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DOI 10.1007/s00231-003-0474-4

A.Z. Dellil, A. Azzi, B.A. Jubran

793

Abstract This paper reports the numerical modeling of

turbulent flow and convective heat transfer over a wavy wall

using a two equations eddy viscosity turbulence model. The

wall boundary conditions were applied by using a new

zonal modeling strategy based on DNS data and combining

the standard ke turbulence model in the outer core flow

with a one equation model to resolve the near-wall region.

It was found that the two-layer model is successful in

capturing most of the important physical features of a

turbulent flow over a wavy wall with reasonable amount of

memory storage and computer time. The predicted results

show the shortcomings of the standard law of the wall for

predicting such type of flows and consequently suggest

that direct integrations to the wall must be used instead.

Moreover, Comparison of the predicted results of a wavy

wall with that of a straight channel, indicates that the

averaged Nusselt number increases until a critical value is

reached where the amplitude wave is increased. However,

this heat transfer enhancement is accompanied by an increase in the pressure drop.

Nomenclature

xi

general non-orthogonal coordinate system

J

Jacobien of the coordinate transformation

/

time averaged variable

Ci

convection term

D/ i

diffusion term

S/

source term

dij

Kronecker delta

0

0

ui uj

Reynolds stress tensor

u0j h

turbulent heat flux

k

turbulent kinetic energy

Gij

turbulent transport coefficient

Prt

turbulent Prandtl number

Sij

mean rate of strain

Received: 21 October 2002

Published online: 17 October 2003

Springer-Verlag 2003

A.Z. Dellil

Faculte des sciences, Universite dOran Es-senia, Algerie

A. Azzi

Faculte de Genie-Mecanique, Universite des Sciences et de la

Technologie dOran, Algerie

B.A. Jubran (&)

Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Mechanical

and Industrial Engineering, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

E-mail: bassamj@squ.edu.om

mt

Cl

e

ll, le

j

fl

Ry

q

H

am

k

Us

Re

model constant, =0.082

rate of dissipation of k

length scales, eqs (7) and f(9)

von Karman constant, = 0.4

damping function, eq. (8)

turbulent Reynolds number, eq. (10)

density

inter wall spacing

wave amplitude

wave length

p

friction velocity, ( sw =q)

Reynolds number, (HU/m)

1

Introduction

Wavy wall flows occur under a wide variety of engineering

applications and have, consequently, received considerable

attention [12]. One of the most important applications is

the heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers. The

physical process of enhancing heat transfer in such

application is to introduce some geometrical modifications

on the wall in question in order to break the boundary

layer that forms on the exchanger wall and replace it by a

fresh fluid from the free stream flow [3]. In real applications, engineers are also interested in the additional

pressure drop caused by such techniques. So, the best

solution is that provides the least pressure drop and the

largest heat transfer rate. Other parameters such as simplicity, manufacturability, maintenance, etc., are also

important parameters in the design phase [3].

Wavy wall heat transfer enhancement technique has

been used extensively in the design of compact heat

exchangers as can be seen from the numerous experimental and numerical investigations reported in the literature. One of the important observations in this field is

that in the laminar regime, where wavy passages provide

significant heat transfer enhancement when the flow is

unsteady. However, for steady flow, the enhancement is

insignificant. Wang and Vanka [3] conducted a numerical

investigation for laminar steady and unsteady cases with

wavy wall. They reported a heat transfer enhancement

factor of about 2.5 for the unsteady case compared with

that for a parallel-plate channel case. However, for the

steady case with wavy wall the heat transfer rate is only

slightly improved. The transition occurs at a Reynolds

number of around 180 for the geometrical configuration

studied by Wang and Vanka [3].

