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1.

Introduction
The purpose of this rover prototype is to prove that pneumatic
actuators are a viable option for dislodging rovers in unpredictable
terrain. The idea of developing a pneumatically actuated Mars rover
was selected after learning of the difficulties encountered during
space exploration , which had become stuck in sand during the
summer . The group decided to look into the possibility of using the
thin Martian atmosphere, consisting of mainly carbon dioxide, as a
resource to benefit the rovers. On space, a rover could use solar or
nuclear power to compress the thin CO2 atmosphere, into large
pressure reservoirs. These pressure tanks could then be used to power
pneumatic actuators that would dislodge a rover if
it were to become stuck like Spirit.
1.1 OBJECTIVE
1.1.1 Rover lifting:
The rover will jump a minimum of 1 meter on earth: This requirement
will sufficiently demonstrate that the pneumatics system is capable of
propelling the rover to a height many times higher than what is
necessary to simply dislodge the rover if it were to become stuck. It
will also show that the rover design is capable of withstanding the
impacts from landing. The rover will drive at least mile on a single
battery charge: The budget for this prototype did not allow for solar
panel integration or other alternative power generation. .

2. Block diagram

2.1 Working
An ac power supply of 220v and 5amps is given to the push
button and the push button is connected to the solenoid valve. The
positive terminal is connected to the inlet of the cylinder and the
negative terminal to the outlet. A compressor is needed for applying
input compressed air to the solenoid valve. A pressure of 10 bars is
passed through valve which controls the opening and closing of the
ports. The opening of the port creates a forward motion which gives

some upward lift from the ground and closing the ports retrieves the
piston.

3. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
3.1

Power supply
The power supply given to the solenoid valve is an ac

supply. The ac supply is of 220v and 5amps.the power supply is


then connected with the push button
3.2 Push button
Push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a
simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of
a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard
material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or
shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be
easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased
switches, though even many un-biased buttons (due to their
physical nature) require a spring to return to their un-pushed
state. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of
the button, such as press, depress, mash, and punch.
3.3 Compressor:
An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from
an electric motor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine) into potential
energy by forcing air into a smaller volume and thus increasing its
pressure. The energy in the compressed air can be stored while the air
remains pressurized.

3.4

Solenoid valve:

The solenoid valve is directly responsible for opening and


closing of the ports and controlling the flow of fluid inside the
cylinder. Its a alternating current type solenoid valve.
3.5

Pneumatic actuator:
These are mechanical devices which use the power of

compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.


Like hydraulic cylinders, something forces a piston to move in the
desired direction.

4. FABRICATION:

4.1 Pneumatic Actuator Design:


Actuator orientations were analyzed base on a one, two or
four actuator system. Using only one centralized actuator, launch
stability had a high probability of being sacrificed, and four corner
pinned actuators would significantly complicate the design and
manufacturing as well as add unnecessary weight. Therefore, a one inline actuator system was developed along the centre of the rover, with
the centre of gravity at the approximant midpoint. The actuators were
designed to fit an arbitrarily set rover size. This design attempted to
maximize the stroke length and bore size given the set size of the
rover. The largest size actuator that could be accommodated was a
20mm diameter cylinder with a stroke length of 3 inches. At that size,
a calculated pressure of about 10-14 bar would be required to launch
the rover minimum 1 meter. Taking these values as constants, failure
modes were determined and components were sized and given
relatively large safety factors to prevent possibly dangerous failures of
the high pressure actuators. The actuator is designed with help of

solid works .

4.2

FRAME DESIGN:

The Frame is made up of aluminium material of dimension


300*100*1.5mm. The frame is light weighted and have high
strength to withstand the jerk. The pneumatic actuator and the
solenoid valve is mounted on the frame. The tires having
threaded grip which can move on terrain road.

5..DESIGN PRODECURE

5.1 FRAME STRENGTH:


Material : aluminium
Length of the plate: 300mm
Width of the plate: 100mm
Thickness of the plate: 1.5mm
Assume F=700N
Area of the plate=300*100=30,000 mm2
Bending moment:
M bend=

( fmax /2|Lbeam/2 )

M bend= 52500 N.mm


Moment of inertia:
3
I = ( b d |12 )

I = 225 *106
Bending stress:

4.2

Y max= ( d|2 )
Y max= 150 mm
COMPARING ALUMINIUM AND STEEL FOR FRAME:

Yield strength of aluminium=241 Mpa.


