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I.

II.

ConstitutionalLawChecklist

Jusdicibility
a. StateAction(substantialstateinvolvement,traditionalgovernmentfunctions)
b. Standing(injury,causation,redressibility3rdparty,generalgrievances,organizational)
c. Ripeness(hardship,fitness)
d. Mootness(capableofrep.butevadereview,voluntarycessation,classactions)
e. PoliticalQuestion(rep.formofgov.,presidentsforeignaffairs,impeach/removal)
f. SovereignImmunity(SI,11th,Govofficials,fedsuingstates)
g. Abstention
FederalLegislativePower
a. CongressabilitytoactCongresscanonlyactunderexpress/impliedcongressionalpowersgivenbythe
ConstitutionEnumeratedpowers.InD.C.canregulateforhealth,safety,andgralwelfareofresidents.
i. Necessary&properclause
1. Congressmayenactalllawsthatarenecessaryandpropertocarryoutitsauthority
(meaningthatCongress,incarryingoutitsauthority,maychooseanymeansnot
prohibitedbyConst.)
ii. Taxing
1. Congressmaytaxandspendforthegeneralwelfare(i.e.,canimplementanytaxtoraise
revenueandanyprogramtoexpendthatrevenueinordertoservethegeneralwelfare)
2. Limits:
a. Musttrulybenational
b. Maynotcoerce
3. Cantaxinactivity
4. BaileyvDrexelunconstotaxchildlabor;taxwasinterpretedasapenalty.
iii. SpendingPower(forthegeneralwelfare)
1. Anycongressionalspendingprogramisalmostalwaysbestsupportedunderthepowerto
spendforthegeneralwelfare
2. Moreover,whenthefederalgovernmentgrantsmoneytoarecipient,therecipientmust
complywithallrestrictionsorconditionsattachedtothegrant(governmentcanimpose
conditionsontheuseofthefunds).
3. Congressusethespendingpowertoconditionfederalgrantsisconstif:
a. Itisinpursuitofgralwelfare
i. Prettymucheverythingfitshere
b. Conditionsareunambiguous,unequivocal
c. Conditionsarereasonablyrelatedtoafederalinterest
i. Majoritytangentialrelation
ii. Dissentdirectnexus
d. Doesntviolateotherconstitutionalprovisions
e. Maynotconditiontostatesreceiptoffederalfundsinacoerciveway
4. ThePresidentdoesnothavetherighttoimpoundorreducefundswhichCongresshas
expresslymandatedmustbespent
5. However,thePresidentmaywithholdfundsifCongresssoprovidesinthespendingbill.
iv. CommerceClause(channels,instrumentalities,activities[canaggregateeconomic,butnot
noneconomic])
1. Congressmayregulatecommercewithforeignnations,Indiantribes,andamongthe
states
a. Withregardstointerstatecommerce,Congressmay:
i. Regulatethechannelsofinterstatecommerce(e.g.,highways,
waterways,Internet,etc.);

ii. Regulatetheinstrumentalitiesofinterstatecommerce(e.g.,trucks,
telephones,Internet)andpersonsorthingsininterstatecommerce
(electricity,radiowaves,cattle,peoplewhotravelinterstate)
iii. Mayregulateallactivitieswhich,intheiraggregate,haveasubstantial
effectonthenationaleconomyWickard
1. Whenregulatinganareaofnoneconomicintrastateactivity
(e.g.,sexualactivity,noncommercialactivity),substantialeffect
oninterstatecommercecannotbebasedoncumulativeimpact
(theactivitybeingregulatedmustinfactdirectlyaffectinterstate
commerce)Lopez,Morrison
2. ItisuncertainwhetherCongressmaydirectlyregulate,throughitsCommerceClause
powers,theminimumdrinkingage(therefore,itisincorrecttoassumethatthecommerce
powerextendstothistypeofregulation)
3. CongressmayregulatetheinterestratesoftheentirecountrypursuanttoitsCommerce
Clausepowers
v. 5of14th(preventandremedypreexistingrights,proportionate&congruent)
1. Congressmaynotcreatenewrightsorexpandthescopeofrights.
2. However,Congresscanacttopreventorremedyviolationsofrightsrecognizedbythe
courts,ifsuchlawsareproportionateandcongruenttoremedyingconstitutional
violations(narrowlytailored
vi. Limitedby10th(Fedcantforcestatestoenforcefedlaw,canconditionifexpress&related)
1. AllpowersnotgrantedtotheUnitedStates,norprohibitedtothestates,arereservedto
thestatesorthepeople
a. Congresscannotcompelstateregulatoryorlegislativeaction(cannotforcethem
tomakelawsoradministratefederalmandates)
i. LimitationsCongresscantrytoinducestateactionbyputtingexpressly
statedconditionsongrants;or
ii. Congresscanprohibitstategovernmentsfromengaginginharmful
commercialactivities
b. Delegation(nolimitexceptlineitemandlegislativevetos)
i. Congressmaydelegateitspowerstotheexecutivebranchorthejudiciaryaslongas:
1. ThepowerdelegatedisonewhichCongressmaydelegate;
a. TheConstitutionspecificallyprovidesthatcongressmaynotdelegatethepower
todeclarewar,ratifytreaties,ortrycasesofimpeachment)
2. Thedelegationcontainsatleastsomeintelligibleprinciplestoguidethedelegation,
suchthatacourtcoulddeterminewhetherthedelegateehadexceededtheauthority
grantedtohim
ii. Congresscannotdelegatetheexecutivepower(powertoimplementthelaws)orthejudicial
powertoitselforitsofficers
1. LegislativeVetoes
a. ForCongresstoact(e.g.,passalaw,overturnanexecutiveaction),theremust
be:
i. Bicameralism(passagebyboththeHouseandtheSenate);and
ii. Presentment(givingthebilltothePresidenttoeithersignorveto)
1. IfPresidentvetoes,Congresscanpassby2/3vote
iii. Exceptions(whereonehouseofCongresscanactalone):
1. InitiationsofimpeachmentofthePresidentbytheHouse
2. ImpeachmenttrialsbytheSenate
3. ApprovalofPresidentialappointmentsbytheSenate
4. RatificationoftreatiesbytheSenate
2. LineItemVetoes

a. WherethePresidentattemptstovetopartofabillwhilesigningtherestofitinto
law.
b. TheseareunconstitutionalbecausethePresidentmusteithersigntheentirebill
intolaworvetothewholebill
III.

IV.

