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Sengupta Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Retrofitting reduces the vulnerability of damage of an existing structure during a future earthquake. It aims to strengthen a structure to satisfy the requirements of the current codes for seismic design. In this respect, seismic retrofit is beyond conventional repair or even rehabilitation. The principles of seismic retrofit refer to the goals, objectives and steps. The steps encompass condition assessment of the structure, evaluation for seismic forces, selection of retrofit strategies and construction. The applications include different types of buildings, industrial structures, bridges, urban transport structures, marine structures and earth retaining structures. The Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, has developed a Handbook on seismic retrofit of buildings under the sponsorship of the Central Public Works Department and under the aegis of Indian Buildings Congress. The book covers the principles, strategies for retrofit of different types of buildings, geotechnical and foundation aspects, advanced applications, quality assurance and two case studies. The handbook is divided in to the following seventeen chapters. • Making Buildings Safe Against Earthquakes • Introduction • Introduction to Seismic Analysis and Design • Rapid Visual Screening, Data Collection and Preliminary Evaluation • Condition Assessment of Buildings • Repair and Retrofit of Non-engineered Buildings • Retrofit of Masonry Buildings • Retrofit of Historical and Heritage Structures • Structural Analysis for Seismic Retrofit • Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Buildings • Retrofit of Steel Buildings • Mitigation of Geotechnical Seismic Hazards • Retrofit of Foundations • Retrofit using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites • Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation • Quality Assurance and Control • Retrofit Case Studies The Handbook has been published by Narosa Publishing House. Orders can be placed at email@example.com. The benefits of retrofitting include the reduction in the loss of lives and damage of the essential facilities, and functional continuity of the life line structures. For an existing structure of good condition, the cost of retrofitting tends to be smaller than the replacement cost. Thus, the retrofitting of structures is an essential component of long term disaster mitigation.
Jammu and Kashmir Earthquake Reconstruction Programme Uri Block, District Baramulla
Najmi Kanji and Tinni Sawhney Aga Khan Development Network, India, New Delhi Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The overall objective of the AKDN Jammu and Kashmir Earthquake Reconstruction Programme was to assist communities in the earthquake affected villages of Uri in District Baramulla. The programme, implemented in 17 villages (55 hamlets) of the Uri Block and covering 2,458 households, aimed to rebuild private and public infrastructure, strengthen and enhance existing livelihoods and build community capacity for disaster preparedness. A related objective was the creation and strengthening of civil society institutions and community groups to lead the process of reconstruction. The reconstruction and retrofitting of public and private infrastructure was based upon introducing seismic resistant building techniques into the area by training local masons through the construction of demonstration houses, including traditional building practices such as Dhajji Dewari. A total of 97 local masons were trained (23 worked full time on the AKDN programme) to help communities construct 418 seismic resistant homes. Of these, 160 were for the most vulnerable households, largely comprising women-headed families with little income, which were identified by the communities themselves. Support for the reconstruction of public infrastructure included the retrofitting of nine rooms in three middle schools (Dardkot, Sultan Daki and Basigiran), provision of sanitation facilities for five village schools, construction of a health centre in Village Gohalta and the reconstruction of the Sultan Daki Higher Secondary School. The Uri Senior Secondary Girls’ School and adjoining Middle School in the Uri town were also reconstructed. Retrofitting interventions, led by programme masons and engineers, have demonstrated a cost effective method to secure buildings partially damaged during the earthquake, and has generated considerable interest in the area. The range of livelihood rebuilding and strengthening activities included the repair of 6 irrigation systems, benefiting 381 farmers; revival of 28 water-run flour mills; piloting systems of rice intensification; skill building and training to women’s groups; promoting vegetable cultivation in polyhouse; and treatment of stem-borer infestation of infected fruit trees (over 12,000 trees treated). These experiences have generated a sense of confidence among the community and facilitated traditional systems of working together. The constitution and intensive training of Community Emergency Response Teams, School Disaster Response Committees, and the establishment of stock-piles of search and rescue equipment in each hamlet have contributed to the local knowledge and capacity for disaster preparedness. The implementation programme has demonstrated the importance of a multi-sector approach involving communities at the centre of decision-making.
