You are on page 1of 4

Referensi

1.Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC,


ODowd KJ. Epidemiology of osteoporosis
and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol
Rev.1985;7:178208.
2.Owen RA, Melton LJ 3rd, Johnson KA, Ilstrup
DM, Riggs BL. Incidence of Colles fracture in a
North American community. Am J Public
Health. 1982;72(6):605607.
3.Hegeman JH, Oskam J, van der Palen J, Ten
Duis HJ, Vierhout PAM. The distal radial
fracture in elderly women and the bone mineral
density of the lumbar spine and hip. J Hand Surg
Br. 2004;29(5):473476.
4.Colles A. On the fracture of the carpal
extremity of the radius. Edinb Med Surg J.
1814;10:182186.
5.Simic PM, Weiland AJ. Fractures of the
distal aspect of the radius: changes in
treatment over the past two decades. Instr
Course Lect. 2003;52:185195.
6.Ring D, Jupiter JB. Treatment of osteoporotic
distal radius fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16
Suppl 2:S80S84.
7.Smith DW, Henry MH. Volar fixed-angle
plating of the distal radius. J Am Acad Orthop
Surg. 2005;13(1):2836.
8.Walz M, Kolbow B, Auerbach F. DO fixed
angle T-plates offer advan-tages for distal
radius fractures in elderly patients?
Unfallchirurg 2004;107(8):664670.
9.Sakai A, Oshige T, Zenke Y, Suzuki M,
Yamanaka Y, Nakamura T. Association of bone
mineral density with deformity of the distal
radius in low-energy Colles fractures in
Japanese women above 50 years of age.
J Hand Surg Am. 2008;33(6):820826.

10.Mackenney PJ, McQueen MM, Elton R.


Prediction of instability on distal radial
fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
2006;88(9):19441951.
11.Hove LM, Solheim E, Skjeie R, Sorensen
FK. Prediction of secondary displacement in
Colles fracture. J Hand Surg Br.
94;19(6):731736.
12.Lafontaine M, Hardy D, Delince P. Stability
assessment of distal radius fractures. Injury.
1989;20(4):208210.
13.Nesbitt KS, Failla JM, Les C. Assessment of
instability factors in adult distal radius fractures.
J Hand Surg Am. 2004;29(6):11281138.
14.Beumer A, McQueen MM. Fractures of the
distal radius in low-demand elderly patients:
closed reduction of no value in 53 of 60 wrists.
Acta Orthop Scand. 2003;74(1):98100.
15.Dayican A, Unal VS, Ozkurt B, Portakal S,
Nuhoglu E, Tumoz MA. Conservative treatment
in intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: a
study on the functional and anatomic
outcome in elderly patients. Yonsei Med J.
2003;44:836840.
16.Gartland JJ Jr, Werley CW. Evaluation of
healed Colles fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
1951;33-A(4):895907.
17.Bacorn RW, Kurtzke JF. Colles fracture: a
study of two thousand cases from the New York
state workmens compensation board. J Bone
Joint Surg Am. 1953;35-A(3):643658.
18.Gliatis JD, Plessas SJ, Davis TR. Outcome of
distal radial fractures in young adults. J Hand
Surg Br. 2000;25(6):535543.
19.McQueen M, Caspers J. Colles fracture:
does the anatomical result affect the final
function? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988;70(4):649
651.