FederalExecutivePowerArt2.
a. ForeignPolicy(exec.agreements,broadpowersasComm.inChieftousetroopsinforeigncountries)
b. Domesticaffairs(appointment&removal,impeach,pres.immunity,exec.privilege,pardon)
c. AttorneyGeneral
i. AsaprincipalofficeroftheExecutiveBranch,theAttorneyGeneralhasthepowertodecide
whethertoprosecuteornotandCongresscannotinterferewiththis(orother)coreExecutive
Branchfunction(s)(doctrineofseparationofpowers)
d. ExecutiveAuthorityforForeignPolicy
i. Treaties(agreementsbetweentheUSandaforeigncountry)
1. MustbenegotiatedbythePresidentandratifiedbytheSenate
2. Treatiesalwaysprevailoverconflictingstatelaws
3. Treatiesprevailoverconflictingfederallawsonlyifadoptedlater(theoneadoptedlastin
timeprevails)
4. TreatiesthatconflictwiththefederalConstitutionareinvalid
ii. ExecutiveAgreements(agreementsbetweentheUSandaforeigncountry)
1. MustbesignedbythePresidentandtheheadoftheforeignnation(noSenateapproval
required)
2. Canbeusedforanypurpose
3. Executiveagreementsprevailoverconflictingstatelaws
4. ExecutiveagreementsneverprevailoverfederallawsorthefederalConstitution
e. PresidenthasbroadpowersasCommanderinChieftouseAmericantroopsinforeigncountries
(evenifuseisoutrageous)
Federalism
a. Analysis
i. IsthelawmadebyCongressorState?
1. IfCongress,ask
a. Istheactw/Iitspowertoregulatecommerceamongthestates,and/or
b. Iftheactregulatesthestates,doesitviolatethe10 thamend.
2. IfbytheState,ask
a. IsthestatelawpreemptedbyFedlaw?
i. No,thenask:DoesthestateviolatetheDormantCommerceClause
1. No,thenask:doesthesatelawviolatesprivilegesand
immunitiesclauseArt4.Sect2.
b. Preemption(express,implied,statescanttaxorregulatefedgovactivity)
i. Lookatpreemptiondoctrinedecisiontree.Pg270.
1. Doesthefedstatuteexplicitlystateitissupersedingstatelaw?YesStatelawis
preempted
2. NoIstheschemeoffederalregulationsopervasiveastomakereasonablethe
interferencethatCongressleftnoroomtosupplementit?YesStatelawispreempted
3. NoISthefederalinterestsodominantinthisfieldoflawthatthefederalsystemwillbe
assumedtoprecludeenforcementofstatelawsonthesamesubject?YesStatelawis
preempted
4. Noistheobjectofthepermissiblefederallawandthecharacterofobligationsimposed
byitsuchthattheyrevealthesamepurposeasstatelaw?YesStatelawispreempted
5. Nodoesthestatelawactuallyconflictwithfederallaw,eitherbecausecompliance
withbothfedandstregulationsisaphysicalimpossibilityorbecausestatelawstands

asanobstacletotheaccomplishmentandexecutionofthefullpurposesandobjectivesof
Congress?YesStatelawispreempted.
6. NoStatelawisnotpreempted.
c. DormantCommerceclause(statelawcanthaveundueburdenoninterstatecommerce)
i. PikeDormantCommerceTestpg276
1. Doesthestateregulationservealegitimatepublicinterest?NoUnconstitutional
2. YesDoesthestateregulationdiscriminateonitsface?=YesUnconstitutional
a. Discriminatesbwcitizenandoutofstaters
3. NoDoesthestateregulationdiscriminateinitseffectorapplication?=Yes
Unconstitutional
a. HuntvWAapples,CityofPhillyvNJ,CarbonevClarkstown,Unitedv.Oneida
4. NoIstheeffectoftheregulationoninterstatecommerceincidental?=No
Unconstitutional
a. Thisisabalancingquestionsweightthecostandbenefitsjudgesjobto
balance.
5. YesAreteburdensoninterstatecommerceclearlyexcessiveinrelationtotheputative
benefits?
a. Moreburdensthanbenefits.
b. YesUnconstitutional
c. NoConstitutional
6. ToshowExcessiveBurdenSouthernPacificvArizona(privateentityRR),Kasselv
Consolidated.
7. ToshowBenefitoutweighedburdenBranwellBrothers(publicentityroads)
ii. Marketparticipantexception.
1. YesMPReevesvStakel
2. NoMPSouthCentralTimbervWinnickel.
3. Test:
a. IsthestateMP?YesConstitutional
b. NoIsthestateregulatingevenhandedlytoeffectuatealegitimatepublic
interest?NoUnconstit
c. YesIstheeffectoftheregulationoninterstatecommerceincidentalNo=
Uncon
d. YesAretheburdensoninterstatecommerceclearlyexcessiveinrelationtothe
putativebenefits?
i. YesUncons
ii. NoConst
d. P&IclauseofArticle4(Noburdenonimportanteconomicactivitiesorcivillibertiesofoutofstate
citizensunlessintermediatescrutinyw/leastrestrictivemeans{aliensandcorpscantuse})Analysis:
i. DoesthelawimpairanArt4S.2privilegeorimmunityodanoutofstatecitizen?No=Const
ii. YesDoesthestatepossessasubstantialreasonforthedifferenceintreatment?No=
UNconst
iii. YesDoesthediscriminationagainstnonresidentsbearacloseorsubstantialrelationshiptothe
statesobjective?(Indeterminingtheanswer,thecourthastoconsidertheabilityofless
restrictivemeans)
1. Yes=Constitutional
2. No=Unconstitutional
e. NaturalRights:
i. Commoncallingrighttoaprofessionwork
ii. Contracts
iii. Ownanddisposeofproperty
iv. Tosueandbesuedaccesstocourts

V.

v. Practicelaw.
IndividualLiberties
a. P&Iof14thAmend.OnlyappliestoStateActionthatinfringeonFundamentalRightsofanycitizenin
theUS.
i. Congresscanmakelawsapplytoprivateconduct(13th,CommercePower[not5of14th])
ii. Whenprivateconductmustcomply(entanglement[govauthorizes,encouragesorfacilitates],
publicfunction[traditionally&exclusively])
iii. RighttoTravel:
iv. Ithasalwaysbeenheld(evenintheSlaughterhouseCases)thatthePoICofthe14thamendment
protectsanindividual'srighttotravel.Withregardtotravel,itprotects
v. Therighttoenteronestate&leaveanother;
vi. Therighttobetreatedasawelcomevisitorratherthanahostilestranger;
vii. Forthosewhowanttobecomepermanentresidents,therighttobetreatedequallytonativeborn
citizens.
viii. Here,thisistherightthatisbeingabridgedbythestatelaw.
ix. Sincetherighttotravelembracesthecitizen'srighttobetreatedequallyinhisnewstateof
residence,thediscriminatoryclassificationisitselfapenalty
b. **ExceptionPublicFunctionsDoctrine;Hastheactivitytraditionallyandexclusivelybeenperformedby
thegovernment?IfYes,P&Iapplies.
i. For:Marshv.Alabama,Jackson.Against:Jacksonv.MetropolitanEdison.
c. **ExceptionEntanglementDoctrine;ActionofPrivatePartyentanglesstatetoanextentthatactionsof
privatepartyshouldbeviewedasactionsofstateb/cthegovt.wouldbeauthorized,encouraging,or
facilitatingit.
i. Shelleyv.Kraemer
d. Burtonv.WilmingtonParkingAuthority

VI.

