You are on page 1of 72

Information Sharing

GTG MS6001A
Know How
Prepared by:
Bambang Tri Priatmoko
PT CHANDRA ASRI PETROCHEMICAL Tbk
March 2013
(FOR INTERNAL USE IN PT CAP)
(Courtesy of General Electric & Alstom)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Table of Contents
1.

GTG Overview

2.

GT Mechanical System

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

GTG Basic Components


Compressor Section
Combustion System
Turbine Section

GT Maintenance Schedule
GT Accessory & Support System
GT Control Philosophy
GT Control System
GT Protection System
Generator Control & Protection System
2
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 1
GTG OVERVIEW

3
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GTG OVERVIEW

4
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GTG Basic Components


FUEL

Ignition
Exhaust
Stack

Combustion
Chamber
Atm Air
Intake

Starting
Engine

Compressed
Air

Gas
Compressor

Reduction
Gear

11KV
3Phs,
50Hz

Exciter

Turbine
Generator

5
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GE GT MS 6001

6
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 2

GAS TURBINE
MECHANICAL SYSTEM

7
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

GT & COMPRESSOR
ATOMIZING AIR
MANIFOLD
AXIAL FLOW
COMPRESSOR
1ST STG ROTOR
BLADE

17TH STG
WHEEL

COMBUSTION
LINER
FUEL
DISTANCE
NOZZLE
PIECE

EXHAUST
STAKE

1ST STG
TURBINE
NOZZLE
3RD STG
TURBINE
NOZZLE

3RD STG
TURBINE
BUCKET

LOAD
COUPLING

INLET
PLENUM

ACCESSORY
COUPLING

EXHAUST
PLENUM
BEARING
NO.1

TURBINE
BASE

Heat
Exchanger
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

BEARING
NO.2

8
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

COMPRESSOR SECTION
Lower half
Compressor
casing
Compressor &
Turbine Rotor
Compressor
Stator
Inlet plenum
9
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Axial Flow Compressor

Axial Flow Compressor is to compress air efficiently at high blade tip


velocities. Consist of
17 Stages compressor rotors (15 wheels, 2 stubshafts) and stator blades
Rotor wheels are assembled/stacked by 4 horizontal joint bolts
Inlet Guide vane
2 exit guide vanes
In the compressor, air is confined between the rotor and stator blades
Rotor blades supply the force needed to compress the air in each stage
Stator blades guide the air so the it enters the following rotor stage at
proper angle
The compressed air exits through the compressor discharge casing to the
combustion chambers
5th and 11th extractions ports of compressed air are used for turbine cooling,
cooling,
bearing sealing and during start up and shutdown for pulsation control
control

10
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Compressor Casing

Inlet casing to direct air to the compressor


uniformly from inlet plenum.
Consist of inner and outer bellmouth.
The inner bellmouth is positioned to the outer
bellmouth by 7 airfoil-shaped radials struts and 7
axial tiebars
Forward Compressor casing contains 1st 10th
compressor stages
Compressor discharge casing finally portion of the
compressor section (11th 17th stages), is used to
form inner and outer of compressor diffuser, provide
inner support for 1st stage nozzle, turbine stator and
support combustion stator
Outer casing continuation of the compressor casing
Inner casing surround the compressor rotor, has 10 circular opening to 10
Combustion chambers
In conjunction with Turbine Shell and Exhaust Frame form the primary structure of the
gas turbine
The rotor is supported by bearing #1 and #2 points constitute the outer wall of the gas
path annulus

11
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Bearings

Contains 2 journal bearings (elliptical type) to


support GT rotor, includes thrust bearings to
maintain rotor-to-stator axial position
Pressure - lubricated by fluid supplied from main
lube oil system at turbine base
Use pressurized air seals (from 5th stg compressor)
in each annular space labyrinth on both end sides
of the bearing housing to prevent lube oil escaping
along from the turbine shaft
Bearing #1
Contains Active (loaded) thrust bearing, Inactive
(unloaded) thrust bearing and Journal Bearing
Located and supported by inlet casing,
Bearing #1 Lower half of the cast integral with the
inner bellmouth
The upper half bearing housing is a separate casting,
flanged and bolted to the lower half

Bearing #2
Located inside the exhaust frame inner tunnel.
Labyrinth seals at each end of bearing housing are
pressured with air extracted from compressor 5th
stage
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

12
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

COMBUSTION SYSTEM

Consist of Combustion Liner, Flow


sleeves, Transition Pieces,
Includes Cross Fire Tube, Flame Detector,
Spar plugs and Fuel Nozzles
Hot gases generated from burning fuel
in CC are used to drive the turbine
Reverse flow of Compressed air is
directed around transition piece and into
annular space around 10 combustion
chamber lines (flow radially inward to the
combustion chamber)
10 CC are inter connected by Cross fire
tubes which enable flame spreading from
fire chamber (#1 and #10) to other
chamber
13

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Reverse Flow
COMBUSTION SYSTEM

14
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

COMBUSTION Parts 2
Atomizing
Air Flange
Liquid
Fuel
connector

Combustion
Liner

Transition
Piece

Fuel
Nozzle
Atomizing
Air Flange

Retaining ring

Transition
Piece

Support

15
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Combustion Chamber Arrangement


Cross fire
Tube
UV FLAME
DETECTOR

Nozzle
Holes
UV FLAME
DETECTOR

Counterclockwise arrangement
2 high volateg retractableelectrode Spark plugs (at
Chambers 1, 10). As rotor
speed increases, chamber
pressure cause the spark plugs
to retracts the electrodes
4 UV Flame Detectors
(chambers 2,3,7,8)
Each CC is connected with
cross fire tube
Each CC has Fuel nozzle hole
False start drain manifold at
piping of Chambers 3-7 to drain
unburned fuel out in case of GT
fail to start up after firing.

16
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Fuel Nozzle

Gas
Fuel

Liquid Fuel

To spray fuel into the combustion


liner
Liquid fuel is atomized in the fuel
nozzle swirl chamber by means of
high pressure air and then pass
into the combustion chamber
The atomized fuel/air mixture is
sprayed and burnt simultaneously
in the CC
Action of swirl tip to get more
complete combustion and smoke
free operation of the GT

Atomizing Air

17
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Spark Plug

Electrode

Used to initiate combustion from spar plug


installed at Combustion chambers #1 and #10
Spring-injected and pressure retractable
electrode spark plug receive energy from ignition
transformer
At Time of firing, one or two spark plugs ignites
the gas in CC.
Other CCs are ignites by crossfire tubes
As the GT speed increases, chamber pressure
causes the spark plug to retract and the
electrodes are removed from the combustion
zone

18
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

TURBINE SECTION

Consists of Turbine rotor and stator, turbine shell, turbine nozzle, shroud,
exhaust frame and exhaust diffuser
Turbine Rotor and Stator are used to convert high energy, pressured gas
is produced by the compressor and combustion sections to mechanical
energy
Turbine buckets in size from 1st to the 3rd stage

TURBINE ROTOR
1st stg Turbine Bucket 1st rotating surfaces encountered by the extremely
got gases leaving the 1st stg nozzle
2nd stg Turbine bucket, bigger than 1st stg bucket. Tip of this bucket has
shroud as tip seal.
3rd stg turbine bucket the biggest one. It has also shroud as tip seal on
tip of the bucket
This shroud interlock from bucket to bucket dampen vibration

19
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Turbine Rotor Cooling

Turbine rotor must be cooled to


maintain reasonable temperature and a
longer life turbine service life
Each bucket contains longitudinal air
passage for bucket cooling
Space between Turbine wheel & Bucket
and the stator (Wheelspace) is cooled
by compressed air radially outward. The
cooling air flow discharges into the main
gas stream aft of the 1st nozzle

1st stg
Nozzle

2nd stg
Nozzle

3rd stg
Nozzle 3rd stg
Bucket

2nd stg
Bucket

1st stg
Bucket

FORWARD
AFT

1ST & 2ND STG Nozzles

20

1ST Stg Npzzle retaining ring 


FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Turbine Stator

3 stages of stationary Turbine Nozzles


Directs high velocity flow of the expanded
hot combustion gas against the turbine
buckets, causing the rotor to rotate
High pressure drop across these nozzles,
seals are required at both inside and outside
diameter to prevent energy loss by leakage.
 1st stg Nozzle, consist of 18 nozzle
segments (2 partitions airfoils), receives
hot gas from transition pieces
 2nd stg Nozzle, consist of 16 nozzle
segments (3 partitions airfoils), receives
hot gas leaves from 1st stg buckets and
expands and redirect it against the 2nd stg
turbine buckets
 3rd stg Nozzle, consist of 16 nozzle
segments (4 partitions airfoils), receives
hot gas leaves from 2nd stg buckets and
increase its velocity by pressure drop and
redirect the flow against the 3rd stg turbine
buckets