20.van Der Linden W, Ericson R. Colles


fracture: how should its displace-ment be
measured and how should it be immobilized? J
Bone JointSurg Am. 1981;63(8):12851288.
21.Villar RN, Marsh D, Rushton N, Greatorex
RA. Three years after Colles fracture. J Bone
Joint Surg Br. 1987;69(4):635638.
22.Grewal R, MacDermid JC. The risk of
adverse outcomes in extra-articular distal
radius fractures is increased with
malalignment in patients of all ages but
mitigated in older patients. J Hand Surg Am.
2007;32(7):962970.
23.Anzarut A, Johnson JA, Rowe BH, Lambert
RG, Blitz S, Majumdar SR. Radiologic and
patient-reported functional outcomes in an
elderly cohort with conservatively treated distal
radius fractures. J Hand Surg Am.
2004;29(6):11211127
24.Azzopardi T, Ehrendorfer S, Coulton T,
Abela M. Unstable extra-articular fractures of
the distal radius: a prospective, randomised
study of immobilisation in a cast versus
supplementary percutaneous pinning. J Bone
Joint Surg Br. 2005;87(6):837840.
25.Roumen RM, Hesp WL, Bruggink ED.
Unstable Colles fractures in elderly patients. A
randomised trial of external fixation for
redisplace-ment. J Bone Joint Surg Br.
991;73:307311.
26.Synn AJ, Makhni EC, Makhni MC, Rozental
TD, Day CS. Distal radius fractures in older
patients: is anatomic reduction necessary?
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(6):16121620.
27.Hegeman JH, Oskam J, Vierhout PA, Ten
Duis HJ. External fixation for unstable intraarticular distal radial fractures in women
older than 55 years. Acceptable functional
end results in the majority of the patients

despite significant secondary displacement.


Injury. 2005;36(2):339344.
28.Young BT, Rayan GM. Outcome
following nonoperative treatment of displaced
distal radius fractures in low-demand patients
older than 60 years. J Hand Surg Am.
2000;25(1):1928.
29.Kelly AJ, Warwick D, Crichlow TP,
Bannister GC. Is manipulation of moderately
displaced Colles fracture worthwhile? A
prospective randomized trial. Injury.
1997;28(4):283287.
30.Board T, Kocialkowski A, Andrew G.
Does Kapandji wiring help in older patients?
A retrospective comparative review of
displaced intra-articular distal radial fractures in
patients over 55 years. Injury. 1999;30(10):663
669.
31.Fujii K, Henmi T, Kanematsu Y, Mishiro T,
Sakai T, Terai T. Fractures of the distal end of
radius in elderly patients: a comparative
study of anatomical and functional results. J
Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2002;10(1):915.
32.McQueen MM, Court-Brown CM. Increasing
age and fractures of the distal radius. Curr
Orthop. 2003;17:360368.
33.Handoll HH, Madhok R. Conservative
interventions for treating distal radial fractures
in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;2:
CD000314.
34.Dias JJ, Wray CC, Jones JM, Gregg PJ.
The value of early mobilisation in the
treatment of Colles fractures. J Bone Joint Surg
Br. 1987;69(3):463467.
35.Chung KC, Shauver MJ, Birkmeyer JD.
Trends in the United States in the treatment of
distal radial fractures in the elderly. J Bone Joint
Surg Am. 2009;91(8):18681873.

36.Chung KC, Squitieri L, Kim HM.


comparative outcomes study using the volar
locking plating system for distal radius
fractures in both young adults and adults older
than 60 years. J Hand Surg Am.
2008;33(6):809819.
37.Orbay JL, Fernandez DL. Volar fixed-angle
plate fixation for unstable distal radius
fractures in the elderly patient. J Hand Surg
Am. 2004;29(1):96102.
38.Jupiter JB, Ring D, Weitzel PP. Surgical
treatment of redisplaced fractures of the distal
radius in patients older than 60 years. J Hand
Surg Am. 2002;27(4):714723.
39.Beharrie AW, Beredjiklian PK, Bozentka DJ.
Functional outcomes after open reduction and
internal fixation for treatment of displaced distal
radius fractures in patients over 60 years of
age. J Orthop Trauma. 2004;18(10):680686.
40.Arora R, Gabl M, Gschwentner M, Deml C,
Krappinger D, Lutz M. A comparative study of
clinical and radiologic outcomes of unstable
Colles type distal radius fractures in patients
older than 70 years: nonoperative treatment
versus volar locking plating. J Orthop Trauma.
2009;23(4):237242
41.Anderson R, ONeil G. Comminuted
fractures of the distal end of the radius. Surg
Gynecol Obstet. 1944;78:434440.
42.Atroshi I, Brogren E, Larsson GU, Kloow J,
Hofer M, Berggren AM. Wrist-bridging versus
non-bridging external fixation for displaced
distal radius fractures: a randomized assessorblind clinical trial of 38 patients followed for 1
year. Acta Orthop. 2006;77(3):445453.
43.Aktekin CN, Altay M, Gursoy K, Aktekin
LA, Ozturk AM, Tabak AY.Comparison between
external fixation and cast treatment in the management of distal radius fractures in patients