794

Consequently, wavy wall flows are receiving renewed

attention. Recently, Hudson et al. [4] studied experimentally a rectangular water channel where the lower wall was

constructed with removable Plexiglas plates on which the

waves were milled. To insure that a fully periodic flow had

developed, the LDV measurements were made above the

31st of 36 waves. The wavelength and the amplitude were

set to (k = H) and (am = 0.05 H), respectively, where H is

the mean height of the channel. This experimental work is

one of the few studies which provides extensive measurements of the Reynolds stresses. It was followed by

numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow

over a wavy wall [5] and [6]. This type of turbulent flow is

numerically very challenging, since it is characterized by

periodic changes of the pressure gradient, curved

streamlines, and for important wave amplitude, separation

and reattachment can occur. The work reported by Maa

and Schumann [6] is largely documented, and hence it was

selected as a benchmark to validate the dynamic part of

the present computation. In addition to the dynamic field,

the present paper reports a numerical parametric-investigation on forced convective heat transfer in a wavy wall

channel. Detailed flow and thermal fields were obtained by

solving RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations) equations and a two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence model. The wall boundary conditions were applied

by using a new zonal modeling strategy based on DNS data

and combining the standard ke turbulence model in the

outer core flow and a one equation model resolving the

near-wall region. This strategy was initialized by Rodi et al.

[7] and tested with success in previous computations [8].

for each considered dependent variable; yi denotes a

reference Cartesian coordinate system while xi is a general

non-orthogonal coordinate system.

The Reynolds-stress tensor and the turbulent heat

flux are approximated within the context of the ke

turbulence model and the near-wall viscosity-affected

region is resolved with a one-equation model [7]. The

two-layer approach represents an intermediate modeling

strategy between wall function and pure low-Reynolds

number model. It consists of resolving the viscosity-affected regions close to the wall with a one-equation

model, while the outer core flow is treated with the

standard ke model. In the outer core flow, the usual

eddy-viscosity hypothesis is used, applying a linear

relation of the Reynold-stress tensor to the velocity

gradient as follows:

2

u0i u0j dij k 2Cij Sij

3

u0j h

Cij @ T

Prt @xj

2

3

kinetic energy, and Sij is the rate of strain tensor. For highRe flows, the turbulent transport coefficient Gij is conventionally made isotropic and proportional to a velocity

scale (3k) and a time scale (k/e), characterizing the local

rate of turbulence and is given by:

Cij mt Cl k2 =e

where mt is known as the isotropic eddy viscosity, e represents the rate of dissipation of k, and Cl stand for a

model constant. The distributions of k and e are determined from the conventional model transport equations of

Jones and Launder [9], and standard values can be

assigned to the model constants. In this flow region the

turbulent Prandtl number is usually fixed at 0.9. In the one

equation model, the eddy viscosity is made proportional to

a velocity scale determined by solving the k-equation, and

a length scale ll prescribed algebraically. The dissipation

rate e is related to the same velocity scale and a dissipation

length scale le, also prescribed algebraically [7]. Such

Where / is the considered time-averaged variable, J is the model has the advantage of requiring considerably fewer

Jacobian of the coordinate transformation, Ci, Di/ repre- grid points in the viscous sub-layer than any pure Low

Reynolds scheme. Also, because of the fixed length-scale

sent respectively the convection and the diffusion terms

distribution near the wall, these models have been found

to give better prediction for adverse pressure gradient

Table 1. Form of terms in the individual equations

boundary layer than pure ke models.

D/i

S/

/

Ci

The present two-layer model is a re-formulated version

of the so-called v2 velocity-scale based model (TLV)

i

1

b jqvj

0

0

proposed by Rodi et al. [7]. In a recent study Azzi and

j

i j

k

1J @x@ j pbk

bij qvj

lJ Bij @v

vk

@xj bj xk

Lakehal [8] re-incorporate k1/2 as a velocity scale instead

l

i

i @k

PK qe

rk J Bj @xj

k

b jqvj

v2 1=2 and ll and le are re-scaled on the basis of the same

DNS data of Kim et al. [10]. This model will be call

2

@e

e

bijqvj

rlek J Bij @x

Ce1 ke Pk Ce2 q ek

j

hereafter as TLV model and defined as follows:

j

p

Bij cofactor of J @yi =@xj ; Bij bil bl

Cij mt Cl kll

5

j

lt

l @mj

n @ml

m @mj

n @ml

2

The mathematical model

The mathematical model consists of the RANS, the twoequation eddy viscosity ke turbulence model and the

energy equation. The governing equations for steady,

turbulent, incompressible flows in non-orthogonal coordinates using Cartesian velocity components can be

written in a generalized form as follows:

1 @

Ci / D/i S/ ;

1

J @xi

xk bk @xl ; Pk

bj

@xn

bl

@xm

bj

@xn

e k3=2 =le

are 4k and 2k in length respectively. For the inlet conditions, a similar procedure to that used by Patel et al. [2] is

q

applied here. The distributions of velocity and turbulence

1

fl

0:116 R2y Ry

8 parameters in a fully developed flow at sufficiently large

32

distance from the entry of 80H straight channel, which are

independent of the initial conditions and invariant with

jCl3=4 y

9 distance, are used as inlet conditions for wavy-wall calle

3=4

2 17:28= fl Ry jCl

culations. The Reynolds number was set as in DNS computations [6] at Re(HU/m) = 6760. The turbulence intensity

p

10 is assigned a value of 5% and the turbulence dissipation is

Ry q ky=l

calculated based on a turbulent viscosity equal 50 times

Where j = 0.4 and Cl = 0.082. The outer and the near-wall the laminar viscosity. At the outflow boundary, zero-gramodel are matched at the location where fl = 0.95, indi- dient conditions are imposed for all dependent variables.

cating that viscous effects become negligible. More details

can be found in [8], where the model is tested for a fully 2.3

developed channel and applied for a film cooling config- Grid mesh

uration.

The quality of a computational solution is strongly linked to

the quality of the grid mesh. So a highly orthogonalized,

nonuniform, fine grid mesh was generated with grid nodes

2.1

considerably refined in the near-wall region. The normalNumerical procedure

The numerical procedure used to calculate the test case is ized y+ values at the near wall node are less than unity, and

based on a finite-volume approach for implicitly solving care is taken so that the stretching factors are kept close to

the incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes

unity. Figure 1 shows a close-up of the computational grid

equations (RANS) on arbitrary non-orthogonal grids,

used for the case with am = 0.10 H. The grid adopted for the

employing a cell-centred grid arrangement. The momen- computations was obtained after a series of tests and contum-interpolation technique of Rhie and Chow [11] is used sists of 42,100 grid nodes (disposed on a global array 421

to prevent pressure-field oscillations and the pressure100 nodes in x, and y directions). For the parametric study,

velocity coupling is achieved using the SIMPLEC algoseveral grids were generated, where the wave amplitude was

rithm of Van Doormal and Raithby [12]. The resulting

varied from 0.0 to 0.10 by a step of 0.02.

system of the algebraic difference equations is solved using

the Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP) of Stone [13]. The 3

convection fluxes are approximated by employing the

Results and discussion

QUICK scheme for all variables applied in a scalar form by

means of a deferred-correction procedure and bounded by 3.1

the Van-Leer Harmonic function as limiter. The diffusive Comparison with DNS data

fluxes are, however, approximated using second-order

In order to validate the code the first run was done with

central differences. Convergence was in all cases deterflow characteristics that are the same as those used by

mined based on a drop in normalized mass and momen- Maa and Schumann [6]. Figures 2 and 3 compare the

tum residuals by four orders of magnitude. A global mass normalized mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy

balance algorithm was employed after each iteration to

profiles with DNS data. The comparison is done until the

correct the mass fluxes at the outflow. More details of the middle of the channel and at four streamwise locations of

mathematical formulation, which are now a standard

the seventh wave that correspond to the divergent, trough,

material and well known to most investigators, can be

convergent and crest positions, respectively (x/H = 0.304,

found in the following references [1415].

0.492, 0.804 and 0.992). The figures show reasonable

agreement for the mean velocity profiles. The reverse flow

occurring in the first half of the wave (x/H = 0.304 and

2.2

0.492) is clearly captured by the computations. However,

Computational domain and boundary conditions

The computational domain consists of 10 waves preceded the turbulent kinetic energy is globally underpredicted. As

and followed by upstream and downstream flat sections

for flow adjustment and recovery, respectively. This geometrical configuration was used previously by Patel et al.