21
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Turbine Shell

Turbine Nozzles, Shrouds, no.2 bearing and turbine exhaust diffuser


are supported by turbine shell
Control the axial and radial position of Shrouds, nozzles.
Resultantly, controls turbine clearance and the relative position of
nozzles to the turbine buckets  turbine performance
Hot gases contained by the turbine shell are source of heat flow into
the shell
To control shell diameter, reduce heat flow into the shell by cooling it
to its design temperature
Cooling air come from the 5th stg air flowing axially through the shell
and out through holes in the aft vertical flange into the exhaust frame
Cooling air is also used for further cooling of the exhaust frame struts
and turbine 3rd stg aft wheelspace

22
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Variable Inlet Guide Vane

INLET GUIDE VANES


located at the aft end of the
inlet casing
Position of vanes has an
effect on the quantity of
compressor air flow
Movement of IGV is
actuated by a hydraulic
cylinder connected to the
IGV control ring that turns
the individual pinion gears of
each vane

23
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Inlet and Exhaust System


Consists of:
Inlet System: Atmospheric air flows into compressor
through Air duct, silencer, screen system, inlet elbow
transition duct and Inlet Plenum (forward inlet casing)
Silencer is to attenuate the high frequency noise in the air inlet,
caused by the rotating compressor blades

Exhaust Stack: to direct hot gas air (which has been


used to power the turbine wheel) either to atmosphere or
to furnace
On the exhaust plenum wall, exhaust thermocouples are
installed to provide feedback signal of exhaust
temperature to the controller
24
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Couplings

Accessory Gear Coupling


Splined flexible coupling (hub of male teeth and sleeve of female teeth)
connects the accessory gear drive to GT shaft at compressor end
Lubricated by lube oil
Used to transmit starting torque from accessory gear to the GT axial
compressor and transmit power from the turbine to a driven reduction gear
Load Coupling
Rigid hollow coupling, connects the turbine rotor shaft to the reduction
gear

25
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Gas Turbine MS 6001


Inlet Plenum
Compressor rotor
and stator
Turbine Rotor and
Stator
Inlet Guide Vanes
Combustion
Chamber
Bearing #1
Bearing #2
Accessory Gear &
Load Coupling
Exhaust Stack

GE GT MS5002e
GE GT Frame 7

26
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 3

GTG MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULE

27
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Type of Maintenance
Combustion Inspection (1 year)

Combustion chambers
Combustion liners
Cross fire tubes
Fuel Nozzles
Spark Plugs

Hot Gas Path Inspection (3 years)


Combustion parts
1st Turbine Nozzles and Buckets
Exhaust Plenum

Major Overhaul Inspection (5 years)


All sections, include generator, reduction gear
28
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GTG Maintenance Interval

29
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 4

GT ACCESSORIES AND
SUPPORT SYSTEM

30
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GT ACCESSORIES and
SUPPORT SYSTEM

Accessory Drive
Cooling & Sealing Air
System
Starting System
Lubricating System Fire Protection
System
Cooling System
Ventilation and
Dual Fuel System
Heating System
Atomizing Air System
Hydraulic Supply
System
Trip Oil System
31
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

NOMENCLATURES
ANSI/IEEE C37.2-2008

1 Master Element
2 Time Delay Starting or Closing Relay
3 Checking or Interlocking Relay
4 Master Contactor
5 Stopping Device
6 Starting Circuit Breaker
7 Rate of Change Relay
8 Control Power Disconnecting Device
9 Reversing Device
10 Unit Sequence Switch
11 Multi-function Device
12 Overspeed Device
13 Synchronous-speed Device
14 Underspeed Device
15 Speed or Frequency, Matching Device
16 Data Communications Device
17 Shunting or Discharge Switch
18 Accelerating or Decelerating Device
19 Starting to Running Transition Contactor
20 Electrically Operated Valve (Solenoid Valve)

21 Distance Relay
22 Equalizer Circuit Breaker
23 Temperature Control Device (heater)
24 Volts Per Hertz Relay
25 Synchronizing or Synchronism-Check Device
26 Apparatus Thermal Device (Thermo Switch)
27 Undervoltage Relay
28 Flame detector
29 Isolating Contactor or Switch
30 Annunciator Relay
31 Separate Excitation Device
32 Directional Power Relay (Reverse Power
Relay)
33 Position Switch
34 Master Sequence Device
35 Brush-Operating or Slip-Ring Short-Circuiting
Device

32
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

NOMENCLATURES -2

33
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Abbreviations

34
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Accessory Gear

To transmit power from DE to


GT to drive each GT accessory
at its proper speed and
connect/ disconnect the GT
from DE
After self sustaining speed, to
transmit power from GT to
accessory pumps (main
hydraulic, main Lube oil
pumps, AA compressor)

35
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Accessory Gear - 2

Consist of 4 parallel axis, interconnected shafts which provides


torque for the various driven accessories except Lube oil pump and
hydraulic supply pump shaft
To transmit power to turbine accessory systems from gas turbine
main shaft during normal operation or diesel engine during start-up
Proper gear reduction to transmit power to drive the accessory
devices as required speed and correct torque during start up or
normal operation
- Shaft No.1 => Diesel Engine and Gas Turbine Main Shaft
- Shaft No.2 => Cooling water pump (but now already obsolete)
- Shaft No.3 => Liquid Fuel Pump and Main AA Compressor
- Shaft No.4 => Main Lube Oil Pump and Main Hydraulic Pump

Turbine over speed trip bolt and mechanism


Starting clutch assembly mounted on the DE side, the outboard end
of the main gear shaft
During start up sequence, GT is driven through the accessory gear
by DE, torque converter, output gear and starting clutch,
36
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

STARTING MEANS
Diesel Engine

37
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

STARTING MEANS
Diesel Engine

Driver to rotate initial GT


Engage the starting clutch (33CS) to rotate accessory gear connected to compressor
shaft
Variable speed governor controls the DE speed through lever positioning
20DV DE STOP solenoid valve, provide zero fuel position. Manual stop by screw
drive on top of 20DV
20DA-1 and -2 DE accelerating solenoid valve
20DA-1 for idle, constant , acceleration, speed and exercising
20DA-2 - for accelerating up to Maximum speed),
63QD DE low lube oil pressure switch
88DS DC Electric starter to DE
Basic control of DE include starter, speed control system, stop mechanism, and
electronic logic in GT control panel for unattended and automatic protection
VR-13 DE Throttle PCV supplies controlled flow rate of engine oil
DE carking during startup is controlled by GT control system
38
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Starting Means DE

39
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Starting Means DE

Torque Converter to transmit power from DE to accessory gear through starting


clutch
Ratchet System
required to achieve breakaway of the rotor shaft using 88HR
used during cooldown period to rotate GT shaft about 15 deg every 3 minutes
During ratchet, a forward stroke advances starting clutch about 47 deg during 10
sec and Reset stroke is about 4.7 sec.
Can be manually jog using 43HE

40
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Starting System

41
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lubricating System
Circulating to
Bearing #1 and2,
Generator
Bearings
Reduction gear,
Turbine
Accessory gear
Some of them is
diverted and
filtered to be
used for Control
Fluid by
Hydraulic Control
Devices

42
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lubricating System - 2

43
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Lubricating System - 3
Components:

Lube reservoir
Main Lube oil pump (Shaft driven,
positive displacement)
Aux Lube Pump and Emergency pump
Pressure relief Valve VR-1 in the main
pump discharge
Lube Fluid HE
Lube Filters
Bearing Header Press Regulator VRP-2
20QN 1: to prevent GT start if LO temp
is low
Lubrication fluid for Main, Aux and
emergency pumps from reservoir
Lubricating fluid for Control from
Bearing Header 925psig = 1.75 bar)
Lubricant must be regulated and maintain
its pressure to meet bearing requirement,
acc lube system and hydraulic control
and trip oil system

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

HE to cool the lubricant


Cooling water flow is controlled by
regulator VTR-1 in responding to the
water temperature changes
26QA-1 high temp alarm
26QN-1 normal temp
26QL-1 Low temp alarm
26Qt-1A/1B High temp trip
63QA-2 low LO pressure, will start
Aux LO Pump 88QA
63QL Low LO emergency pressure,
will start Emergency LO pump 88QE
77QL-1 - Low lube oil level
77QH-1 High Lube oil level
88QA Aux LO pump motor
88QE Emergency LO pump motor
VPR-1 - Maintains Supply pressure
VRP-2 Maintains Bearing header
regulating pressure (maintain 25 psig =
1.75bar)
VR-1 main LO pump relief valve 44
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lubricating System - 4