DueProcess
a. ProceduralDueProcess(proceduresfordeprivationoflife,libertyorproperty)pg362
i. Istheactionattributabletothegovt?Nono14thviolation
ii. YesDoesthegovernmentalactiondeprived(denied)apersonoflife,libertyorproperty?No
noviolation
iii. YesHasthegovt.giventhepersonnoticeoftheaction(executivebranch)Nono14 th
violation
iv. YesHasthegovtgiventhepersonanopportunitytobeheard?
1. Nono14thamendviolation
2. Yesno14thamenviolation.
b. SubstantiveDueProcessadequatereasonfordeprivationoflife,libertyorproperty
i. Balance(1)individualsinterest,(2)abilityofadditionalsafeguardstoincreaseaccuracyoffact
finding,(3)govinterestinadmin.&fiscalefficiency)
ii. Mustbe>negligence,inemergencymustshockconscious,notprivateconduct
iii. consensustheory?
iv. essentialtoorderedliberty(Palkov.Conn.)
v. penumbras?createazoneofprivacy&conductw/inthatzone(likeinGriswold)?
vi. othercasestogroundright/comparerightto?
vii. HistoryandTradition?
viii. 9thAmendment?
ix. Economicliberties/NonfundamentalrightsRationalbasisreview=likelytobe
Unconstitutional

1. Rationalbasistestisusedtoreviewlawsaffectingeconomicrights(e.g.,
employment/minimumwagelaws,regulationsoftradesorprofessions,consumer
protectionlaws,etc.)
2. Involvesstateregulationbusinessthatdealsw/apublicinterest?(Nebbiav.NYdeath
ofeconomicdueprocess.
a. milkpricesinvolvepublicinterest
b. USEdeferentialreviewofstatelegislature[t]heguarantyofdueprocess
demandsonlythatthelawshallnotbeunreasonable,arbitraryor
capricious,andthatthemeansselectedshallhavearealandsubstantial
relationtotheobjectsoughttobeattained.
c. NOeconomiclegislationhasbeenheldunconstitutionalunderthisstandard.
d. EVENMOREdeferentialuptothelegislaturestodecidethewisdomof
legislationupheldunlawfultoengageindebtadjustingunlessmemberofKS
bar.(Fergusonv.Skrupa(1963)
3. Takingsclause(5thAmendmentforfederalgovernment;incorporatedin14 th
Amendmentforstates)Thegovernmentmaytakeprivatepropertyforpublicuseifit
providesjustcompensation.
a. DecisionTreepg515
b. Wastheactionundertakenbygovt?Nonoviolation
c. YesDidthegovtsactionconstituteataking?Nonoviolation
d. YesDidthegovtsactionconstituteatakingofprivateproperty?Nono
violation
e. YesDidthegovttaketheprivatepropertyforpublicuse?Notakingsclause
violation
f. YesDidthegovtpayjustcompensationtotheowneroftheprivatepropertyit
tookforpublicuse?
i. Notakingsviolation
ii. Yesnoviolation
g. PossessoryTaking
i. Governmentconfiscationorphysicaloccupationofpropertyisalwaysa
taking
1. Thisistrueevenifthephysicaloccupationisverysmall(e.g.,
onlyacablewirerunningontheproperty)
h. RegulatoryTakingPAvMahon
i. Governmentregulationisatakingifitleavesnoreasonable
economicallyviableuseoftheproperty
ii. Ameredecreaseinpropertyvalueorintheownersinvestmentisnot
sufficient
iii. Governmentconditionsonthedevelopmentofpropertyareonlytakings
iftheyarenotjustifiedbyabenefitthatisroughlyproportionatetothe
burdenimposedonthelandowner
iv. Alandownermaybringatakingschallengetoregulationsthatexistedat
thetimethepropertywasacquiredandthereisnoexpirationdate
i. Ifyoudonthaveoneofthenarrowcategories,courtwilllooktofactual
backgroundtoconsidertheissueoftaking(PennCentralTest):
i. Economiceffect/harmontheowneroftheproperty
ii. Harmtoreasonableinvestmentbasedexpectations(whetherthelawis
prospectiveorretroactive).
1. Ifprospective,itprobablyhurtsinvestmentbasedexpectations
lessthanifretroactive.
iii. Natureofthetakingisthetakingfairandisitfairtoaskoneindividual
tobeartheburden

j.

IstheTakingforPublicUse?
i. Atakingisforpublicusesolongasthegovernmentreasonablybelieves
thatthetakingwillbenefitthepublic
ii. Ifthetakingisnotforpublicuse,thegovernmentmustreturnthe
property
iii. KelovCityofNL
k. IstheCompensationPaidJust?
i. Governmentmustpaythereasonablemarketvalueofthepropertyinthe
ownershands(priortothetaking)(thegaintothetakerisirrelevant;
compensationismeasuredintermsofthelosstotheowner)
4. Contractsclause(onlystateinterference,privateKsint.scrutiny,govKsstrict)
a. ArtISect10cl.1Nostateshallpassanylawimpairingtheobligation
ofcontractsProtectstheimpliedrightsofindividualsagainststatelaws.
b. HomeBuilding&LoanvBlaisdell
c. DecisionTreepg534
i. Doesthestatelawoperateassubstantialimpairmentofacontractual
obligation?(theextentoftheimpairmentincreasesthelevelofscrutiny
towhichthelegislationwillbesubjected?)Noconstitutional
ii. YesDoesthestatehaveasignificantandlegitimatepublicpurpose
behindtheregulation,suchastheremedyingofabroadandgeneral
socialoreconomicproblem?Nounconstitutional
iii. YesDidthelawadjusttherightsandresponsibilitiesofcontracting
partiesusingreasonableconditionsandisthelawofacharacter
appropriatetothepublicpurposejustifyingthelawsadoption?(The
courtmustproperlydefertolegislativejudgmentastothenecessityand
reasonablenessofaparticularmeasure?
1. YesCons
2. NoUnconst
d. Involvesunreasonableinterferencew/righttoK(inprivatebusiness)?
Lochnerv.NY
i. Nostatemayimpairtheobligationsofcontracts
1. Appliesonlytostate/localinterferencewithalreadyexisting
contracts
a. Neverappliestothefederalgovernment
ii. Anystate/locallawthatsubstantiallyimpairsaprivatepartysrights
underanexistingcontractmustmeetamodifiedintermediatescrutiny
test(PublicPurposeBalancingTest):
1. Thelawmustbeareasonablyandnarrowlytailoredmeansof
furtheringanimportantandlegitimatepublicinterest
iii. Anystate/locallawthatinterfereswithgovernmentcontractsmustmeet
strictscrutiny
iv. TheExPostFactoClause,whichforbidsexpostfactolaws(criminal
lawsthatpunishsomethingthatwaslegalatthetimecommittedor
increasepunishmentforacrimeafteritwascommitted),doesnotapply
tocivilliability,soretroactivecivilliabilityneedonlymeetarational
basistest.
5. Thecourtassumesthelawisconstitutionalaslongasthereisanybasisforso
concluding.
6. WilliamsonvLeeOpticalEconomiclegewillbeupheldasthereisarationalbasisfor
it.
x. Gender/illegitimatechildrendiscriminationIntermediateScrutiny