[2] and seems to be more exact than using one wave length

of channel and applying periodic conditions. According to

Patel et al. [2] the periodic boundary conditions cannot be

established without prior knowledge of the flow, particularly with regard to the turbulent quantities and calculations of the type performed here.

The wavy and the flat plate are placed with a mean

spacing (H = 1). The amplitude and the wavelength of the

lower sinusoidal wavy wall are (am = 0.05H) and (k = H), Fig. 1. Close-up of the computational grid for the case with 0.1 H

respectively. The upstream and downstream flat sections of amplitude

ll jyCl3=4 fl

795

796

Fig. 2. Comparison of normalized mean streamwise velocity with

convergent; x/H=0.992: crest

convergent; x/H=0.992: crest

this underprediction is a consequence of an overpredicted

value of the turbulence dissipation in the region where k+

reaches its peak value. However, the underprediction is

more important in this wavy wall case than it was for the

flat plate. It can also be observed that turbulent kinetic

energy is represented by very different plots along the

wave and until approximately 0.25 H normal to the wall.

The maximum peak is observed at x/H = 0.492 in the

streamwise direction and roughly at 0.05H normal to the

wall.

Figure 4 shows the normalized logarithmic axial

velocity and temperature profiles at trough and crest of the

seventh wave. In the figure, U+ and y+ are computed with

the friction velocity Us based on the local wall shear stress.

The standard velocity and temperature logarithmic laws

are also plotted in the figure. For comparison, the computed profiles for the flat plate and for the trough and crest

of wavy wall (0.05 H) are presented. As it was found by

Patel et al. [2], the most important observation is that a

standard law is clearly not applicable in such complicated

configuration. The strong adverse and favorable pressure

gradients are responsible for the new trend shown by the

plots. At the crest station, which corresponds to mildly

favorable pressure gradient, the velocity and temperature

distributions are underpredicted compared with the logarithmic law. At the second station, which corresponds to

the trough, the strong adverse pressure gradient is

compared with that of the logarithmic law. Between the

two stations, it can be seen and as expected that there is a

zone where the profiles agree with the logarithmic law due

to the near zero pressure gradient.

3.2

Influence of the wave amplitude

The effect of geometric parameters is investigated by

varying the amplitude wave from zero (flat plate) to 0.1 H

by a step of 0.02 H. The friction and the pressure coefficients distributions for trough one wave in the fully

developed region are plotted in figures 5 and 6, respectively. Comparing the results for flat plate (am = 0) with

that obtained for the wavy wall, it can be seen that there is

a decrease in the values of friction coefficient in the trough

and an increase in the values in the crest. Except for very

small amplitude (am = 0.02 H), the shape of the distribution curves is highly deformed with a tendency to

increase values even in the trough. The separation and the

reattachment points where the friction coefficient vanishes

are plotted in figure 7. Separation and reattachment points

correspond to locations where the friction coefficient

vanishes. For (am = 0.5 H) they are at 0.13 k and 0.58 k,

respectively. In DNS computations [6], they were located

at 0.14 k and 0.59 k, respectively. The agreement is completely satisfying. It is also obvious from the figure that the

797

waves

than the separation point. The pressure coefficient shows

also an undulated character with maximum in the vicinity

of the trough and minimum nearly in the crest (opposite

to that observed for the friction coefficient). It is obvious

that the pressure drop is proportional to the amplitude

wave (Cp is zero at the inlet of the channel for all cases).

Figures 8(a) and 8(b) show vector plots and computed

streamlines for wave amplitude of 0.05 H and 0.10 H,

both cases. From figure 5, which shows the friction coefficient distribution, one can predict that separation occurs

first, roughly at am = 0.03 H, since for am = 0.2 H the

friction coefficient is always positive and reaches negative

values for am = 0.4 H. We can also see that the recirculation zone increases in size and its centre moves in the

downstream direction when the amplitude wave increases.

The turbulence intensity contours for the corresponding

geometry are plotted in figures 9(a) and 9(b). The maximum turbulence zone, which is located near the wavy wall,

increases in intensity and moves in the downstream

direction when the amplitude wave increases. This feature

corresponds to what is expected from the wavy wall in

perturbing the boundary layer and enhancing turbulent

heat transfer.