Main Lube Oil Pump


Shaft driven pump by acc gear
Auxiliary LO supply pump (driven by 88QA), initiated by 63QA-2
Provide lubricant oil during start up and shut down of GT
Run until turbine reach 95% speed when main LO pump has provided
adequate LO supply
During shut down, the aux pump is start after L14HSX relay drop (at 75
90% speed)
Continue running until cooldown period
Emergency LO supply pumps (driven by 88QE)
88QE is running when 88QA is not available during start up and shut
down (energized by 63QL)
Provide lubricant oil during start up until 50% speed and shut down of
GT
Can be tested using a test valve
45
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lubricating System - 5

Pressure Protective Devices: Low Lubricating LO emergency pressure is


detected by 63QT-2A / 2B (at piping of Generator bearing) and by 63QA-2
(at LO feed piping)
Temperature Protective Devices: 26QA-1 and 26QT-1A /1B installed at
bearing header piping, initiated an alarm or trip the GT is the LO temp >
setpoint
Bearing LO temp is maintained by VTR-1 to control flow of water
accordance to temperature changes

46
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Cooling Water System

47
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Cooling Water System - 2

Coolant flows to the DE water pump and Turbine shaft-driven water pump
DE is equipped with its own coolant pump which drive water through the DE
cooling jacket
Shaft-driven water pump drives water through the LO and AA HE
After absorbing heat, the coolant is supposed to flows to the radiator, BUT
This cooling water system has been modified which received water supply
from Sea water. The coolant flows to ditch canal
VTR-1 and VTR-2 : temperature actuated 3 way valve to control lube oil and
AA HE temperature respectively by controlling flow of coolant through AA inlet
compressor and Lube oil HE
It has manually operated devices that can override the thermal element when
the thermal element leaks

48
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Hydraulic Supply System

49
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Hydraulic Supply System -2


Deliver high pressure oil from bearing header to all
equipment which motions are controlled and hydraulically
operated: IGV, Servo valves
Hydraulic supply pump, is a positive displacement, axial
piston type pump drive by accessory gear shaft
VR-21 relief valve controls pump output pressure as a
back up of VPR-3
VAB1 air bleed valve vent any air present in the pump
discharge line
VCK3-1 Check valve
FH2-1 and FH2-2 0.5 micron Filter, only one filter in
service any time
If pressure drop to 60 psig- the filter needs to be replaced
63HQ-1 senses low hydraulic supply pressure and initiate
an alarm
50
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Atomizing Air Schematic

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Atomizing Air System

Use a single stage, flange mounted, centrifugal type compressor (CA1)


driven by in board shaft of Turbine accessory gear
Atomizing air system is used to supply air to atomize liquid fuel at
nozzle when running on liquid fuel and purge nozzle when changeover
fuel from liquid to gas
It will direct to spray the fuel jet discharging from each fuel nozzle
through orifices inside the nozzle
The stream of atomizing air breaks the fuel jet up into the mist,
permitting ignition and combustion with significantly increase
efficiency and
decrease of combustion particles discharging through the exhaust
into atmosphere
The air is extracted from compressor discharge casing passes through
the air-to-water HE (HX-1) to reduce air temp sufficiently to maintain
uniformity of air inlet temp to the AA compressor
26AA-1 adjustable heat sensitive thermoswitch to initiate alarm when
air temp is excessive (>135C), Operating beyond this temperature for
long time may result in failure of the AA compressor
52
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Atomizing Air System -2

63AD-1 Diff pressure switch is used to monitor the air pressure and initiate
alarm if the pressure across the compressor drops to a level inadequate for
proper atomizing the fuel
AA leaves the compressor and is piped to the AA Manifold, with pigtail piping
providing equal pressure distribution of AA to the 10 Fuel nozzles.
During starting up when Accessory gear is not rotating at full speed, so AA
compressor does not provide enough air, Starting AA booster compressor (CA2) is started and driven using a belt by starting means till 60% of GT Speed
Starting AA compressor at this time has high pressure ration and discharging
through the main AA compressor which as low pressure ratio.
The main AA compressor press ratio increases within increasing turbine speed
(60% speed self sustaining speed) when GT speed > max capability of
starting AA Compressor, DE speed is reduced to idle, the starting AA
compressor speed reduce to 1/3 of the previous speed
The main AA compressor supplies air from the precooler thought check valve,
bypasing the starting AA compressor completely
Pneumatic valve VA-22 to isolate the compressor inlet as soon as the
conditions are fulfilled.
VA-22 will be actuated by regulated air (VPR 68-1) only if 20AB is energized
53
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

AA System on
Duel Fuel Operation

Recirculation Cooling System


Discharge of Main AA Compressor (AD) is re-circulated through the AA system when
GT is operating on 100% Gas Fuel, except for a small air flow is bled off to purge oil
passage in the fuel nozzle
When 100% on gas fuel, re-circulation air is passed through a piston bypass valve
(VA-18) controlled by 20AA to AA precooler (HX-1), to be cooled before re-enter to the
compressor

Purge Air
Bypass valve is open, AA is recirculated. After a short time delay, AA system reaches
a lower level, 20PL-1 id energized, to allow air purging the oil passages during running
on gas fuel, to prevent accumulation of oil fuel and fuel oil coking in the fuel nozzle.
AD is used to operate VA19-1 (purge valve) which is controlled by 20PL-1 to allow
purge air flow in to purge air manifold
Purge air system is to minimize fouling, keep fuel nozzle clean, and ready for operation
on liquid fuel
Small flow of air through AA passages of the fuel oil nozzle prevents entry of any
combustion products

VCK 2 1 to 10 check valves to prevent oil fuel enter the purge air system when running on oil
fuel.
Similarly, oil fuel check valves installed in the oil piping to the oil fuel nozzles to insure purge air is
directed to the nozzle, not to the oil fuel system
If any leaks should occur through the purge air check valves when operating on oil fuel, it will drain
out of the purge air manifold through the NO port of VA19-1 to the Tell-Tale leak off piping.
54
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Trip Oil System

55
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Trip Oil System-2

As a primary protection interface between GT control, protection system and


components to shut off fuel to the GT
Lubricating Oil passes through an orifice to limit flow result OLT, supplying to
Trip oil system (Turbine Overspeed system (12HA), Fuel system through 20FL
and 20FG)
Low press sw 63HL-1,2,3 and HG-1,2,3 to provide feedback to controller and
permissive circuitry and to ensure tripping the GT if oil pressure is too low
20FL-1 and 20FG-1, if de-energized, will dump low press oil to the stop valve.
Fuel stop valve or GCV can individually be dumped dumping valve 20FL or
20FG
Overspeed trip mechanism 2nd trip device. Actuated by overspeed bolt when
GT speed > setpoint (112%). It will drain OLT (low pressure oil) to shut the fuel
supply to GT

56
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Cooling & Sealing Air System

57
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Cooling & Sealing Air System-2

Provide necessary cooling air flow from GT compressor (5th and 11th Stages
and compressor discharge) to parts of GT rotor and stator, covering

Seal turbine bearing


Cool internal parts of GT (turbine nozzles, rotating wheels)
Cool turbine outer shell and exhaust frame
Provide an operating air supply for air operated valve

88TK-1 and 2, mounted on Turbine compartment roof, supply cooling air to


turbine shell, exhaust frame and its struts and aft side of 3rd stg turbine wheel
Bearing seal air. Taken from 5th stg compressor, through 2 centrifugal
separators to remove any particles of dirt, to provide sealing air in the both
end site of bearing, contains fluid in the bearing housing
Air Bleed Valve (CB). Air is extracted from 11th stg compressor, to prevent
compressor pulsation the GT is accelerating during start up, or decelerating
during shutdown
Start up compressor bleed valve Open, 11th air flows toward to exhaust
plenum. When FSNL, generator breaker close, air bleed valve close
Shut down - compressor bleed valve Open when Generator breaker Open
or 14HS drops
58

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Cooling & Sealing Air System-3


Turbine rotor cooling:
Air from compressor discharge cools forward face of 1st wheel and buckets
16th stg air flows to the rotor, to cool 1st and 2nd stg turbine wheel buckets, and
aft face of 2 stg wheel and forward face of 3rd stg wheel
Cooling air from turbine shell and exhaust frame cools 3rd stg aft wheelspace
Turbine stator cooling
1st stg nozzle. Located at the hot gas path immediately after transition pieces.
It is cooled from compressor discharge
2nd stg nozzle and 1st stg shroud. Is cooled from part of discharge air from
compressor
Turbine shell and exhaust frame compartment. Cooling air is provided by
88TK-1 and TK-2. Pressure switches, on each blower discharge to monitor
should the blower fails.