1. USvVirginaiainvolvedillegitimatechildren,gender,undocumentedalienchildren,
unrelatedpersonlivingwithanother.
2. CraigvBorenWoencanbuybeerat18butmalescannotuntil21
xi. Noneconomic/Fundamentalrights/createsasuspectclassif.StrictScrutinyReview=
likelytobeConstitutional.
1. Assumesthelawispresumptivelyunconstitutional.ButconstitutionalwhensubjecttoSS
onlyifthelawistheleastrestrictivemeansservingacompellingstateinterest.
2. Statesdefense
a. sclamisnotaconstitutionalrightatall
3. Althoughthestatehasinfringedarightof,thatrightisnotafundamentalright,but
somethinglessthanafundamentalright.
4. Discriminatesbasedonrace,color,age,nationalorigin,ethnicity,religion,speech
5. RighttoPrivacy(afundamentalrightprotectedbysubstantivedueprocess)
a. Lawsthatinterferewiththerighttoprivacymustmeetstrictscrutiny
6. RighttoMarry
a. StatemiscegenationlawviolatedEqualProtectionANDdueprocessreferredto
freedomtomarryasoneofthevitalpersonalrightsessentialtotheorderly
pursuitofhappiness.(Loving

v.Virginia)
b. PLUSmarriageisafundamentalright.Skinnerv.

Oklahoma
7. RighttoProcreate(e.g.,alawimposinginvoluntarysterilization)
a. Eisendstadtv.Baird
b. SkinnervOK
8. Righttohavecustodyofyourchildren
a. Terminatingcustodymustbebackedupbyacompellingstateinterest(suchas
abuse/neglect),butastatemaycreateanirrebuttablepresumptionthatamarried
womanshusbandisthefatherofherchild
9. Righttokeepthefamilytogether(includingtheextendedfamily)
a. Tobeconsideredfamily,themembersmustberelatedtoeachother.
b. Familylivingarrangements(beyondnuclearfamilytoextendedfamily)areone
ofthelibertiesgrantedinDueProcess.Moorev.EastCleveland(1977).[SOR
=morethanrationalbasis,carefulscrutiny]
c. Familylivingarrangementsmaybelimitedtofamilymeaningall
blood/marriage/adoptionrelatives.(VillageofBelleTerrev.Boraas(1974))
Upheldlocalordinancethatdefinedsinglefamilyasnotmorethantwo
unrelatedpersons.[SOR=rationalbasis]
10. Rightofparentstocontroltheupbringingoftheirchildren(includingtherightto
sendchildrentoparochialschools,andtherighttoexcludevisitationbygrandparents)
a. Statestatueprohibitinginstructionincertainforeignlanguagesinprivateschools
materiallyinterfereswiththepowerofparentstocontroltheeducationoftheir
own.Meyerv.Nebraska
b. Statelawrequiringparentstosendchildrentopublicschoolswould
unreasonablyinterferew/thelibertyofparents&guardianstodirectupbringing
&educationofchildren.Piecev.

SocietyofSisters
c. Thebroadstatutewasunconstitutionalasappliedb/citviolatedthe
fundamentalrightofparentstomakedecisionsconcerningthecare,custody,
andcontroloftheirchildren.Troxel

v.
Granville(2000)[SOR=strictscrutiny]
11. Righttopurchaseandusecontraceptives
a. contraceptivesusedbymarriedpersons(Griswoldv.Conn)
b. contraceptivesbyunmarriedpersons(Eisendstadt

v.
Baird)
12. Righttoabortion(compellingstateinterestisnotusedhere)
a. UndueBurdenTest

i. Beforeviability,governmentcannotprohibitabortion,butcanregulateit
solongasitdoesntplaceanundueburdenonthewomansright
1. A24hourwaitingperiodandarequirementthatabortionsbe
performedbylicensedphysiciansarenotundueburdens
2. Aprohibitiononpartialbirthabortionspriortoviabilityand
spousalnotificationand/orconsentlawsareundueburdens
3. Parentalnoticeand/orconsentrequirementsforunmarried
minorsareconstitutionalaslongasthereisajudicialbypass
provision(judgecanapproveabortionifinminorsbestinterest
orifminorismatureenoughtodecide)
ii. Afterviability,governmentmayprohibitabortionsexceptwhere
necessarytoprotectthelifeorhealthofthemother
b. Constitutiondoesnotrequirethegovernmenttofundorsubsidizeabortionsor
providethemingovernmenthospitals.
c. Decisionofwomantodecidewhetherornottohaveachild?
i. Roe=fundamental;
ii. Casey=libertyinterest(ifabortion).
d. Beforeviability?
i. Roegrantsrightinprivacy=strictscrutiny.
ii. Caseygrantsrightinlibertyinterest=undueburdenanalysis(woman
maintainsrighttochoosetohaveanabortionpriortoviabilityw/out)
e. RegulationsthatDONOTconstituteundueburden(probablyfacial
challenge)
i. informedconsent;[facial]
ii. 24waitingperiod;[facial]
iii. minorconsentw/judicialoverride;[facial]
iv. dr.&recordkeepingreqds.[facial]
f. RegulationsthatDOconstituteundueburden
i. husbandpermissionstatement;[facial]
ii. partialbirthabortionbanwrittenbroadlyw/noexceptionforhealthof
themother(Stenbergv.Carhart)
g. Forthehealthofthemother?(fundamentalrighttoabortionforhealthof
mother?)
i. MUSTincludephysical,emotional,psychological,familial,etc.in
health.(Doev.BoltonsamedayasRoetobereadtogether);
ii. [or]Donthavetoincludeb/cCaseyrewroteRoe?
h. [or]wherehealthofmotherdoesnotcountwillbeundueburdenunderCasey
13. RighttoHomosexualityTherighttoprivacydoesnotprotecttherighttoengagein
homosexualactivities(governmentmayprohibitunderrationalbasisreview)
a. Consensual,homosexualsodomyisnotafundamentalright.Bowersv.
HardwickOVERRULED;[SOR=rationalbasis]
b. Precedentprotectsintimatepersonalchoicescentraltopersonallifeandliberty
thefundamentalinterestallindividualshaveincontrollingthenatureoftheir
intimateassociationsw/others.Bowersdissent(Blackmun)(plus3)
c. Righttoprivacyw/inownhome
i. Spatialprivacyw/inownhome,righttobeletaloneStanleyv.Georgia
heldthatStatecouldnotpunishprivatepossessionofobscene
material)Bowersdissent(Blackmun)(plus3)
d. NOb/cessentiallibertyexiststoengageinnonreproductive,sexual
conductothersmayfindimmoral(Griswold,Eisenstadt,andCarey)Bowers
dissentStevens(plus2)

