection

process is defined as l f, then the cost of losses cause by

inspection delay is defined as l / , ultimately makes

III = l /

Finally, to analyze IV, note that the inspection is perform

once for every n-part, if there are defective product found in

some part during the inspection period, in general, there are at

least more than one defective product, then the detail can be

illustrated as in Fig. 1. Note that "0" represents part of the

qualified product while x correspond to defective product

produce from failure part.

For situation (1) in Fig. 1, just a check point process is

abnormal, and other in front is normal, meaning there only

have one defective product; For (2), there is a checkpoint in

previous part which the beginning of not normal process.

Hence, there are two defective products. Lastly, for (n) is the

previous checkpoint, the process is not normal, so there are n

defective products. Therefore, the average defective product

found during the inspection time interval at the check point

1 2 ... n n 1

part are

n

2

IJENS

can be define as

n 1

2

IV =

n 1

n 1

2

f

u

2t u

f

(2)

be set the most appropriate inspection time interval n with the

corrected formula as:

n

2(l u )t

f d /u

(3)

defective product, l = 1 that produce a defective products will

identify the process is not normal.

By using Eq. (1) to reduce management costs, this allow the

average failure time interval increases, this means by regularly

replacing the tool enable average failure time interval

increases, but as a result of fix periodic replacement of cutting

tools, the tool costs will also increase which ultimately

increase the management fee. Therefore, a computation is

performs to verify this approach is cost-effective or not.

As the process fault losses are mainly cause by the cutting

tool, specifically:

(1) Failure probability cause by other reasons is p1 = 0.05;

(2) The average number of recovering parts during tool failure

period is less than ' piece along with it probability as p'.

After some explanation on the average failure time interval

for fix period cutting tool replacement with coefficient *,

then by placing it into Eq. (1) we obtain Eq. (4) as follow:

k t

d l f n 1 f

(4)

L*

u ' n u * u *

2 u *

While for * it can be calculated as follows:

Number of Produced Product a u u

u*

a p p

In addition, the probability for process failure that caused

by other reasons is as low as 5%, but it should also be taken

into account. Hence, the average failure time interval is u other

is given by:

2

u

In summary, the fix inspection time intervals can be derived

into the following equation for calculating the average

management cost as in Eq. (1).

t d l f n 1 f

(1)

L

n u

u

2 u

The best inspection time interval, even L approach the

smallest n on both sides, we obtained:

t

1 f

L' 2

n

2 u

For order = 0, we obtain:

u other

, which yield,

total number of occur faults

Number of Failure Product

1

p

interval set, substitute for u * , making uother

obtain the

1

uset

1

1

u * uother

Therefore the optimization model can be summarizing as

follow:

MinLset

t d l f n 1 f

u n uset

uset

2 uset

k

(5)

to be:

n

2u t

f

And the correction formula is:

n

2(uset l )t

f d / uset

(6)

(7)

achieve one-dimensional search, the results are as follows: the

most suitable inspection intervals n = 15 (cases), the best tool

change intervals ' = 365 (cases), the smallest unit for average

management cost for fix period of inspection on single part, L

= 4.65 (Ringgit).

Assume that industry installing automatic inspection

systems on the lathe machine. Therefore, inspection on each

part fee is consider as zero. With the automatic inspection

systems can avoid losses arising from man make inspection

downtime, thus reducing the average management cost.

Set n as the inspection statistics value, where the number

represent the system sequentially inspection for n-parts that

appears to have m defective product. With the establishment

of dynamic inspection mode, the inspection system will

automatically record the inspection on k parts during normal

process. The following are four the possible cases:

1. Statistics order of n-parts, with defective probability of

less than 2%, then the process consider normal to

continue production;

2. Statistics order of n-parts, with defective probability at

2% but less than 60%, with all inspected parts consists of

defective probability of less than 2%, then the process

consider normal to continue production;

3. Statistics order of n-parts, with defective probability is

higher than 60%, with all inspected parts consists of

defective probability of less than 2%, then the process

consider normal to continue production;

IJENS

4.

60%, with all inspected parts consists of defective

probability at 2%, then the process consider fail and the

system will automatically send a signal to perform

inspection and diagnosis.

V. CONCLUSIONS

easy to operate and has a wide range of application.

Furthermore, this model provides the average management

cost that capable of solving for the optimum values with the

aids of computer programming. The results show a strong

stability and the solution obtained is consistent with the actual

situation. This proposed mathematical optimization model are

build using the statistical data established and it provided long

term value for guiding the production process and minimize

the management cost. This proposed model still consist spaces

for future improvement. One of the studies that could be

included in this model is the impact of the cutting tool life

which certainly improves the practicality of the model. The

other studies is the consideration on parts of the production

process that still lack of continuity in current model which

will help improve the better scalability to the model. Both the

mentioned improvement are for future work.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

machine tool, in CIRP ANNALS Manufacturing Technology 58,

2009, pp. 588607.

R. Neugebauer, B. Denkena , K. Wegener, Mechatronic systems for

machine tools, in CIRP ANNALS Manufacturing Technology 56,

2007, pp. 657686.

P.T. Mativenga, M.F. Rajemi, Calculation of optimum cutting

parameters based on minimum energy footprint, in CIRP ANNALS

Manufacturing Technology 60, 2011, pp. 149152.

M.F. Rajemi, P.T. Mativenga, A. Aramcharoen, Sustainable machining:

selection of optimum turning conditions based on minimum energy

considerations, Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, pp. 10591065,

2010.

I. Mukherjee, P.K. Ray, A review of optimization techniques in metal

cutting processes, Computer & Industrial Engineering, 50, pp. 1534,

2006.

IJENS

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