59
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Fire Protection System

Halon 1301 Fire Protection System


Designed in accordance with NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
standard 12A
Use Heat sensitive fire detector 45FA or 45FT
45FA-1A and 1B
- Accessory compartment
45FA-2A and 2B
- Accessory compartment
45FT-1A and 1B
- Turbine compartment
45FT-2A and 2B
- Turbine compartment
45FT-3A and 3B
- Turbine compartment
45HT-1 and -2
- Turbine compartment
45FT-9A, B and 10A - load reduction gear compartment
45HA-1
- Gas detector - Accessory compartment
45HA-3
- Gas detector Inlet plenum
14HT-1, and 2
- Turbine compartment combustible gas detector

60
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Fire Protection System -2

61
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GT Ventilation and Heating System

62
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 5

GAS TURBINE
CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
TOTAL CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM
PROTECTION SYSTEM
SEQUENCING
POWER SUPPLY

63
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GT CONTROL SYSTEM
Start-up / Shutdown sequence and control
(manual and Automatic)
Acceleration Control
Speed/load control (during start up and
Synchronizing)
Exhaust Control (limit turbine internal
components)
Fuel Control System (Liquid and Gas Fuel
Control System)
Dual Fuel System
Modulated VIGV
64
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GT PROTECTION SYSTEM
Functions
Trip GTG when critical parameters are exceeded or control
equipment fails
Shut off fuel flow to the combustion chamber
Contains electrical operated system or mechanical devices

Covers
Flame Detection and Protection System
Over Speed Protection System
Over Temperature Protection System
Vibration Protection
Combustion Monitoring (if any)
65
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

General Philosophy

When GTG is started up, clutch is engaged,


the GT unit is rotated by Diesel Engine
Ambient air is drawn through inlet plenum
assembly, filtered, compressed in the 17th
stage of axial flow compressor
11th extraction bleed valve (33CB) valves are open, VIGV is in close
position (30% opening)
When reaching 95% speed, 11th extraction bleed valve close
automatically, VIGV start to open up to operation position (92%
opening)
Compressed air from compressor flows into 10 Combustion
chambers (CC) through outer combustion casing and combustion
liner
Fuel Nozzle introduce fuel mixed with combustion air into 10 CC and
is ignited by both Spark Plugs installed at CC# 1 and 10
Either one of the sparkplug is ignited, flame is spread out by
crossfire tubes that connect combustion chambers.
66
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

General Philosophy-2

Flame is detected by 4 Flame detectors


(installed at CC #2,3,7 and 8)
After the turbine rotor approximates operation
speed, CC pressure causes the spark plug to
retract to remove their electrode from the hot
flame zone
The hot gas from CC expand into the 10 separate transition pieces
and increase kinetic energy that flows to the 3-stages turbine section
(consist of fixed turbine nozzles and rotatable turbine buckets
The kinetic energy will rotate turbine rotor down to load reduction
gear and Generator
After passing through the 3rd stage turbine buckets, exhaust gases
are directed into the exhaust hood and diffuser which has series of
turning vanes to turn gases from axial direction to a radial direction
to the atmosphere
Resultant shaft rotation is used to turn the generator rotor and drive
accessories gear
The Turbine speed is reduced by a Reduction gear from 5100 rpm to
rotate and maintain generator speed at 3000 rpm (50Hz)
67
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Speedtronic GT Control Concept

Major Control Loops


START UP
SPEED
TEMPERATURE

Secondary Control Loops

Monitor

ACCELERATION
MANUAL CONTROL (FSR)
SHUTDOWN
SYNCHRONIZING (NOT in the
Turboline control)

- Turbine speed (77NH-1,2,3)


- Temperature (TTXD)
- Compressor discharge pressure (96CD)
Output of these loops is fed to a minimum value gate circuit to control FSR
(FUEL STROKE REFERENCE)
Controlling FSR is the lowest value of the 7 control loops by establishing the
fuel input to turbine at rate required system
68
Only ONE CONTROL LOOP
will be in CONTROL at anytime By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Start Up/Shutdown
Sequence and Control

Bring the turbine speed from zero to Operating speed


GT is started using Diesel Engine until reaching firing speed (approximately
20%)
Most GT would go through a purge cycle to allow air to purge the
Combustion chamber of any unburnt combustion fuel
Adjust proper fuel to establish Flame & Accelerate the turbine in such
manner as to minimize the low cycle fatigue of the hot gas path parts during
sequence
Upon completion of a warm up time, it would continue to accelerate the GT
speed
Sequencing involves command signals to turbine accessories, starting
device, and fuel control system to ensure safe operation of GTG
Include actuating control devices, protective circuit and obtain permissive for
proceeding
All control setting should follow GT GE MS 6001 control specification generated
by Manufacturer
69
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Start Up/Shutdown
Sequence and Control-2

Speed detection by magnetic speed pickup (77NH-1,2,3)


L14HR: Zero Speed (approx 0% of TNH speed) to start ratchet gear in auto cool
down sequence, and allow cranking sequence
L14HM: Min Speed (approx 18% of speed) or min fire speed, purging if required.
If L14HM drops, will provide several permissive functions for restarting the GT
after shutdown
L14HA: Accelerating speed (approx 58% of speed). Indicates when GT has
reached aprox. 40-50% in acceleration cycle. Acceleration control is used to
control rate of acceleration until Operation speed is reached.
L14HS: Operating speed (approx 95% of speed), almost complete acceleration
sequence and the GT reach its operating speed. VIGV will fully open,
compressor bleed valve will fully close
If L14HS drops, VIGV will close, open bleed valve and start AC lube oil pump till turbine
shutdown
During normal shut down, L14HS will drop at Under Freq setting, digital setpoint will be
counted down to minimum, Generator breaker will open by reverse power.
Flame will be maintained to shut down speed where L14HA will drop out and drive FSR
to zero
Should the turbine & generator bog down, L14HS will drop out at Under Freq speed
setting, VIGV will close and CB valve will open. 1.5 seconds later, Generator breaker
will open, DSP back to 100.3%. As the turbine accelerates, L14HS will pick up, VIGV
will open and CB valve will close. The turbine need a START signal before the
70
generator breaker is permitted to close again.
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Start Up Control (FSRSU)

19.82%

100.3% FSNL

95%
L14HS
(L2F)
15.62%

Temp
Rate
degC

(L2W)
11.62%

t sec
58% L14HA

TTXD

Clutch
disengag
ed

Open loop control use preset


levels of fuel command
Various Fuel Levels typical
for Frame 6

18% L14HM
(L2TV)

Zero
Fire
Warm-up
Accelerate
Min-Max

: 0%
: 15.62%
: 11.62%
: 19.82%
: 0-100%

During startup, FSR command


to control speed and
temperature within limit
Rate of increase of speed and
temperature is restricted to
protect the GT parts from
excessive mechanical &
thermal stress
FSRMAN manual FSR control
can be adjusted within MINMax limits
71

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Start Up Control (FSRSU) -2

When Turbine break away (start to rotate)


L14HR pick up
Starting clutch solenoid 20CS de-energizes
Shut down the hydraulic ratchet motor (88HR)
The starting clutch the required torque from DE to maintain engagement
L14HM indicates that the Turbine is turning at the speed required for
proper purging and ignition
Completion of purge timers (L2TV), FSR continue to initiate ignition timer
(L2F)
When Flame Detector(s) detect flame established in the combustion
chamber, start Warm up timer (L2W). Fuel command signal is reduced to
WARM-UP level
If flame is not established till L2F times out, the GT can be re-started but
waiting for purging completed L2TV to avoid accumulation of fuel

72
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Acceleration Control (FSRACC)

Upon completion of warm up period, FSR ACC increase its fuel


command.
Acceleration control will compare rate of change of Temperature and rate
of change of Speed (compare the present value of speed signal with the
value at the last sample time)
When actual acceleration > acceleration reference, FSRACC is reduced,
the will reduce fuel supply to the combustors
During Startup - acceleration reference (control constant in RST
computer) is a function of turbine speed
Acceleration control take over after warm-up state
As the fuel increase, the turbine speed begins the acceleration phase of
start-up.
Starting clutch is held as long as the DE provides torque to the GT.
When the GT overruns (GT speed is higher than DE speed), the starting
clutch is kicked back to disengaged, shutting down the DE. This
condition is call self-sustaining speed. L14HA picks up
73
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Speed Control (FSRN)