e. Righttoconsensualintimatecontact
i. [T]helibertyprotectedbytheConstitutionallowspersonstherightto
engageinconsensualintimatecontact.Libertyinterestinhomosexual
conduct.(Lawrencev.Texas)(2003)[SOR=assumerationalbasisb/c
libertyinterestbutdoesntsayexplicitly]
f. RighttoHomosexualMarriage
i. Nonebutfruitsinabove;seeOUTLINEEPsection
ii. Also,thinkprivileges&immunities.
g. RighttoHomosexualityANDminors,coercion,prostitution,gaymarriage,
orgaysinthemilitary
i. ExplicitlyreservedbyOConnerinconcurringopinioninLawrence
14. Righttoeducationisnotafundamentalright(rationalbasisreview).
xii. DecisionTreepg395
1. Istherightafundamentalright?
a. NoDoesthegovt.havearationalbasisforitsaction?No=Uncons
b. YesIsthegovt.usinglegitimatemeanstoeffectuateitspolicepower?
i. No=Uncon
ii. Yes=Constitutional
2. YesDoesthegovt.haveacompelling(survivalofnation)stateinterestinregulating
theright?No=Uncons
3. YesIsthegovt.usingtheleastrestrictivemeanstoeffectuatethatcompelling
interest?
a. No=Uncos
b. Yes=Const

VII.

c. DP&EPClause
i. Issue:Does,whoisnotprotectedbytherightasinitiallystatedasamatterofDPcl,havea
claimofimpermissibleunequaltreatment?
ii. 2stepforimpliedfundamentalrightsfield:
1. UseDPcltodefinethecontoursoftherightofprivacyapplicabletoalimitedclass
a. DefinetheimpliedrightasamatteroftheDPcl.
2. UseEPcltoexpandtheclassofpersonstowhichtherightapplies,oractionsprotected
ExpandtheclasstowhichtherightappliesusingtheEPcl.
a. Thisargumentwillbeusedtoextendtherighttomarryfromalimitedgp
(unmarriedperson)toabroadergroup(samesexcouples).
iii. SAISDvRdznofundamentalrighttoeducation.
iv. PlyervDoeusedrationalbasis.Aliensarenotasuspectclass.Lawprohibitingeducationto
undocustudentsisunconstitutional.
1. Dissentconcludedthatthelawwasrational.Oncetheitsnotedthataliensarenot
suspectclass,andthateducationisnotafundamentalright,ourinquiryshouldfocuson
andbelimitedtowhetherthelegislativeclassificationatissuebearsarational
relationshiptoalegitimatestatepurpose.
EqualProtection14thamend.NostateshalldenyanypersonwithinitsjurisdictiontheEPofthe
laws
a. Classifications:
i. Lawsthatexplicitlyclassify(legaldrinkingage)
ii. Lawsthatareexplicitlyneutral,butwhichhaveadiscriminatoryimpactonsomegroup
(firefighterlift225lbs)

iii. Goalsarepermissibleaskistheclassification,thatis,themeansofeffectuatingthisgoal,
constitutionallyacceptable?Dependsonhowclosethefitisbetweenmeansandendsinorderto
meettheEPstandard
1. Thereexistsnoconnectionbetweenmeansandends
a. Unconstitutionalifnoconnection
2. Thereisaperfectfitbetweenmeansandends
a. Constitutionalnomatterhowscrutinythecourtuses,bcthereisaperfectfit
3. Themeansusedmeetspartofthegoalorend
a. Maybeconstitutionalisunderinclusive
4. Themeansusedtakescareoftheentiregoal,andmore
a. Maybealsoconstitutionaloverinclusive
5. Themeansusedmeetspartofthegoalandalsoappliestomorethanjustthatgoal.
a. Combinationof3&4,theyareunderandoverinclusive.
b. Ends&Means
i. MeansHowdoesthelawclassify
ii. EndWhatisthegoalofthelaw
c. StrictScrutiny(Race,NationalOrigin,ethnicity,religion,speech,fundamentalrights,privacy,travel,
voting,alienagegrl
i. hasthegovtusedtheleastrestrictivemeans
ii. toachieveacompellinggovernmentalinterest?
iii. Race:
1. StruckdownVAmiscegenationlawprohibitinginterracialmarriageb/cviolatedEqual
Protection(Lovingv.Virginia).
2. CourtappliedstrictscrutinyBUTupheldawartimeconvictionforviolationsofamilitary
orderexcludingAmericansofJapaneseancestryfromcertaindesignatedmilitaryareas.
(Korematsuv.UnitedStates(1944)
a. racialclassificationssubjecttostrictscrutiny(notperseinvalid)andcanbe
sustainedwherethereispressingpublicnecessity
iv. discreteandinsularminorities
1. MoreexactingjudicialscrutinyfordiscreteandinsularminoritiesunderEqual
Protectionb/cminoritieslackthepoliticalpowertoprotecttheirinterests.United
Statesv.CaroleneProducts(1938)(Stone,footnote)
d. Intermediate(Genderdiscrimination,Illegitimatekids,Undocumentedalienkids)
i. Doesthelawhaveafairandsubstantialrelation
ii. toanimportantgovernmentalobjective?
e. RationalBasis.Economicrightsclaims,allnonfundamentalrights,righttoforeigntravel,alienagecases
relatedtoselfgovt,anddemocraticprocess,age,disability,wealth,andpossiblysexualorientation
discrimination.
i. Istherearationalbasisforthelaw?
ii. Doesthelawhavealegitimatepublicpurpose?
f. DiscriminationinEducation(ifw/race=SS,ifw/gender=IntS.
i. appearstobelessandlessdeferenceovertheyears(fromPlessytoBrowntoAfirmativeAcases)
g. Provingdiscriminationwhenthelawisfaciallyneutral
i. ToproveaviolationofEPclof14thmustprovegovtintendedtodiscriminateinitsaction/law
purposefuldiscriminate.Proofofdiscriminationimpactmaybesufftoproveviolationofciv
rightactbutnotenoughtoconstviolation.
ii. Ifgovtlacksintenttodiscriminatebutactionhasdiscriminantimpact,notsufftofindviolation.
h. AffirmativeAction=SSregardlessorraceBakke
i. Quotasareconstitutionallyimpermissible;
ii. RacebasedorEthnicitybasedaffirmativeactionissubjecttostrictscrutiny;

i.