Yield strength of aluminium=257 Mpa.
Density of aluminium=2700 kg/m3
Density of aluminium=7800kg/m3
Aluminium:

Maximum bending stress:

Steel:
S f = 7342.857
W total = 140.4 N
Swr of steel =0.035

max

= ( M bend y max|I )

max

= .035 N/mm2

Safety factor:
s f = (

alum| max )

S f = 6885.71

Weight of aluminium:
W total =density*area
W total = 48.6 N
Strength to weight ratio:
Swr of alum= y/
Swr of alum =0.089

calculation of spring:
Free length l f =27mm
solid length l s = 19mm
Assume = k=30mm
Mass of spring =total mass/n o of spring
No of spring =4

Total mass =.12kg


Mass of each spring=.03kg
Variable
X comp =26.17 mm length per compression
5.3. CALCULATION OF DROP HEIGHT:
m.g.h =1/2 k ( f 2- X i)
m.g.h = k ( (xfree- xsolid) 2(xfree xprecomp)2)
h=3.22 *10-2 mm

5.4

ACTUATOR PRESSURE CALCULATION:

X fall=1m "Fall" height and/or jump height


g =9.807
ms 2 force of gravity
x takeoff= =3in Stroke of the actuator (length of acceleration)
mass =3.5 kg Mass launched per actuator per cylinder
D piston = 20 mm Actuator piston diameter
x =xo +v0+at2 1/2 General Kinematic Equation
xfall=1/2 .g.tfall
Initial x and v equal zero, and are removed. a = gravity
Tfall= ( 2 fall|g )

Previous equation rearranged

tfall =.451 sec The time it would take to fall from the "fall" height
and/or jump height
v =at General Kinematic Equation Eqn. 2
Vfall = g.tfall Equation 2 with gravity substituted for the acceleration
Vtakeoff =Vfall The initial velocity of launch will equal the velocity
at the end of the fall
Vtakeoff =4.429 m/s
The required takeoff velocity to reach the predetermined jump
height
v2 =v0+2ax
General Kinematic Equation
Vtakeoff2 =2.atake off

takeoff

The initial velocity is equal to zero and was removed


Atakeoff=v2takeoff /2

takeoff

atakeoff=9.8 m/s2
The previous equation rearranged
This is the acceleration required to achieve the required velocity in
The predetermined actuator stroke distance.
F =ma Newton's Second Law
Ftakeoff =mass.atakeoff Substitution of Variables
This is the constant force required to accelerate the predetermined
mass to the calculated force in order to achieve the predetermined
height.
Ftakeoff = 34.3N
Factuator =Ftakeoff + mass.g

The actuator force must also overcome the Force of gravity to lift
the predetermined mass against gravity.
Factuator = 68.635 N This is the force that the actuator must supply to
accelerate the
predetermined mass to the calculated force in order to achieve the
predetermined height.
A=

D
4

Equation for the area of a Circle


Apiston = 4.91

10-4

This is the area of the piston

Pactuator=Factuator/Apiston
Pressure Equation
Pactuator =13.98 bar

5.5

PNEUMATIC CYLINDER FAILURE CALCULATION:

Possible model of failure:


Cylinder burst
Assumption:
Work case:
mLaunchStructure =226 g Per cylinder.

hjump =1m
xaccel =0.03175 m
Find Takeoff Velocity:
Vtakeoff = 2 gh

jump

Vtakeoff =4.429 m/s


Find Acceleration of Launch Structure:
aLaunchStructure= v2take off/2

acc

aLaunchStructure=308.91 m/s2
Find the Force (per cylinder) Due to Impulse of Launch:
FAxialMax= mLaunchStructure .aLaunchStructure
FAxialMax= .69kN
1) Cylinder Burst - Failure Analysis:
Assumptions (worst case): Cylinder will initially be under
compression; however, this was neglected because the worst
case will occur when the cylinder is loaded in tension.
Twall =.015875 m SteelYield 234MPa <--- Stainless Steel 302A
(A weaker steel)
Pmax=200Mpa
rcylinder =.0125m
Thin-Wall Cylinder Equation for Hoop Stress:

hoop =pmax.rcylinder/twall

hoop =15.748 MPa

Axial Cylinder Stress:


rinner =rcylinder
router =rcylinder + twall
ACylinderCrossSection =

outer

- rinner2)=2.04

10

CylinderAxial=FAxialMax/ACylinderCrossSection

CylinderAxial=.343MPa

-3

m2

Von mises stress:

= hoop
<--------------- Negative because 1) quantitatively, von
1

Mises stress is less than the axial cylinder stress if it is


positive, and 2) qualitatively, because the pressure pushing
outward on the cylinder is creating stress in compression in
the axial direction (compression is negative, tension is
positive).