Speed control system controls the speed and load of GTG


Compares between the actual turbine speed signal (TNH) and called-for
speed reference (TNR)
Output FSR will control Fuel Valve or GCV to maintain turbine speed
5100 rpm (equal to 50Hz) at any load from FSNL up to base load

74
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Speed/Load Control

To prevent the GT overspeeding in case of a load rejection occurrence


(Load rejection is usually done during commissioning of after Overhaul
the GT)
Speed control will change FSR in proportional the difference the actual
GTG speed (TNH) and the called-for reference (TNR)
Reference speed (TNR) range: 95% (min) - 107% (max) for a generator
drive turbine
Start up speed reference is 100.3%. This is preset when START signal is
initiated
Turbine follows 100.3% TNH for synchronization. During attempt to
synchronize, the GT speed and generator voltage are adjusted separately
Turbine speed is held constant when generator breaker is closed onto
power grid
Fuel flow in excess of the necessary to maintain FSNL, will result in
increased power produced by the generator  the Speed control
becomes Load Control
Speed Control
Isochronous Speed control
Droop Speed control
75
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Fired Shut Down Typical

The shut down control is used to minimize


component stress and affect on components
lifetimes
When normal Shutdown is initiated by giving a
STOP signal on Master Control Selector, will
produce L94X signal.
Digital setpoint counts down to reduce FSR,
load reduces at normal rate till reverse power
relay operates to open generator breaker, FSR
will be down to allow the turbine to coast down
to the L14HA dropout setting in 3-4 minutes
It will maintain the combustion process until
low speed is reached at which the combustion
process can be safely extinguished
When L14HA drops, FSR drops to zero fuel
will be shut off, the stop valve closes
During coasting down, Motor drive AA booster
compresor will be started up at L14HS drop
out to prevent exhaust smoke during shut
down
76

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

DROOP Speed Control

Used for sharing load on a grid where


many GTG/STG units running at the
same time.
Power Grid will hold a synchronous
generator speed at grid frequency
Droop control is proportional control
Any change is speed (grid frequency)
will cause a proportional change in
GTG load
This proportionality is adjusted to the
desired regulation or DROOP

If total system tends to be


overloaded, Grid frequency (speed)
will decrease and cuase FSR
increase in proportional to the droop
setting
The all units have the same droop, all
will share a load increase equally
(load sharing)
If 4% droop is selected, only a 1%
change is speed will change in fuel
flow equivalent to 25% of rated load
77

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

ISOCHRONOUS Speed Control


(FSRN / FSRNI)

It will respond to a change of Grid frequency (50 Hz) by changing load


quickly to maintain the system frequency (50Hz)
Isochronous Speed Control compares the actual GTG speed and calledfor reference (TNR)
Should the actual speed of GT is lower than TNR (due to over load), FSR
command will increase fuel, so load in GTG output will increase
The running unit frequency is always maintained at the desired
frequency, regardless the load until it reached based load

78
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Synchronizing

Synchronizing Control drives the synch check and system permissive


relays
The Speed matching control system compares the GTG running unit
frequency vs the system frequency. The different signal will adjust Fuel
command accordingly resulting to adjusting the running frequency
The Voltage Matching system compares the GTG running unit Voltage
vs the system voltage. The different signal will adjust the field excitation
voltage resulting to adjusting the running generator output voltage
On Manual Synchronizing, both values are adjusted manually

79
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Firing Temperature

Firing temperature is a function of exhaust temperature (Tx) and Compressor


discharge pressure (CPD)
Firing temperature is also a function of exhaust temperature (Tx) and fuel flow
FRS (Fuel Stroke Reference)
Firing temperature is also a function of exhaust temperature (Tx) and generator
MW output
Line of constant firing temperature are used to limit GT operating temperature
Whereas, the constant exhaust temp limit protects the exhaust system during
start-up

80
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Exhaust Temperature
Control FSRT

Temperature control system performs critical exhaust temperature


control and monitoring
Major function of the Temperature control system will limit fuel flow to the
turbine to maintain internal operation allowable temperature within
parameters of turbine hot gas path parts (to prevent overfiring)
It will compare the actual firing temperature measured at exhaust stack
vs exhaust temperature setpoint TTRXB (note: TTXM is based on
remaining good TCs). The diff. values will converts to FSRT
The highest temperature is in the Flame zone of the combustion
chambers
There are 18 Exhaust TC, which are divided into 3 groups (R-S-T)
All Non critical Thermocouples signal are sent to C controller
Major Function of Exhaust Temperature control consist of

Temperature Feedback
Temperature Control reference
Temperature reference section
Cold Junction compensation
Cold Junction Scan
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

81
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Exhaust Temperature
Control FSRT -2
Temperature control software
Determines cold junction compensated
Thermocouple readings
Selects the temp. control set point
Calculates the control set point
Calculates median exhaust temp. value
Compares the value with the set point
Generates FSR to control and limit exhaust
temperature
82
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Temperature Control Schematic

TTXD Average Exhaust TC,


read at screen monitor
TTXM - TTXM is based on
average remaining good TCs
(reject low and High TC)
TTRXB exhaust temp. control
set point based on MIN SELECT
between FRS, CPD and
Isothermal limit value

FSRT (FSR for Temperature Control) is based on median select among


TTRXB, TTXM and FSR command within min-max FSR limit
Final Temp Control Ref =
MIN (FSR bias, CPD bias, Isothermal setpoint (TTKn_I)

83
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Temperature Reference
Select Program

Exhaust Temp Control function selects control set poits to allow GT


operation at firing temperatures
Temp-control-select programs determines the operation level for control
set point based on digital input information representing temp. control
requirements (BASE SELECT; PEAK SELECT; HEAVY FUEL SELECT
if any)

84
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Temperature Control Relationship


between FSR and CPD

Before reaching Temp. control setting,


FSR could be increased as per load
required, limited by Isothermal capability
When Temp. control setting has been
reached, firing temperature will be
maintained constant as refer to operation
select (BASE, PEAK SELECT)

85
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 6

TURBINE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Liquid Fuel Control


Gas Fuel Control
Temperature Control

86
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM

Fuel Control System will change fuel flow to the combustors in


response to the FSR signal
Standard fuel systems of GTG are designed for operation with liquid
and/or gas fuel
FSR = FSR1 (Liquid Fuel) + FSR2 (Gas Fuel)
Transfer fuel from liquid fuel to gas fuel can be employed by
reducing FSR2 signal and increasing FSR1 signal simultaneously
after purging time is completed
Heart of Fuel Control System: 3 coil Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve
65FP liquid Fuel Servo valve
90SR Gas Fuel Speed/Stop ratio servo Valve
90GC Gas Fuel Control servo Valve

87
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

88

Liquid Fuel System Schematic

89
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Liquid Fuel System


Fuel handling Components

Primary fuel oil FILTER (LP)


Fuel Oil STOP Valve
Fuel Oil BYPASS Valve hydraulic
cylinder actuated valve
Secondary Fuel Oil FILTER (HP)
FLOW DIVIDER positive
displacement gear pump
Fuel PUMP
Fuel Oil Pressure RELIEVE VALVE
Combined SELECTOR Valve
False Start DRAIN Valve
Fuel LINE and Fuel NOZZLE

Control Components:
63FL-2 - Liquid Fuel PRESSURE
SWITCH
VS1 Fuel Oil STOP Valve
33FL Fuel Oil Stop Valve limit
switch
20CF - Fuel Pump Clutch Solenoid
65FP - Liquid Fuel Pump Bypass
Valve Servo Valve
77FD-1,2,3 - Flow Divider magnetic
pick up
Control Cards

VS1 is an emergency valve operated by Protection System


It will shut of the liquid fuel during normal or emergency shutdown within 0.5
seconds
During Normal Shutdown, opened by hydraulic supply

90

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Servo Valve Assembly

Servo valve (65FP) is the interface


between the electrical and mechanical
system, furnished with mechanical null off
set bias to cause GCV or SRV to go to zero
stroke position on zero voltage
Servo valve controls the direction and rate
of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on
the input current to the servo
Servo valve consist of 3 electrically isolated
coils on the torque motor
Each coil is connected to one of the 3
controller (R-S-T)
Hp oil is supplied to the valve at ports P.
Port T or R is connected to the drain
A null-bias spring positions the servo, so
that the actuator goes to the fail safe
position when ALL power and/or control
signal is lost
91

