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Answers to chapter revision questions

The world communicates


Chapter 1
1. In (a) transverse waves, particles in the medium move back and forth perpendicular to the direction
in which the wave travels, or propagates. In contrast, in (b) as a longitudinal wave passes, the
particles in the medium move back and forth parallel to the wave propagation.
2. This statement refers to the way in which a wave does not take the medium with it. Rather, the
medium is disturbed as the wave passes and then returns to its original rest position after the wave
passes. Energy is conveyed by the wave. A clear example of this occurs with ocean waves, where
wind energy is converted into wave energy, which can then travel thousands of kilometres to cause
erosion on the seashore.
3. One-dimensional: waves in springs or ropes
Two-dimensional: waves on the surface of a body of water
Three-dimensional: waves spreading out in space such as light from a star
4. See Figure 1.5.
5. Crests and troughs represent points on a transverse wave where the medium is at its maximum
displacement (amplitude) away from its rest position in a positive direction (crest) and in a negative
direction (trough). In longitudinal waves while compressions (where particles are closer together)
and rarefactions (where particles are further apart) do not exactly correspond to crests and troughs,
they are often represented as such (as crests and troughs are much easier to draw). Compressions
and rarefactions behave in the same way as crests and troughs. The distance between two
successive crests (or troughs) is one wavelength.
6. As all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed, it follows that the product of any
electromagnetic waves frequency and wavelength is a constant (c = f ).
7. Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium to propagate, unlike other types of waves (with
the exception perhaps of gravity waves, which are beyond the scope of this text).
8. Using:
v = f for both:
954 kHz radio:

=
=

v
f
3.00 108 m s 1
954 10 3 Hz

X-ray wave, with frequency 5 1017 Hz


v
=
f
=

3.00 108 m s 1
5.00 1017 Hz

= 314 m
= 6.00 10 10 m
The radio wavelength is about 500 billion times longer than the X-ray.
9. When a wave slows down (e.g. as an ocean wave enters shallower water), the frequency is retained
but the wavelength becomes smaller/shorter. This can be observed from a headland overlooking a
beach: the waves nearer the shore are becoming bunched up as their wavelength decreases.
10. The change in the motion causes the frequency of the wave to increase. The speed of the wave is not
changed, so the wavelength decreases. (Reference to v = f is very useful for questions such as these.)

Chapter 2
1. Sound is a mechanical wave, dependent upon the vibrations of particles in the medium through
which it travels. With no medium, there can be no mechanical vibrations, so sound cannot propagate.

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chapter 3

Displacement

2. The back and forth motion of the coils in the spring is similar to the way in which the air particles
(molecules) move as a sound wave passes. Air particles actually bump into each other to cause the
vibration to propagate. The coils in the spring are connected to each other (they are, of course, one
single coil of the spring) and can be made to move without bumping into each other.
3. Two examples of sound echoes being put to practical use are sonar and bat navigation. Both uses
rely on the transmission and then the detection of reflected sound waves of suitable frequencies
sonar is usually used underwater, while bats fly in the air.
4. Using distance = speed 3 time

= 340 m s1 3 3.0 s

= 1020 m (there and back)
Therefore, the distance to the cliff is half this distance: 510 m.
5. (a)
Use: v = f
340 m s1 = 440 Hz

Time

340 m s1
440 Hz
= 0..773 m
(b) It is possible that a reflection may be causing destructive interference at a particular place in
the hall, causing a reduction in the amplitude of the soundtherefore less volume is heard
at this place. Moving a metre away may be sufficient to move out of the area of destructive
interference, as the wavelength of the sound is less than one metre.
6. At times, the two sound waves may coincide with constructive interference, making it louder. In between
times, the two sound sources may coincide to destructively interfere, resulting in a softer sound.
7. While the fundamental pitch (frequency) being produced may be the same, each instrument
produces unique overtones that add to the fundamental frequency. The resultant sound can be
recognised by a person as belonging to the particular instrument.
8. Refer to Figure 2.18.