Building Capacity in Delhi to Seismically Retrofit Existing Lifeline Buildings
J. E. Rodgers1, H. Kumar2, and L. T. Tobin1 GeoHazards International, 200 Town and Country Village, Palo Alto, CA 94301; Tel: email: email@example.com 2 GeoHazards Society, 71 B floor, Vinobapuri, New Delhi-24 India-110024 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT India’s fast-growing capital city of Delhi, home to over 14 million people, faces substantial earthquake hazards from both distant large-magnitude earthquakes in the Himalayas and smaller local events. The Delhi metropolitan area contains an amalgam of existing buildings: old and recently constructed, illegally built and well-designed, humble brick houses and gleaming new high-rises. Many of these buildings are seismically vulnerable and will threaten the lives of Delhi’s inhabitants if a major earthquake strikes. The current earthquake codes of practice are applicable to new buildings and cannot be applied to these existing buildings that do not have earthquake resistant features. Thus, the existing stock of important lifeline buildings is vulnerable and need to be retrofitted to raise their level of performance in earthquakes. This has to be taken up by the administration as a long term mitigation measure. To help reduce Delhi’s earthquake risk, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Geohazards Society conducted a project to build the capacity of the Delhi Public Works Department (PWD) to assess and seismically retrofit vulnerable existing ‘lifeline’ buildings that have important post-earthquake functions. Many buildings are considered critical or ‘lifeline’ buildings based on their role in a post disaster scenario as hospitals, command and centres for relief operations, emergencyshelters, etc. In the 2001 Kachchh Earthquake in Gujarat, India, the main health facilities in the district of Kachchh collapsed leaving thousands of people without access to immediately required medical attention. Improved seismic performance of these buildings both protects the occupants of these buildings and enables them to respond more effectively to an earthquake disaster. GHI utilized a practical learning approach in which a peer review panel from India and the United States mentored Delhi PWD engineers as they seismically retrofitted government buildings. Project buildings included the main offices of the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, the police headquarters, the GTB hospital, the Ludlow Castle school that serves as a relief distribution center, and the disaster management authority offices. The buildings had a range of structural systems, configurations, performance goals, and functional requirements. Structural systems included unreinforced masonry (URM) bearing wall, reinforced concrete frame with URM infill, reinforced concrete shear wall, and a combination of concrete frame and URM bearing wall. Delhi PWD engineers learned to apply performance-based earthquake engineering concepts, assess and design retrofit schemes for existing buildings, address issues of disruption and user requirements, rectify falling hazards, and apply risk reduction options other than retrofit (such as changing a building’s use or replacing it with a new earthquake-resistant building). The Delhi earthquake Safety Initiative also had a separate component for basic disaster awareness and for demonstrating falling hazards mitigation at the Ludlow Castle School and the Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital and the Government of Delhi is replicating these efforts in numerous schools and hospitals in the state. This paper discusses the technical challenges and lessons learned during this project, and recommends measures to improve future projects that transfer knowledge to mitigate risks posed by existing buildings.
Concrete Jacketing with Supplemental Damping for Seismic Retrofit of a Non-Ductile Concrete Building Sandeep Donald Shah Taylor Device India Ltd., Gurgaon Email: email@example.com Abstract It was proposed to seismically upgrade a seven story non-ductile concrete framed building of early nineties vintage. Analysis results revealed that the structures did not have sufficient structural capacity to resist even a moderate earthquake. To ensure a higher level of safety, reduce the risk of exorbitant repair costs and minimize building downtime after an earthquake, it was intended that the seismic upgrade of the structural system will target the performance standard of ‘immediate occupancy’. A dual stage approach was used to address this complex retrofit issue. The first part consisted of providing robust concrete moment frames in each direction using the time tested jacketing methodology. This ensured adequate strength and stiffness to the structure. The second stage involved adding fluid viscous dampers. The dampers provided supplementary damping thereby reducing displacements, story drifts and also the seismic demand on the moment frames. Additional supplementary damping also protected the building frame against excessive nonlinear deformations. The design scheme used a total of 44 dampers of various force capacities. Analysis results of the retrofitted block showed that the dampers dissipated significant portion of the seismic energy, reduced displacements and story drifts and limited the seismic nonlinear demand on the concrete members. This seismic upgrade methodology proved to be technically sound, easy to execute, less disruptive to the occupants and resulted in significant savings both in terms of time and cost.