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Liquid Fuel Control

Bypass valve bypasses the excess fuel delivered by Main Fuel pump back to the
Pump inlet
Fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF) will be energized to drive the pump when stop
valve (VS-1) is open (indicated by LS - 33FL) and liquid fuel pressure is enough
(63FL-2)
Control System checks the permissive L4 and L20FLX to allow FSR1 for closing
Bypass valve (closing bypass valve sends fuel to combustors)
Fuel Splitter ensures requisite FSR when FSR1 is active
When 65FP receives signal from the controller, HP hydraulic supply will enter to
servo valve and actuate the bypass valve according to the signal is given from the
controller. Higher signal is given will close the bypass valve
False start drain valve will open because compressor discharge is not high enough
yet to close the valve
When turbine speed reaches firing speed, the DE will hold the firing speed until 2TV
time has completed its cycle
When 20FL is energized, Fuel Oil stop valve (VS-1) will open, stop valve limit
switch 33FL is switched to enable to energize fuel pump solenoid valve (20CF) and
the fuel pump will be driven by the accessory gear

92
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Liquid Fuel Control-2

As fuel flow to the combustors, speed sensors at Flow divider (77FD1,2,3) send signal to the controller. When fuel flow rate = the called-for
rate, Servo Valve 65FP is moved to null position and the bypass valve will
remain stationary until the input signal changes
FSR is multiplied by TNH to make it a function of speed, Net result is
FQROUT a digital liquid fuel commend
At full speed, TNH does not change therefore FQROUT = FSR
Controller will check

Excessive fuel flow on start up (L60FFLH)


Loss of LVDT position Feedback (L3LFLT)
Bypass valve is not fully open when stop valve is closed (L3LFBSQ)
Servo current is detected when stop valve is closed (L3LFBSC)
Loss of Flow Divider Feedback (L3LFT)

93
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Gas Fuel System


Fuel Handling Component
Gas Strainer
SRV GCV Valve Assembly
Control valve assembly
3 Pressure gauges
Gas Manifold with pigtails to
respective fuel nozzles
Dump valve

Control Components
Gas Supply Pressure Switch 63FG
will initiate an alarm whenever pressure
drops lower that setpoint
Gas Fuel Solenoid Valve 20 FG will
vent gas in P2 line when the solenoid is
de-energized. 20FG is energized to
close the vent when L4 master control
protection is energized
Fuel Gas Transducers 96FG-2A, - 2B,
2C
4 LVDT 96SR-1/2 and 96GC-1/2
2 Servo Valves - 65GC and 90SR

94
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

LVDT

LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer, to provide


feedback signals of GCV or SRV stem position to the controller
LVDT output is ac voltage which is propositional to the position of the
core of the LVDT
The error between FSR signal given to the servo valve and LVDT
feedback signals will cause either to increase or to decrease fuel
command (FSR).
LVDT output is 0.7 3.5 volts RMS ac (zero to max stroke)

95
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

96

GAS FUEL SYSTEM

Controlled by
Gas Speed Stop/Ratio Valve
(SRV)
Gas Control valve (GCV)

P1

P2

P3

VH-5

SRV GCV are combined in one


assembly
SRV is designed to maintain a
predetermined pressure (P2) at
the inlet of the GCV as a function
of turbine speed
GCV controls the desired gas fuel
flow in response to the FSR
command signal
Both valves are servo controlled
by signal from the controller and
actuated by spring acting hydraulic
cylinders moving against springloaded valve plugs
P1
Fuel Supply

P3

SRV

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

P3

GCV

To Turbine

97

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Gas Control Valve - GCV

Stroke of GCV is propositional to FSR2


which represents called-for fuel
GCV will open when permissive L4,
L20FGX and L2TVX (purge complete) are
true
The GCV stem position is sensed by
output of LVDTs and fed back to
controller to compare with FSROUT input
signal
LVDTs will be selected the highest output
The output will increase of decrease

signal to drive hydraulic servo valve


(90GC)n to decrease the error
Electrohydraulic servo (90GC) controls

actuations of the spring loaded GCV


Gas Flow is a function of GCV inlet

pressure (P2)

AN Open/a Short circuit in one of the two


Servo coil does not cause a trip.
GCV has 2 LVDTs and can run correctly
on one.
But the turbine wont start if one of any
LVDTs fails or signal mismatched, need
to be corected
98

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Speed/Stop Ratio Valve - SRV

Dual function valve, that serves as a pressure regulating valve


to hold a desired fuel gas pressure (P2)
As a STOP VALVE integral part of protection system
As a SPEED RATIO / STOP valve has 2 function
Stop Valve
Pressure Regulating valve

SPEED RATIO FUNCTION


Has 2 control loops
Position Control loop similar to GCV
Pressure Control loop
P2 pressure at the inlet of GCV as is controlled by Pressure Control Loop
as a function of Turbine speed TNH comparing it with pressure feed back
signal from 96FG to become Gas Fuel pressure reference (FPRG)
Pressure control signal commands the controller to control the ration valve
position loop in the same way the GCV drives its position loop in response
to FSR

Any emergency Trip or normal shutdown will close the valve to shut
off the gas fuel by dumping hydraulic oil supply to the tank
99
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Speed/Stop Ratio Valve SRV-2

STOP VALVE FUNCTION


SRV provides a shutoff of the fuel gas flow when required
A hydraulic trip relay dump valve (VH-5) is located between
servovalve 96SR and the hydraulic cylinder
When trip oil (OLT-2) is normal press, dump valve is maintained in
a position to allow 96SR to control the cylinder position
When trip oil (OLT-2) is low press, dump valve spring shifts a spool
to dump hydraulic oil in SRV actuating cylinder to lube oil reservoir.
A Closing spring on top of the SRV instantly shutoff the valve and
stop the gas fuel flow

During trip or stop condition, a positive voltage bias is place on


servo coils holding them in the Valve Closed position (FAIL
SAFE)

100
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

SRV & GCV Schematic

101
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

DUAL FUEL SYSTEM


GTG is designed to operate on dual fuel (liquid and gas fuel)
Control system includes

Fuel Splitter
Fuel Transfer from Liquid to Gas
Liquid Fuel Purge
Fuel Transfer from Gas to Liquid
Mixed Fuel Operation

Fuel Splitter
FSR1 for Liquid fuel command
FSR2 for Gas
FSR = FSR1 + FSR2

102
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Fuel Change Over

Fuel Change Over from Liquid to Gas

FSR1 remains at its initial value, FSR2 steps to value >


zero (0.5%) to open GCV slightly to bleed down P2
press and fill the gas supply line
Presence of higher press in P2 line (by SRV wide open
or leaks) would cause slow response in initiating gas
flow
FSR2 to increase, FSR1 to decrease thought Median
select gate. Complete transfer within 30 sec
Signal L84TG (total gas) will disengage the fuel pump
cluth 20CF, de-energize 20FL to close Liq Fuel Stop
Valve VS-1. Initiate to purge to prevent coking inside
the Fuel Nozzles
20AA solenoid is energized to open AA bypass valve
VA-18
After 10 sec delay, 20PL-1 is energized to actuate
purge valve VA-19-1, result in a higher cooling/purging
air flow through the fuel nozzle

Fuel Change Over from Gas to Liquid

Initiated manually by 43F or 63FG-3 (low gas fuel


supply)
FSR2 remains at its initial value, FSR1 steps to value >
zero, a small liquid flow in the piping
FSR1 to increase, FSR2 to decrease thought Median
select gate. Complete transfer within 30 sec
The rest sequence is the same
103
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Liquid Fuel Purge

Liquid Fuel Purge is to prevent


the coking of the liquid fuel
nozzles
MIXED Fuel
Mixing fuel is permitted.
Operation of Mixed Fuel is
obtained by initiating a normal
transfer and then select MIX
when desired mixture is obtained
Limits of the fuel mixture are
required to ensure proper fuel
combustion, gas fuel distribution
and gas fuel nozzle velocities
% of gas flow must be increased
as load is decreased to maintain
the minimum pressure ratio
across the fuel nozzle
104

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV System

VIGV is installed on the turbine to provide compressor pulsation


protection. IGV Modulates during
Acceleration of turbine speed at rated speed (start up)
Normal loading and unloading (under frequency) of the generator
Deceleration of gas turbine (Shut down)

IGV Modulations maintains


Maintains proper flow and pressure and thus the stresses in the
compressor
Maintains minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles
For Normal Shut down, compressor bleed valve will open when
generator breaker is opened. IGV will ramp to full close position as a
function of temperature corrected speed
When GT trip, 11th stg bleed valve will open and IGV will ramp to the
close position as a function of temp corrected speed
In Combined Cycle operations, maintains high exhaust temperatures at
low loads (Rich fuel of firing)

105
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV Hydraulic


Schematic

106
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV System -2

VIGV is actuated by a hydraulic actuator assembly (servo valve 90TV, LVDT


96TV-1/2, Solenoid valve 20TV and hydraulic dump valve VH3) having a
closed feedback control loop to control the guide vane angle
During start-up IGV is fully closed (32) from 0% to 83% of corrected speed.
At Amb. Temp >27C, TNHCOR < TNH
At Amb. Temp <27C, TNHCOR > TNH

Above 85% speed, IGV start opening at 6.7per % increase in TNHCOR


And IGV will stop opening at 91% of speed (TNH)
The vanes are automatically positioned within their operating range in
response to either
Exhaust temperature limits for normal loaded operation (refer to ambient temp =
80F = 27C)
The control system pulsation protection limits during start-up and shut-down
sequence

If Hydraulic supply is low or the LVDT feedback is different from command,


guide vane protection system will trip solenoid 20TV, initiate a fast shutdown
and an alarm.