Displacement

Time

Figure 2.18 Solution to question 8

9. The two wave sources may produce waves that, when they coincide at the beach, alternate
between constructive and destructive interference. The sets are caused when the constructive
interference produces a resultant wave with a greater amplitude. The calm periods are when the
two wave sources cancel each other due to the destructive interference.
10. The pitch of a sound wave is related to its frequency: a higher frequency will give rise to a higher
pitch and vice versa. The loudness of a sound wave is related to the wave amplitudea greater
amplitude will give rise to a louder sound and vice versa.

Chapter 3
1. Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium and they all travel at the same speed (the speed of
light) in a vacuum.

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Answers

2. Electromagnetic waves are oscillations/vibrations (but not of the medium); they obey the laws
of reflection and refraction; they have frequency, wavelength and amplitude in the same way as
mechanical waves.
3. Life forms on Earth are based on DNA molecules that are damaged or destroyed by being exposed to
UV, X-ray and gamma ray radiation, all of which reach the upper levels of the Earths atmosphere. At
ground level, these wavelengths have been almost completely absorbed by the atmosphere (except
for some UV). This allows life on Earth to survive with relatively few mutations over time.
4. A sphere with a radius of 5.0 m has a surface area of:
SA = 4 r 2

= 4 25
= 314.5 m2
At this distance, each m2 receives 40 W of power, so the total power output from the source is
314.5 m2 3 40 W m2 = 12580 W, or 13 kW.
12.5
5. 12.5 m is
= 2.5 times further away. Multiplying the power at 5.0 m distant by the inverse
5.0
1
1

square of the number of times further away the meter is (i.e. 2 =
) gives the power at 12.5 m.
2.5 6.25
1
That is, new power = 40 W m2 3

6.25

= 6.4 W m2
6. (a) The vast differences between the wavelengths and therefore the frequencies between the
different wavebands mean that the way in which matter is affected by the waves differs
markedly. Radio waves can induce small vibrations in the electrons in a metal wire; light
is captured by electrons or causes chemical changes in photographic film. Gamma rays
trigger chemical reactions causing small flashes of light or ionise the gas in a GeigerMller
tube.
(b) Gamma rays are detected using a scintillating screen. The small amount of light given off is
captured by photomultiplier tubes in a gamma camera. Another method is by a GeigerMller
tube, where gas is ionised, triggering a small electrical impulse that is detected.
UV light is detected by CCDs or photographic film.
Radio waves are detected in lengths of wire, where electrons are made to vibrate or oscillate.
This signal is amplified and decoded.
7. Waves are modulated when they are used in communication to facilitate the transmission of the
audio/information signals and to avoid interference and signal destruction. The information carried
by the wave is in the modulation itself. The carrier wave has changes either in frequency (FM) or
amplitude (AM) made to it. See Figure 3.17.
8. AM: changes are made to the carrier waves amplitude.
FM: changes are made to the carrier waves frequency.
Digital: Discrete packets of information are sent as modulations in binary code.
9. Multiplexing, a kind of time-sharing of the one frequency so that many separate lines of
communication are being made simultaneously, allows many more users of the available
frequencies. Careful management and allocation of available frequencies as close to each other
as possible without causing interference is another way of overcoming the problem of the
overcrowding of the airwaves.
10. Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than violet light presents danger to people
exposed to it. UV causes cancer, as does X-ray and gamma ray radiation. The use of such radiation
is therefore too risky for communication applications.