The temperature contours are presented for the same

two amplitude waves in figures 10(a) and 10(b). Having in

mind that zero value is assigned to the wall and unity value

for the inflow, one can see that reattachment points are

always recognized by high temperature gradient. We can

also see that temperature contours, which are straight in

the flat-plate channel, are distorted in the recirculation

region when increasing the amplitude waves. This supports the fact that the boundary layer is perturbed by

eddies. The variation of the local Nusselt number through

one wave in the fully developed region versus the amplitude wave is presented on figure 11. The minimum and the

maximum Nusselt numbers are located near the separation and the reattachment points, respectively. The difference between the maximum and the minimum values,

increases with the amplitude wave. However, as shown in

figure 12 the averaged Nusselt number increases with the

798

wave

wave

geometry of Maa & Schumann [6]. Special attention has

been focused on periodic, fully developed thermal and flow

fields. Computations have been performed by a finite

volume method, solving flow and energy equations. The

Reynolds-stress tensor and the turbulent heat flux are

approximated within the context of the ke turbulence

model. The near-wall viscosity-affected region is resolved

with a one-equation model. The predicted results are in

good agreement with published DNS data. The two-layer

model is found to be successful in capturing most of the

important physical features of such a flow with reasonable

amount of memory storage and computer time. The predicted results show the shortcomings of the standard law

of the wall for predicting this type of flows and conseFig. 10. Contours of a dimensional temperature

quently suggest that direct integrations to the wall must be

used instead. A geometrical parametric study was conducted by changing the amplitude-to-wavelength ratio.

amplitude wave until 0.06H, after which the Nusselt

Comparison of predicted results of a wavy wall with that of

number is approximately remains constant.

a straight channel indicates that the averaged Nusselt

number increases until a critical value is reached where the

4

amplitude wave is increased. However, this heat transfer

Conclusions

Numerical results for the turbulent flow and heat transfer enhancement is accompanied by an increase in the pressure drop.

in a two-dimensional channel with wavy wall are

References

1. Vijay KG; Maji PK (1988) Laminar flow and heat transfer in a

periodically converging diverging channel. Int J Numer Meth

Fluids 8: 579597

2. Patel VC; Tyndall Chon J; Yoon JY (1991) Turbulent flow in a

channel with a wavy wall. J Fluids Eng 113: 579586

3. Wang G; Vanka SP (1995) Convective heat transfer in periodic

wavy passages. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 38(17): 32193230

4. Hudson JD; Dykhno L; Nanratty TJ (1996) Turbulent production

in flow over a wavy wall. Exp Fluids 20: 27265

5. Cherukat P; Na Y; Hanratty TJ (1998) Direct numerical simulation

of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. Theor

Comput Fluid Dynam 11: 109134

6. Maa C; Schumann U (1996) Direct numerical simulation of

separated turbulent flow over a wavy boundary. In: Hirschel EH

(ed) Flow simulation with high performance computers notes on

numerical fluid mechanics, 52: 227241

7. Rodi W; Mansour NN; Michelassi V (1993) One equation nearwall turbulence modelling with the aide of direct simulation data.

J Fluids Eng 115: 196205

8. Azzi A; Lakehal D (2002) Perspectives in modelling film-cooling of

turbine blades by transcending conventional two-equation turbulence models. ASME J Turbomach 124: 472484

a two-equation turbulence model. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 15:

31314

10. Kim J; Moin P; Moser R (1987) Turbulence statistic in fully

developed channel flow at low Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech

177: 133166

11. Rhie CM; Chow WL (1983) A numerical study of the turbulent

flow past an isolated airfoil with trailing edge separation. AIAA-J

21: 12251532

12. Van Doormal JP; Raithby GD (1984) Upstream to elliptic problems

involving fluid flow. Comput Fluids 2: 191220

13. Stone HL (1968) Iterative solution of implicit approximation of

multidimensional partial differential equations. SIAM J Num Anal

5: 53

14. Majumdar S; Rodi W; Zhu J (1992) Three-dimensional finitevolume method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries. J Fluids Eng 114: 496503

15. Zhu J (1992) An introduction and guide to the computer program

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799

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