107
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV Control System

108
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV System -3

Pulsation protection control


IGVs are automatically positioned during a start-up and a shutdown sequence to
avoid gas turbine compressor pulsation. The pulsation limit is expressed as a
function of IGV angle and corrected speed.
Corrected speed is a function of the actual running speed of the compressor and
the inlet air temperature.
The control system utilizes the measured variables of turbine speed and ambient
temperature to determine the IGV angle and automatically modulate them to that
position.
The control program is set to avoid IGV operation which would result in negative
pressure at the 5th stage extraction, air used for bearing seals.

Exhaust Temperature Control


For applications of Steam Generation, to maximize the exhaust temperature, The
controller will automatically hold the IGV at a minimum angle during part-load
operations.
Program for the exhaust temperature control mode where the IGV is positioned
to the minimum full speed angle at the end of the start-up.

109
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Modulated VIGV System

Operation

During a normal start-up, IGVs are held in the full-closed position until the proper
temperature corrected speed is reached, at which time, the IGV will begin to open.
The IGV remain in the minimum full-open position till 20 % load,
The compressor bleed valves will close when the generator breaker is closed to maintain
compressor surge margin
When in Simple Cycle mode (IGV temperature control mode is not activated), the IGVs are
held at the minimum full speed angle until the simple cycle IGV exhaust temperature setpoint
is reached (approximately 167C below the base temperature control setpoint with the same
PCD bias ).
For Steam Generating applications which require exhaust temperature control by inlet guide
vanes, the IGVs are held at the minimum full speed angle until combined cycle IGV exhaust
temperature control setpoint is reached.
As output increases, the IGV is held at this minimum angle until IGV temperature control
setpoint is reached (point B). Between point B and point C, IGV is opened to maintain
setpoint temperatures as output is further increased.
At point C, IGV is at its full-open position and upon further increase in output the turbine will
reach its BASE temperature limit (point D).
The operator can activate or deactivate the IGV temperature control mode at any time via the
panel selector switch. The control system will automatically reprogram the IGV to the correct
position in a controlled rate.
Manual open/close softswitches are provided to manually position the IGV between the
minimum full speed angle and full open. This control should only be used in special
circumstances to limit the travel (amount opened) of the IGV.
The manual control has authority to command an IGV angle only when LESS THAN that
being called for by the automatic control system. In normal operations the manual control is
set at full open.
110
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Exhaust Temperature
Control vs IGV Curve
Te
mp

Load
increase

Steam
generation

co
ntr
ol
Se
tpo
int

Full Load,
Base Load

Full Open

Min Full Speed


Angle at FSNL

Simple
Cycle

Adjusting IGV
It is used for generating
steam, where maximum
exhaust temperature is
desired
It will automatically hold the
IGV at minimum angle during
part load operation
Curve shows the IGV is
positioned to the minimum full
speed angle at the end of start
up.

111
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

IGV Angle vs Corrected


Speed and Load
92

(CSRVPS)

Base Load
Full Load
steam

6.7/%
TNHCOR

20%
Load

10
Ba C b
se elo
TX w
SE
T

91%

16
7
Ba C
se be
TX low
SE
T

57

Rota
ting
Stall
Regio
n

Full Open at
Full Load

Held till IGV exhaust


Temp setpoint is
reached

32
0%

83% speed TNH

FSNL

14HS

TNHCOR

112
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

IGV Control Block Diagram


IGV Position
LVDT
Temp. Control
Feedback
Temp. Control
Reference
Manual
Command
Compressor
Inlet Temp

Speed TNH

IGV
PART
SPEED
REF.

SERVO IGV Command


OUTPUT

INLET
GUIDE
VANE
REF.

IGV Reference

IGV
Part
Speed
Ref

113
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 7

GT PROTECTION SYSTEM

114
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

GT PROTECTION SYSTEM
Flame Detection and
Protection System
Over Speed
Protection System
Over Temperature
Protection System
Vibration Protection
Combustion
Monitoring

115
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FLAME DETECTION SYSTEM

Flame Detectors performed 2 functions


Normal start-up: Flame detectors indicate
when a flame has been established in the
combustion chambers and allow the start-up
sequence to continue
Should loss-of-flame occurs while the GT is
running, fuel is immediately shut off, to avoid
any accumulation of fuel in the GT

Use 4 Ultraviolet radiation sensor (28FD),


installed at Combustion chambers no. 2,3, 7
and 8

When GT is shut down, all channels must be NO FLAME. If it is


not met, FLAME DETECTOR TROUBLE alarm will appear and
GT cannot start
If 3 out of 4 detect NO FLAME, GT will trip
Short circuit or open circuited detector will result NO FLAME
116
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

OVER SPEED
PROTECTION SYSTEM
The control system is designed to protect
GT against damage caused by overspeed
of the turbine shaft
During Normal Operation, the turbine
shaft is controlled by Speed control &
Temperature control loops
Overspeed protection systems will trip the
Fuel Stop Valve(s) closed when the
turbine speed exceeds the trip setting.
117
Overspeed Protections
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Electronic Over Speed


PROTECTION SYSTEM
Consist of magnetic p.u., speed detection software and
control logic circuits
Speed signal (TNH) from Magnetic pick-up sensors
(77NH1,2,3 )is compared to an Overspeed setpoint
(TNKHOS)
If TNH > the set point, the overspeed signal (L12H) is
transferred to Master Protection circuit to shut down the
turbine
During Mechaincal overspeed test, the electronic
overspeed protection system is switched to the test set
point (TNKHOST) to set the overspeed trip speed
slightly higher than mechanical overspeed trip speed
118
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Mechanical Over Speed


PROTECTION SYSTEM

Consists of

overspeed bolt assembly


overspeed trip mechanism and
position limit switch 12HA.

Overspeed bolt assembly, mounted inside the accessory gear shaft is used to sense
the turbine speed
It is a spring loaded, eccentrically located bolt assembled in a cartridge and
designed so that the adjustable spring force holds the bolt in the seated position until
the trip speed is reached
As the turbine speed increases causes the centrifugal forces acting on the bolt to
exceed the spring force and the bolt moves outward in less than one shaft revolution
where it contacts and trips the overspeed mechanism
Overspeed trip mechanism is mounted on the accessory gear, adjacent to the
overspeed bolt assembly
When actuated, the overspeed bolt assembly trips the latching trip finger of the OS
trip mechanism, which causes to release the trip valve to dump hydraulic oil in the
pilot dump valve cylinder of SRV/Stop Valve and close the SRV/Stop valve, shut off
fuel flow and shut down the GT.
The OS trip mechanism may be tripped manually and must be reset manually.