2=

CylinderAxis

e= 1+ 22 1 2
e=15.58 Mpa

Calculate the Safety Factor Using Maximum-Distortion-Energy


Theory (von Mises):

SFcylinde=SteelYield/

SFcylinder = 17.65

FABRICATION:
The prototype is fabricated according to the above design calculation.
Materials used in fabrication of frame aluminium Materials used for
pneumatic actuator-stainless steel .The process undergone in this
fabrication is pipe fittings, drilling ,metal cutting.

5.6. RESULTS:
Analytical : ( TABLE 6.1)
Selection of frame:
CHARACTERISTIC
S

ALUMINIUM

STEEL

Yield strength

241 Mpa

257 Mpa

Density

2700

7800

Safety factor

6885.71

7342.857

Total weight

48.6 N

140.4 N

Strength to weight ratio 0.0889

0.035

OTHER FACTORS:
CHARACTERSTICS
Drop height
Actuator pressure
Failure analysis
Von-misses stress
Factor of Safety

ANALYTICAL VALUES
3.22x10-2mm
13.98 bar
=0.343Mpa
y
=15.58Mpa
e
N=17.65

6. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK

6.1. CONCLUSION:
During the designing, manufacturing, and testing of the rover,
much was learned about what it takes to employ a pneumatic jumping

mechanism. After completing the project, there is enough empirical


evidence to argue that pneumatics actuators are indeed a practical
means of dislodging rovers. With the budget and time allotted, this
rover prototype is a simplified demonstration of how such a system
would work. By demonstrating how a thirty pound rover can jump
over two feet on earth with 10-14 bar pressure and two actuators, it
can be extrapolated and inferred what a similar system would look
like on larger applications. By making a few hypothetical design
decisions, the mass a rover that could successfully employ a
pneumatics system on space planet could be estimated.
6.2. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK:
After the completion of experiments and the design process, the
original design was not the most ideal option for employing a
pneumatically actuated system in a rover. the original design has
shown that using pneumatic actuators to launch the rover is a viable
option, which was the purpose of this prototype, but in order to
get a feel of real applications, a new prototype would need to be
manufactured utilizing the following improvements:
1. lighter weight, non-electrical conductive materials. a lighter design
would be more beneficial in reducing required inputs to get the
desired output, which would allow for the addition of payloads to the
chassis.
2. a new chassis design consisting of an improved suspension system.
the current system doesnt protect the drive motors at all. in addition

to the motor issues, testing results yielded that the rover lands
approximately flat relative to the launch surface 90% of the time. the
majority of the current suspension system was designed to
allow for in flight reorientation and landing, which means the
majority of the current suspension system is rarely utilized.
3. the containment area used in housing electronics and pneumatics
would need to be enclosed and ideally combined into one unit instead
of two. It would be beneficial to the pneumatic system if
the majority of the pneumatics could be run inline instead of jumping
to odd orientations in order to minimize tubing necessary to transport
high pressure air.
4. the application and use of co2 gas should be employed instead of
compressed air, with possible research into liquid co2 or dry ice as
propellant, which means introducing thermal insulation or even
thermal heating, into the pneumatic line to keep the co2 from freezing
when released from a pressurized container.
5. large improvements can be made to the electrical system including
the addition of solar panels to charge batteries, use of pressure and
temperature sensors to regulate gas pressure and consistency.
s.no
1
2

Material
Quantity
Aluminium plate 2

cost
INR 300

Pneumatic

(300x100x1.5)
1 ( bore
INR 900

actuator

20mm, stroke

Solenoid valve

3 inch)
A.C type

INR 300

4
5
COST REPORT:

REFERENCE:

Connectors
Pipe fittings
TOTAL

3
1 ( 3m )

INR 150
INR 100
INR 1750

PHOTOGRAPHY: