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Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)

4.4 Analyse and Estimate Risk


Risk can be defined as a probability or threat of damage, injury, liability, loss, or any
negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal vulnerabilities, and that may be
avoided through pre-emptive action. It is a combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of
a hazardous event with specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the
health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event. In
laboratory, especially Food Processing Quality Lab, there are continuously exposed to the
risks. Risk can be reduce or eliminate by analysed and estimate the risk. Since the risk have
been analyse and estimated, appropriate measures and control can be decided hence, the risk
can be control. Analyse and estimation can be done by qualitative, quantitative and semiquantitative analysis.
Qualitative risk analysis present and describe the magnitude and likelihood of
potential consequences in detail by using a pre-defined rating scale. It will be scored based on
their probability or likelihood of occurring and the impact on the projects. Probability or
likelihood is commonly ranked on a zero to one scale and the impact scale is organizationally
defined. It also will include the appropriate categorization of the risks, either source-based or
effect-based. If there is a lack of information or data regarding the risk, quantitative risk
analysis can be acceptable as numerical data and resources is necessary for a statistically.
Quantitative risk analysis is a further analysis of the highest priority risks during
numerical or quantitative rating is assigned to develop a probabilistic analysis of the project.
A quantitative analysis will quantifies the possible outcomes for the project and assesses the
probability of achieving specific project objectives. Besides that, it will provides a
quantitative approaches to make decisions when there is uncertainty. It also able to creates
realistic and achievable cost, schedule or scope targets. High quality data as well as
prioritized lists of project are needed in order to conduct a quantitative risk analysis.
Semi-quantitative risk analysis approach recognises the problems of these cost
analyses and provides a more comprehensive risk picture. The basic idea is that decision
making under uncertainty need be based on broader perspective than given by such cost
analyses. The objective of this analysis is to try to design some values to the scales that used
in the qualitative assessment. The values obtained from this analysis usually indicative and
not real. This analysis is suitable for risk assessment of hazard in Food Processing Quality
Lab. This analysis may lead to various inconsistencies because the numbers chosen may not
properly reflect analogies between risks.

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)


4.4.1 Probability of an Occurrence
The probability of an occurrence is defined as the analysis that used in order to
estimate how frequent for the incidents or hazards can occur. It also can be defined as the
likelihood of an event to be occurred. There are two key questions that can be ask in order to
know the probability of occurrence of some events which are How frequently does this
event occur? and How severe are the consequences of this event? The probability of an
occurrence or likelihood is determined according to the sequence of events which ranged
from Most Likely (5) to inconceivable (1). The lowest rating means it is impossible that a
given error will be happen or a given failure will occur. The probability levels for the hazards
occurring in Food Processing Quality Lab are tabulated in the table below based on the
frequency of the hazard to be occur in the laboratory.

Table 4.4.1 indicates likelihood using the following values.


Likelihood
Most Likely
Possible
Conceivable
Remote
Inconceivable

Quantification
The most likely result of the
hazard / event being realized
Has a good chance of
occurring and is not unusual
Might be occur at some time
in future
Has not been known to
occur after many years
Is practically impossible and
has never occurred

Rating
5
4
3
2
1

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)


4.4.2 Severity of Consequence
Severity is defined as an effect from an event. For example severity of injury of
people or damage of property. It is also defined as the potential consequences of the impact
that have to be faced because of the undesired occurrence.
Severity can be classified into five categories which are catastrophic, fatal, serious,
minor, and negligible. Severity are based on an increasing level of severity to individuals
health, environment, or property.

Table 4.4.2 indicates severity using the following values


Severity
Catastrophic

Fatal

Serious
Minor
Negligible

Quantification
Numerous fatalities,
irrecoverable properly
damage and productivity
Approximately one single
fatality, major property
damage if hazard is realized
Non-fatal injury, permanent
disability
Disabling but not permanent
injury
Minor abrasions, bruises,
cuts, first aid type injury

Rating
5

3
2
1

4.4.3 Risk Assessment


Semi-quantitative analysis have been used in order to determine the risk assessment of
the hazard. This analysis presenting result in a risk matrix which is a very effective way of
communicating the distribution of the risk throughout the area in a workplace (Food
Processing Quality Lab).