aged 65 years and older. J Hand Surg Am.


2010;35(5):736742.
44.Wolfe SW, Austin G, Lorenze M, Swigart
CR, Panjabi MM. A biome-chanical comparison
of different wrist external fixators with and
without K-wire augmentation. J Hand Surg Am.
1999;24(3):516524.
45.Fu YC, Chien SH, Huang PJ, etal. Use of an
external fixation com-bined with the buttressmaintain pinning method in treating comminuted distal radius fractures in steoporotic
patients. J Trauma. 2006;60(2):330333.
46.Szabo RM, Weber SC. Comminuted
intraarticular fractures of the distal radius. Clin
Orthop Relat Res. 1988;(230):3948.
47.Mah ET, Atkinson RN. Percutaenous
Kirschner wire stabilization following closed
reduction of Colles fractures. J Hand Surg
Br. 1992;17(1):5562.
48.Clancey GJ. Percutaneous Kirschner wire
fixation of Colles frac-tures. A prospective
study of thirty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
1984;66(7):10081014
49.Lenoble E, Dumontier C, Goutallier D, Apoil
A. Fracture of the distal radius. A prospective
comparison between trans-styloid and Kapandji
fixations. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1995;77(4):562
567.
50.Handoll HH, Watts AC. Bone grafts and
bone substitutes for treat-ing distal radial
fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst
Rev. 2008;2:CD006836.
51.Sanchez-Sotelo J, Munuera L, Madero R.
Treatment of fractures of the distal radius with
remodellable bone cement: a prospective,
randomised study using Norian SRS. J Bone
Joint Surg Br. 2000;82(6):856863.

52.Larsson S, Bauer TW. Use of injectable


calcium phosphate cement for fracture fixation:
a review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;(395):23
32.
53.Huber FX, Hillmeier J, Herzog L, McArthur
N, Kock HJ, Meeder PJ. Open reduction and
palmar plate-osteosynthesis in combination with
a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite spacer in the
treatment of com-minuted fractures of the
distal radius. J Hand Surg Br.
2006;31(3):298303.
54.Going S, Lohman T, Houtkooper L, etal.
Effects of exercise on bone mineral density
in calcium-replete postmenopausal women
with and without hormone replacement
therapy. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14(8):637643.
55.Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND,
Meredith CN, Lipsitz LA, Evans WJ. Highintensity strength training in nonagenarians:
effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA.
1990;263(22):30293034.
56.Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA,
Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S. A
controlled trial of the effect of calcium
supple-mentation on bone density in
postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med.
1990;323(13):878883.
57.Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA,
Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D
supplementation on bone density in men and
women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med.
1997;337(10):670676.
58.Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB,
etal. Randomised trial of effect of alendronate
on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial
Research Group. Lancet. 1996;348(9041):1535
1541

59.Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, et


al. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in
women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture
Intervention Trial. JAMA. 1998;280(24):2077
2082.
60.Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, et al.
Effect of parathyroid hormone (134) on
fractures and bone mineral density in
postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N
Engl J Med. 2001;344(19):14341441.
61.Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, et al.
Reduction of vertebral frac-ture risk in
postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year
randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes
of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE)
Investigators. JAMA. 1999;282(7):637645.
62.Chesnut CH III, Silverman S, Andriano K, et
al. A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon
calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the prevent recurrence of
osteoporotic fractures study. PROOF Study
Group. Am J Med. 2000;109(4):267276