VIII.

iii. Suchscrutinyisnot"strictintheory,butfatalinfact,"fortheCourtinGrutterholdsthe
UniversityofMichiganLawSchool'sprogramconstitutional,relyingontheuniversity'sneedfor
a"criticalmass"ofminoritystudents,andtheuseofraceasjustonecriterionofmany;
iv. BUT,suchprogramsshouldsunsetinnolaterthan25years;and
v. thedissentsargue1)thisprogramisreallyanimpermissiblequota,and/or2)themajorityisnot
trulyadoptingstrictscrutiny,butsomethinglessthanthat,givenitsdeferencetothestate,and/or
3)affirmativeactionprogramsareconstitutionallyimpermissible,andcannotbesavedbyany
compellinginterest,fornoneexists,and/or4)affirmativeactionprogramscontinuetheproblem
ofracialstigma.
vi. InthecompanioncaseofGratzv.Bollinger,theundergraduateaffirmativeactionprogramisheld
unconstitutionalonthegroundthattheadmissionpointsgivenfordifferentcriteriamadethe
programanimpermissiblequota.
vii. EducationalDiversity=compellingstateinterest(Bakke&Grutter)
1. B/C(Grutter)
a. importantpurposeofpubliceducationandfreedomofspeechandthoughin
universityenvironment.;
b. businessesrequireavarietyofskillsandglobalmarketplacerequiresdiversity;
c. necessaryforcitizenship;
d. groundsforNationsleaders.
viii. AAvalidatedIF
1. highlyindividualized,holisticdetermination(nopredeterminedortechnicalbonuses);
2. raceusedinflexiblewayw/othersoftvariablesalsogivenweight;
3. noquotasystemgoalofobtainingacriticalmassofminoritystudentsisnotaquota
(where%changesubstantiallyeachyear);
4. noraceneutralalternativesavailablew/outlosingacademicprestige;
5. sunsetprovision(?)
ix. AAinvalidatedIF
1. noindividualizedreview;
2. #valuesattributedtoanythinglimitsindividualdetermination/looksquotalike;
3. quotas;
x. BrenannusesintermediateSORforwhites(ANDGinsburg&Souter&Breyer(?)would
uselessthanstrictscrutiny)
GenderClassification
i. Discriminatoryonitsface?
1. =intermediatereview,mustshow
a. (1)importantgovernmentalobjectsAND
b. (2)thatthediscriminatorymeansemployedaresubstantiallyrelatedtothe
achievementofthoseobjectives(Frontiero,thenCraig)
2. BUT4votesforstrict(mostvotesever)
3. Modern=intermediatew/teeth,requiresexceedinglypersuasivejustificationand
burdenofthejustificationisdemandinganditrestsentirelyontheState(USv.Virginia
&MississippiUniversityforWomenv.Hogan)

FreeSpeech
a. Speechisnecessarytoprotectindividuallibertyfromgovttyranny.
b. Contentbased(SS)
i. Govtmustestablishthatspeechfallsintoacategoryofunprotectedorlowvaluespeech
ii. ORAPPLYstrictscrutiny
c. Contentneutral(int.scrutiny)Time,PlaceandManner
i. itissufficientthatthelawisnarrowlytailoredtoserveasignificantorsubstantialgovernment
interestANDleaveopenamplealternativechannelsofcommunication?

ii. Ask,doesthenatureoftheplaceandtheplacesnormalactivitiesdictatethekindsofregulations
oftime,placeandmannerthatarereasonabletoTHATplace?Isthemannerofexpression
appropriate/compatiblew/thenormalactivitiesofthepublicplace?
iii. Istheiranincidentalrestrictionw/highlydisproportionateimpactonspeech?
1. SometimeselevatedscrutinyIFanincidentalrestrictioneitherhasahighly
disproportionateimpactonfreeexpressionORdirectlypenalizesexpressiveactivity
thenmaygetheightened(strict)scrutiny.
iv. SecondaryEffectsDoctrine(contentneutral)isthestatuteregulatingsecondaryeffects(and
notreactiontospeechitself)?
1. Courtupheldcityordinanceprohibitingadultmotionpicturetheatresfromlocatingw/in
1000feetfromanyresidential,church,parkorschool(contentbasedbytypeofmovies
allowedtoshow).Rentonv.PlaytimeTheatres(1986)
a. SecondaryEffectsDoctrine:JustifiedB/Cregulationprohibitedaparticular
KINDofspeechBUTthepurposeoftheregulationisUNRELATEDtothe
speech;
b. purpose=dealw/secondaryeffectsofsuchtheatresinthesurroundcommunity
suchascrime&decreasedpropertyvalues.
c. therefore,claimsordinanceiscontentneutral
d. ViewpointDiscrimination
i. Thegovernmentisalsoforbiddentoengageinviewpointdiscrimination.Viewpoint
discriminationconcernsbanningspeechthatassertsoneparticularviewbutnotitsopposite
e. Vagueness
i. Alawisunconstitutionallyvagueifareasonablepersoncannottellwhatspeechisprohibited
whatisallowed.
ii. Iftoovague,itviolatesDPhavetoarguenotice.
iii. Fightingwordslaws(wordsthatarelikelytopromoteafightingresponse)areunconstitutionally
vague
iv. Ithasachillingeffect
f. Overbreath
i. Alawisunconstitutionallyoverbroadifitregulatessubstantiallymorespeechthanwhatthe
Constitutionallowstoberegulated
1. Example:Alawstating,allliveentertainmentisprohibitedprohibitsmuchmorethan
justpornography/obscenity(itprohibitslivetheater,etc.)
ii. Fightingwordslawsareunconstitutionallyoverbroad.
iii. canargueiss/oelsesrighttogetoffthehook.
iv. Canarguethatthelawissobroadthatitcanapplytootherpeople.
v. Ithasachillingeffect
g. STANDARDSOFREVIEWINFREESPEECH
i. STRICTSCRUTINY:
1. Politicalspeechthatdoesnotmeetthe"incitement"test
2. Spendingmoneyonpolitics(withsomerestrictions)
3. Artistic/literaryspeechthatneitherincitesnorisobscene
4. Scientificspeechthatneitherincitesnorisobscene
5. Religiousspeechthatneitherincitesnorisobscene
6. Offensivespeechnotspokeninabroadcastmedium
7. Hatespeechtheinvolvesonlyspeech(thatis,noconductisinvolved)
8. Pornographicspeechconcerninga)adults,b)nonvisualspeechinvolvingminors
(childrenunder18),orc)computergeneratedminors(thatis,any"child"whoisnotan