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)

Risk Assessment Protocol


Risk assessment involves considering the following steps when undertaking an experiment or
research project in laboratory:

Figure4.4.3: Risk Assessment Protocol


Risk can be calculated by using the following formula:
R=LxS
Where,
R = risk
L = likelihood

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)


S = severity
The table below indicates the risk obtained after likelihood of occurrence and severity of
consequence are take into consideration:
Table 4.4.3(a) indicates the risk matrix
Severity of
consequence
(S)
1
2
3
4
5

Likelihood (L)
3

1
2
3
4
5

2
4
6
8
10

3
6
9
12
15

4
8
12
16
20

5
10
15
20
25

Based on the table above, the level of risk can be determined by multiply the
likelihood with the severity. The product of the multiplication will indicates the risk level.
Higher number indicates the higher risk and lower number indicates the lower risk. Table
below determines the priority of the risk.
Table 4.4.3(b) indicates the priority of the risk
Risk
1-4

Description
Low

5-12

Medium

15-25

High

Action
A LOW risk may be considered as acceptable
and further reduction is unnecessary. If the risk
can be resolved quickly and efficiently, control
measures should be recorded and implemented
A MEDIUM risk need an approach to control
the hazard and apply temporary measure if
needed. Action taken and date of completion
must be recorded on the risk assessment form.
A HIGH risk requires fast action in order to
control the hazard. Actions taken and date of
completion need to be recorded on the risk
assessment.

There are some hazard that have been identified in the Food Processing Quality
Laboratory. The hazard contributes to risk which can affect the safety. These risks are
tabulated in table below by using semi-quantitative assessment method. The level of risks can
start from 1 and continue up to 25.

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)

Table 4.4.3(c) indicates health hazards identification, likelihood of occurrence, and


severity of consequences.
No

Activities/
Conditions

Hazard

Danger/
Possible
Injury
Hazardous
odor/
respiratory
system
Penetrate to
human skin
or
blood
system.
Fire/Burn
Paralysis/De
ath.

1.

Chemical
storing

Equipment
stored in
messy and
untidy
condition.

2.

Heating,
scattered
electric wire

3.

Equipment
keeping

4.

Mechanical
hazard

5.

Vibrating
equipment

Electrical
shock
Short
circuit.
Equipment
Accumulati
kept or
on of dust
stored in
and growth
messy and
of molds or
untidy
bacterial
condition
caused
which may
breaking out
cause worker of disease or
falling down. illness.
Accumulati
on of dust
The
Death,
equipment
physical
has
injury
uncovered
(pinching or
moving parts crushing of
which
body organs)
present
pinching or
crushing.
Vibration of Cumulative
the
trauma
equipment
disorders.

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

8
Medium

9
Medium

6
Medium

12
Medium

6
Medium

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)


Table 4.4.3(d) indicates safety hazards identification, likelihood of occurrence, and
severity of consequences.
No

Activities/
Conditions

Hazard

Danger/
Possible
Injury
Fall
Bruise/
broken body
part
Cut / bruise
or broken
body part
Trip/ fall

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

6
Medium

6
Medium

3
Low

Bump
Bruise/ cut
when it falls
Cut / small
injury

8
Medium

2
Low

Wet or dusty Trip/ fall


floor
Bruise/
broken body
part
Hard to find
and causes
delayed in
order to put
out fire.

4
Low

8
Medium

Delaying
small injury
treatment.

2
Low

Bump,
bruise, cut
and
laceration.

2
Low

1.

Climbing
ladder

Improper
ladder
placement

2.

Mixing using
mixer

Rotating
mixer blade

3.

Scattered
wire on the
floor
Scattered
tools and
equipment
Improper
placement of
glass
apparatus
Slippery
floor

Wire

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Limited
workplace
area
Broken
surface of
glass

Fire
distinguisher
placed in
hidden area/
blocked by
other
equipment
First aid kit
put at
unnoticeable
place
Sharp edge of Sharp edge
table and
equipment

Anissa Munira binti Abdul Aziz (166664)


Table 4.4.3(e) indicates environmental hazards identification, likelihood of occurrence,
and severity of consequences.

No

Activities/
Conditions

1.

Spilling
waste in sink

Hazard
Hazardous
waste

Danger/
Possible
Injury
Clogging in
sink
Waste flow
through
drain system.

Likelihood

Severity

Risk

6
Medium

Risk assessment protocol have been used in this case. Firstly, the scope of project or
experiment is determined followed by determination of the laboratory and the equipment
used in the project. The substances and processes or techniques are identified and the
potential hazard involve is determined. The inspection of the lab is not only to identify the
hazard, but it also to evaluate the possibility of hazard occurrence and severity of an
undesired occurrence.
From the tables above, the level of hazard in Food Processing Quality Lab classify
into 2 groups which are low and medium. Most of the risks are classified in medium level.
The most critical hazard involve is mechanical hazard where the equipment has uncovered
moving parts which present pinching or crushing. This hazard can cause death or physical
injury (pinching or crushing of body organs). The risk level is equal to 12 or equivalent to
medium level with likelihood=3 and the severity=4. The injuries from this hazard can cause
fatality or permanent disability.
To assign the likelihood of occurrence and severity of consequence for each hazard,
the preliminary hazard technique analysis and what-if analysis are required. The preliminary
hazard analysis is used to identify the potential hazards and provide priority by using the
likelihood of accidents due to the hazards and the severity of consequences if the hazard
occur. The what-if analysis is used in order to identify the hazards that may bring accidents or
have risks.