119
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Over Speed
PROTECTION Schematic
Mechanical Bolt
Assembly

120
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Over Temperature
PROTECTION SYSTEM
Protects the GT against possible damage caused by
overfiring
In normal operation, the exhaust temp control system
reacts to regulate the fuel flow when the firing
temperature limit is reached
In case of exhaust temperature (TTXM) or fuel low
exceeds the control limit (TTRX), OT protection system
initiates an alarm (L30TXA) prior to tripping the GT
If the temperature (TTXM) increase event higher than
TTRXB + trip margin (TTKOT2), or,
It TTXM is higher than Isothermal trip set point
(TTKOT1), the GT is tripped
121
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Over Temperature
PROTECTION SCHEMATIC

122
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

VIBRATION
PROTECTION SYSTEM

Sensors (39V) are located on selected bearing housing of the GT, load
reduction gear and driven load
Type of sensors:
Velocity Probes (EMF is generated in a coil if it is moved thorough a
magnetic field)
Proximity Probes (non contact probe operating on the edy current
principle)
Accelerometer Probes
The controller will detect excessive vibration and sensor faults, annunciates
alarms and trips the GT
Vibration protection software will display several alarm message such as:
Vibration Sensor disabled when input channel is disabled
High Vibration Alarm when any vibration signal exceeds the alarm
setpoint for more than the specified time
Vibration Transducer Fault when a short or open transducer Fault is
detected for more than the specified time. GT operation is not
interrupted but indicates that maintenance or replacement is required 123
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Vibration Protection System-2


High Vibration Trip or Shutdown when a group of vibration
signals are disabled
If all GT sensors are disabled or faulty, or
If all load reduction gear sensors are disabled or faulty
If all generator sensors are disabled or faulty
Vibration Start Inhibit turbine start will be inhibited when:
If 3 or more GT sensors are disables or faulty
If 2 or more load reduction gear sensors are disabled or
faulty
If 2 or more generator sensors are disabled or faulty
Vibration Differential Trouble

124
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Combustion Monitoring

To reduce the likelihood of the extensive damage to the GT, if the


combustion system is deteriorated
Monitor
- Exhaust Thermocouples
- Compressor Discharge Temp Thermocouples
Monitoring will effective to the extend
Incomplete mixing of gas pass through to the GT
Uneven turbine inlet pattern could be caused by loss of fuel or loss of
flame in a combustors, - will cause uneven exhaust pattern

Spread 1 (S1): Highest Lowest TC readings


Spread 2 (S2): Highest 2nd Lowest TC readings
Spread 3 (S3): Highest 3rd Lowest TC readings
Limit : 16.7F 58.4F (TTKSPL7 and TTKSPL6)

125
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Display Messages

Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm (L30SPTA): if any


Thermocouple value causes the largest spread > a constant for
more than 4 sec.
Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA) : if any Thermocouple value
causes the largest spread > a constant for more than 3 Sec.
High Exhaust Temperature Spread trip (L30SPT), can occur if:

126
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

127
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Lesson 8

GENERATOR
CONTROL & AVR

128
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator Ventilation
ENCLO
SURE

MAG.
CORE

ROTOR
wDG
MV
PLATFORM

EXHAUST
DUCT

EXCITER
REDUC
TION
GEAR
MEASUR
EMENT
RING

GEN HTR
Vibration BASE
Detector

TC OIL
OUTLET

FANS

TC COLD
AIR

RETAINING
EARTH
RING
ROTOR
GRD
STATOR
PLUG
WDG
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

FANS
TC HOT
AIR

BEARING

129
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator

Air-cooled alternating current generator, speed 3000


rpm, coupled to a reducing gear by rigid flanges
Stresses remain within acceptable limits at 120%
overspeed (3600 rpm)
Generator is provided with semi direct internal cooling
fans which can flow fresh air through air inlet silencer
from excitation compartment roof toward exhaust duct
(above load reduction gear compartment
Open loop ventilation, ensured by 2 fans mounted on
each end of the generator rotor body
Generator compartment are monitored by
Thermocouples:

GENERATOR
BEARING NO.3 SIDE

9 TC mounted at Stator winding (trip at 155 C)


2 TC in hot air circuit (alarm at 125 C, trip at 135 C)
2 TC in Cold air circuit (alarm at 95 C, trip at C)
1 TC at reduction gear oil outlet
1 TC at Bearing#3

Its construction cannot be damaged by 2 or phs faults


due to short circuit external to the stator windings.
However, the duration of these faults must be limited
in time to avoid causing detrimental overheating

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

REDUCTION GEAR
130
SIDE
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator Measurement
Stator
Thermocouples
Bearing
Vibration sensor
Lube oil pressure switch
Thermocouple
Thermometers
Reduction Gear
Vibration Sensors
Thermocouples
Thermometers
Miscellaneous
Rotor Grounding
Rotor Ground detection
Space Heater
131
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Excitation System

Rotating Main function of the Exciter is to control generator output voltage by


controlling DC excitation current
Use a voltage sensor (transformer TP1) and current sensor (transformer TI3) to
provides feedback of generator output back to the AVR
Use an excitation transformer to provide excitation voltage to exciter field.
The excitation voltage and current are controlled by AVR through firing angle of
thyristor
3Phases, High Frequency AC output from rotating armature is rectified and
applied to the main generator field
Controlled DC current is fed to the stationary field of the rotating exciter as a
result of comparison between feedback signals and a ref. point established by
the setting of voltage regulator
Field excitation is provided by a standard brushless excitation system which
consists of
a rotating armature,
diode bridge and
stationary field.
132
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Excitation System & AVR


Generator Values
Stator Voltage
Stator Current
Power Factor
Active Power
Reactive power
Apparent Power
Energy
Frequency
Temperature

-U
-I
-Q
-P
-Q
-S
-F
-T

Bar Temp T1 T6
Hot Air Temp
Cold Air Temp

T7-T8
T9 T10

133
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Excitation System & AVR 2

Transfer switch 43S provides for selection of Auto or Manual (back up) AVR
Automatic Excitation is a close loop system controlled by AVR,
regulates generator output at rated voltage 11KV according to change
of the load
Manual Excitation is controlled by separate source
As the load increase, generator voltage tends to decrease, AVR will
increase excitation current to allow generator voltage back to the rated
voltage
Stator side of the exciter is fed by regulated DC current from AVR
It induces rotated rotor of the exciter to produce AC current and then
rectified to be 236 volts and 0 481 Amp, to generate 11KV, 50Hz, 38MVA

134
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator CP System
TI3

G2

PPT Exc.
Trafo

TP1

Exc.
Voltage

V,I
Sensor

135
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Brush Vs Brushless Excitation


WITH BRUSH EXCITATION
 Requires collector ring, brushes or commutator.
 The function of the brush is to collect current from
Commutator.
 Usually made of carbon or graphite and are in
the shape of rectangular block.

WITH BRUSHLESS EXCITATION


 Eliminate the need for brushes, commutator
& slip-ring as well as maintenance of them
 It uses bridge rectifier circuit consists of SCR
& diode.
 The bridge rectifier circuit placed on the rotor.
 The bridge rectifier circuit rotates with the
speed of the rotor.
 The A.C supply given to the bridge rectifier by
the principle of Electromagnetic Induction.
 Bridge rectifier being represented by a
transformation from A.C voltage to D.C
voltage.
 The D.C output of the rotating rectifier is
applied to the D.C rotating field of the motor

DISADVANTAGES
 Requires maintenance, adjustment & inspections.
 Produces brush drop, spark, noise & friction loss.
 Limits maximum speed of the machine.
 Brushes assembly on a large machine is a costly
element.

ADVANTAGES
 Life of motor using brushless excitation
significantly
longer compared to a motor using brushes.
 It reduces noise.
 Loss should be reduced, i.e brush drop.
 It reduces the maintenance and replacement.
 Less maintenance cost.
136
 It reduces spark, wear & tear.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator & Excitation Faults


GENERATOR FAULTS
Rotor Earth Fault
Stator Earth Fault
Reverse power Fault
Negative phase sequence
Stator over current 1st & 2nd steps
Generator Differential Protection
Stator Over voltage
Generator Overheating 1st & 2nd
step

EXCITATION FAULTS
Excitation Transformer
Overheating 1st step
Excitation Transformer
Overheating 2nd step
Excitation rectifier Fuse
Flashing too long
Excitation Over current 1st step
Excitation Over current 2nd step
Voltage regulator power supply
Voltage regulator measuring
Excitation Rotating Diode
Loss of excitation

137
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Brushless Exciter Rotor

Rotating Diodes of field exciter

138
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Exciter - Specification

V
I
PF
Speed
No, of pole
No. of Phase

236 volt
481 Amp
0.9
- 3000 rpm
- 10
-5

Armature
V
I

- 236 V
- 481 A

Filed
V
I
No. of Pole
No. of Coil

- 35V
- 55A
-8
- 3 / pole

139
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Reactive Power Capability

Q - VAR

P - Watt

S Volt Amp

Real power (P=MW)


is used to drive load
Generator output
(Apparent Power
S) should be
maintained within the
capability curve
Higher Power Factor,
will increase P(MW)
to handle load or
decrease Q (VAR)
with the same S.

140
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Generator Capability vs
Ambient Temp

P1

In simplified way, Exhaust


temperature is Firing temp +
Ambient
Exhaust temp is controlled by
Exhaust temp set point,
(constant), so
Higher Ambient Temp, will
reduce allowable firing
temperature, which may cause
to reduce MW output generated
by generator.

P2

141

T1
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

Brushless Exciter Rotor

142
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

QUESTION
&
ANSWER

143
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko

See you .. again

THANK YOU
FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
Please do not hesitate to contact me at
0813 140 78900
b_tripriatmoko@yahoo.co.id
FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

144
By: Bambang Tri Priatmoko