actualminorchild)notpresentedinabroadcastmedium(bydefinition,pornographic
speechisnotobscenespeech)
9. Laborspeech(notlaborconduct)
ii. INTERMEDIATESCRUTINY*
1. Anylawcharacterizedasatime,placeormanner(TPM)restrictiononspeech
2. Anylawthatregulatesthe"secondaryeffects"ofsexuallyorientedspeech
3. Symbolicspeech,conductintendedtocommunicate(e.g.,burningadraftcard,orburning
anAmericanflag)(notstudiedinclass,andIwonttestonitinfinal)
4. Commercialspeechthatisnotfalseormisleadingandconcernsalawfulactivity
iii. NEGLIGENCESTANDARDMAYBEUSED
1. Defamatoryspeechofprivatefigures
2. Defamatoryspeechofpublicfiguresregardingmattersofprivateconcern
iv. NOSCRUTINY(INOTHERWORDS,MAYBEBANNED)
1. Incitement
2. Fightingwords
3. Truethreats
4. Commercialspeechthatisfalseormisleading
5. Obscenespeech
6. Crossburningifbannedbasedonanintenttointimidate
v. UNCLEAR
1. Grouplibel(maybebannedbyBeauharnais,butnosuchcasesinyears,becauseCourt
wouldlikelyoverruleBeauharnaisifsimilarcasearose)
2. HostileAudiencespeech(late1940scaseallowedbanninginsomeinstance,butnot
reviewedinyears,andIthinkitwouldbeoverrulediftheWestboroBaptistChurchin
Snyderv.Phelpsisanyindication)
3. *Intermediatescrutinymaybeslightlydifferentlystatedregardingsomeofthelisted
types:
4. TPM:Doestheregulationserve"asignificantgovernmentalinterest,and...leaveopen
amplealternativechannelsforcommunicationoftheinformation."
Heffronv.IntlSocy
forKrishnaConsciousness,Inc.,452U.S.640,648(1981).
5. Conductthatalsocommunicates:Thelawisconstitutional"ifitfurthersanimportantor
substantialgovernmentalinterest...unrelatedtothesuppressionoffreeexpression;and
iftheincidentalrestriction...isnogreaterthanisessentialtothefurtheranceofthat
interest."UnitedStatesv.O

Brien

,397U.S.361,377(1968)
6. "Secondaryeffects"ofsexuallyorientedspeech:Thetestis"whethertheordinanceis
designedtoserveasubstantialgovernmentalinterestandallowsforreasonable
alternativeavenuesforcommunication."CityofRentonv.PlaytimeTheatres,Inc.

,475
U.S.41,48(1986).
h. CategoriesofSpeechNotProtected(orgivenlessprotection)bytheFirstAmendment
i. Ingeneral,thegovtmaynotregulatethecontentofthespeech,except:
ii. IncitingIllegalActivity
1. Governmentmaypunishspeechifthereisasubstantiallikelihoodofimminentillegality
andthespeechisdirectedatcausingthatimminentillegality(e.g.,threatstosomeones
safety,ifthethreatisimminentoractuallylikelytobecarriedout)
2. SchenkvUSCleatandPresentDangerTestWordsusedinamannerandspecific
contextwheretheywouldbringaboutacriminalharm.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

3. Incitement:
4. TheurgingofagrouporpersontotakeimmediateactionBrandenburgvOhio
a. Likelytocauseharmfulreaction
b. Speakerintendstoinciteorproduceimminentlawlessactionandislikelytodo
so.
c. Appliesonlywherespeakerurgesillegalactioninoppositiontogovt.,govt.
policiesorprivateparties.
FightingWordsandtruethreats
1. DirectfacetofaceandPersonalinsultslikelytocauseapersontoreactviolently
ChaplinskyvNewHampshire.
2. GroupLibelFalseandderogatorystatementstendingtoproducehateorprejudice
aboutaparticulargroupBeauharnaisv.Illinois
3. HateSpeechVirginiavBlack&RAVvCityofSt.Paul
ObsceneSpeech
1. TestforObscenity
a. Mustbeaboutsex
b. MillerTest
i. Materialappealstotheprurientinterest(ashamefulormorbidinterest
insex)
1. Localstandard
ii. Materialispatentlyoffensiveunderthelawprohibitingobscenity
iii. Takenasawhole,theworklacksseriousredeemingartistic,literary,
political,orscientificvalue.ReasonablePersontest
c. ExceptiontoMiller:But,appellatecourtspossessanobligationtoexercise
independentjudgmentwhen1stAmenrightsareimplicated
2. Governmentmayusezoningordinancestodetermineandlimitthelocationsofadult
bookstoresandtheaters.
a. YoungvAmericanMiniTheatres
b. CityofLAvAlamedaBooks
ChildPornography
1. Governmentmaybanchildpornography,evenifitisnotobscene
a. However,childrenmustactuallybeusedinitsproduction(notcomputer
generatedchildren)
b. NYvFerber
2. Governmentmaynotpunishprivatepossessionofobscenematerial,butmaypunish
privatepossessionofchildpornography
3. Governmentmayseizetheassetsofbusinessesconvictedofobscenitylawviolations
4. ProfaneandindecentspeechisprotectedbytheFirstAmendment(swearwords,fuck
thedraft,etc.)
a. Exceptions:
i. Notprotectedifairedoverfreebroadcastmedia(TVandradio)(aradio
orTVstationcanbepunishedforbroadcastingprofaneindecentspeech)
ii. Notprotectedifspokeninschool(schoolsmaypunish).
Commercialspeech(onlysome)
1. DecisionTree:
a. Doesthecommercialspeechconcernlawfulactivity?NoConst
b. YesIsthespeechmisleading?NoConst
c. NoDoesthestatehaveasubstantialinterestinregardingthespeech?No
Uncon
d. YesDoesthegovernmentalregulationdirectlyadvancethegovernmental
interestasserted?NoUncon

i.

e. YesIsthegovtregulationnomoreextensivethannecessarytoservethat
interest?
i. NoUncons
ii. YesConstit.
2. Falseanddeceptiveadsarenotprotected(maybepunished)
3. Truecommercialspeechthatinherentlyrisksdeceptioncanbeprohibited
a. Governmentmayprohibitprofessionalsfromadvertisingorpracticingundera
tradename
i. Example:Aneyedoctorcanbepreventedfromcallinghisbusiness
sightforsoreeyes
b. Governmentmayprohibitfacetoface,inpersonsolicitationbyattorneys(e.g.,
ambulancechasing,showingupinhospitalroomstogetclients)
i. Exception:
1. Lawyerscanofferfreeservicestoaclientfacetoface
ii. Lawyersmaysendlettersinthemailtosolicitbusiness
iii. Governmentmaynotprohibitaccountantsfromsolicitingclientsfaceto
face
4. Othercommercialspeechcanberegulatedifintermediatescrutinyismet
a. Regulationmustalsobenarrowlytailored,butitdoesnotneedtobetheleast
restrictivealternative
vii. Defamation(some)Falseandderogatorystatementstendingtoharmthereputationofthe
subjectdiscussedNYvSullivan
1. Ifplaintiffisapublicofficial(oronerunningforoffice)orapublicfigure(thosewho
thrustthemselvesintothespotlightandhaveaccesstothemedia):
a. Mustprovefalsityandactualmalice(byclearandconvincingevidence)
i. ActualMalice:Defendantknewthestatementwasfalseoractedwith
recklessdisregardforthetruth
2. Ifplaintiffisaprivatefigure,butthematterisofapublicconcern(publichasalegitimate
interest):
a. Mustprovefalsityandnegligencetorecovercompensatorydamages
b. Mustproveactualmalicetorecoverpresumedorpunitivedamages
3. Ifplaintiffisaprivatepersonandthematterisprivate,presumedandpunitivedamages
canberecoveredwithoutprovingactualmalice
PlacesAvailableforSpeech
i. PublicForumsGovernmentpropertiesthatthegovernmentisconstitutionallyrequiredtomake
availableforspeech(e.g.,sidewalks,parks)
1. Governmentmayregulate,butregulationsmustbe:
a. Subjectmatterandviewpointneutral(contentneutral)inordertoavoidstrict
scrutiny;AND
b. Time,place,andmannerregulationsthatserveanimportantgovernmentpurpose
andleaveopenadequatealternativeplacesforcommunication
2. Governmentregulationsofpublicforumsneednotusetheleaserestrictivealternative
3. Permitsandpermitfeesareconstitutional,butcityofficialscannothavediscretiontoset
permitfeesforpublicdemonstrations
ii. LimitedPublicForumsGovernmentpropertiesthatthegovernmentcanclosetospeech,but
choosestoopentospeech(e.g.,schoolclassroomsneedpermittomeet)
1. Oncethegovernmentchoosestoopenthepropertyforspeech,itmustmeetallofthe
requirementsforpublicforums.
iii. NonPublicForumsGovernmentpropertiesthatthegovernmentcananddoesclosetopublic
speech(e.g.,militarybases;areasoutsidejails/prisons;advertisingspaceoncitybuses;sidewalks
onpostofficeproperty;candidatedebatessponsoredbygovernmentownedradio/TVstations)

1. Governmentcanregulatespeechinnonpublicforumsaslongastheregulationis
reasonableandviewpointneutral(doesnthavetobesubjectmatterneutralthough)
2. Ex.Jails,wherecitycouncilmeets.
iv. PrivatePropertyThereisnoFirstAmendmentrighttoaccessprivatelyownedpropertyfor
speech.
j.

Freedomofassociation(punishmembership,disclosureofgroupmembership,prohibitinggroupfrom
discriminating.
i. DecisionTreepg807
ii. Definition:The1stAmendmentprovidesfortherighttoassociatewithothersforthe
advancementofbeliefs,ideasandopinions,tocommunicateandtoengageinallactivities
protectedbytheFirstAmendment.NAACPv.Alabama
iii. CompelledDisclosure
1. LawfulAssociations:Alawisunconstitutionalifitcompelsdisclosureofmembershipin
alawfulassociationwheredisclosuresubjectsmembersoftheorganizationstosanctions,
reprisalsorpublicembarrassment.NAACPv.Alabama
a. Exception:IfthereisacompellingStateinterestimplicated.Buckleyv.Valeo
iv. PublicEmployees:
1. Inquiryintofitnessorcompetenceofapplicantsforpublicemploymentmaybe
unconstitutionalbecauseitchillsfreedomofassociation.
a. Exception:ifinquiryisnarrowlytailoredtothegovernmentinterestinfitnessor
competence.
v. FreedomnottoAssociate:Thefreedomofassociationalsoentailsafreedomnottoassociate.
1. Statecannotrequirepersonstoprovideforsupportoforganizationsorcauseswithwhich
theydisagree.Aboodv.DetroitBoardofEduc.;Kellerv.StateBarofCalifornia
2. Limitation:applicationofruleislimitedtopoliticalorideologicalassociations
k. FreedomofReligion
i. FreeExercise(lawsofgeneralapplicability,unemployment)
ii. Establishmentclause(LemonTest,mustallowreligiousgroupssameaccesstofacilitiesas
others,canprovideassistance,butnottobeusedforreligiousinstruction)
iii. ESTABLISHMENTCLAUSE1stAmendment
1. Statesshouldnotprovideaidtoreligion,favoringanyonereligionoverandaboveothers.
IfStatestatuteaidsreligion,itmaybeupheldifitpassesthetestcreatedinLemonTest
a. Doesthelawhaveasecularpurpose?NoUncon
b. YesIstheprincipalorprimaryeffectofthelaweithertoadvanceorinhibit
religion?YesUncon
i. Neutralitytest
c. NoDoesthelawfosteranexcessiveentanglementbwgovtandreligion?
i. YesUncon
ii. NoConst
2. Aidtosectarianorreligiousschools:
a. Impermissibleaid:Tuition,Buildingfunds.
b. Permissibleaid:BusTransportation,Secularbookloans
iv. FREEEXERCISECLAUSE1stAmendment
1. Governmentmaypermitpeopletobelieveandpracticetheirreligiousbeliefswithout
interference.Thegovernmentmaynotdenybenefitsorburdenpersonsbasedontheir
beliefs.Empl.Div.,Dept.ofHumanResourcesofOregonv.Smith
a. UnemploymentCompensation:denialofcompensationfollowingdischargefor
refusingtoworkonSabbathorresigningbecauseofreligiousbeliefsviolates
strictscrutinyandisanunconstitutionalburden.Sherbertv.Verner

b. ReligiousFreedomRestorationAct(RFRA):Congressattempttorestorethe
compelling
Overinclusive:legislationthatburdensmorepeoplethannecessarytoaccomplishthelegesgoal
Underinclusive:notaffectingotherssimilarlysituated.