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chapter 4

Chapter 4
1. Refer to Figure 4.2, page 44 and construct a similar diagram with angles of incidence and reflection
of 35.
2. One way is the use of dishes to reflect radio waves to a receiving antenna (placed at the focus).
Satellite television and microwave dishes for mobile telephone networks both rely on reflection.
3. Plane surface reflection: within periscopes or binoculars to direct light to the eyepieces. Convex
surfaces: for wide-view mirrors on cars and surveillance. Concave surfaces: as for question 2, the
parabolic mirrors used for telescopes and radio/microwave receiving dishes.
4. See Figure 4.14, page 50. The ionosphere can be considered as a plane reflecting mirror for certain
radio frequencies.
5. The cause of refraction, the change in the direction of a wave as it enters a different medium is the
change in the speed of the wave. The change may occur gradually (as for ocean waves moving into
shallower water) or suddenly (light entering glass or water). If the wave slows down, it will bend
towards the normal. Different materials refract light differently due to the fact that they slow down
at different rates.
6. (a) The refractive index of a substance is the inverse of the ratio of the speed of light in that
substance to the speed of light in a vacuum.
(b) Refer to the definition of refractive index. Also, light cannot travel faster in any other (known)
material than it does in a vacuum.
(c) The speed of light in air is only fractionally slower than in a vacuum. For n to be 1.00
(i.e. to two decimal places) in air, it means that the speed of light in air must be changed by
< 0.5%.
7. For such questions, it is always a good idea to quote any relevant mathematical relationships. In

n
v
this case: sin i = 2 = 1 = 1 .
sin r n1 2 v2

From this, it can be seen that the ratio is also the ratios of the wavelengths and speeds, and the
inverse ratio of the refractive indices of the first to the second mediums.
8. Use:
sin i n2
where i = c, n2 = 1.33 and n1 = 2.42
=
sin r n 1

so:

sin c
1.33
=
sin 90 2.42
1.33
c = sin1
2.42

= 33.3
9. If a medium did have a refractive index of 0.9, calculations using Snells law would result in a
speed for light in that medium of 3.33 3 108 m s1. Such speeds are not believed to be possible.
10. Optical fibres retain the light within the fibre by total internal reflection, effectively guiding the light
around bends in the fibre with no loss of signal due to the reflections. (There are, however, signal
losses due to very slight impurities in the optical fibre itself.) See Figure 4.28, page 60.
11. (a) sin i = n2
sin r n1
n2 = refractive index of glass = 1.50
n1 = refractive index of vacuum = 1.00
i = 60
r =?
sin 60 1
1.50
r = 35.3

sin r =

305

n1 = refractive index of vacuum = 1.00


Answers

i = 60
r =?
sin 60 1
1.50
r = 35.3

sin r =

(b) The ray bends towards the normalwhen a light ray travels from a less dense medium to a
denser medium, it bends towards the normal.
v
n
(c) 1 = 2
v 2 n1
n2 = refractive index of glass = 1.50
n1 = refractive index of vacuum = 1.00
v 1 = speed in vacuum = 3.0 10 8 m s 1
v 2 = speed in glass
v 1 1.50
=
v 2 1.00
v2 =

3.0 10 8

1.50
= 2.0 10 8 m s 1
1 n2
(d) =
2 n1
n2 = refractive index of glass = 1.50
n1 = refractive index of vacuum = 1.00
1 = wavelength in vacuum
2 = wavelength in glass

2 =

500 1

1.50
= 333 nm
Frequency remains unchanged (same before and after the refraction).
v
f =

3.0 10 8
=
500 10 9
= 6.0 1014 Hz

12. (a)

sin i n2
=
sin r n1
n2 = refractive index of water = 1..33
n1 = refractive index of diamond = 2.42
i = 30
r =?

sin r =

sin 30 2.42

1.33
r = 65.5

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chapter 6

Hence the light ray bends away from the normal.

v
n
(b) 1 = 2
v 2 n1
n2 = refractive index of water = 1.33
n1 = refractive index of diamond = 2.42
v 1 = speed in diamond = 1.2 10 8 m s 1
v 2 = speed in water
v 1 1.33
=
v 2 2.42
v2 =

2.42 (1.2 10 8 )

1.33
= 2.2 10 8 m s 1
Hence the light ray has an increased speed.

Chapter 5
1. Digital information is information stored as a series of 1s and 0s (represented by on and off states
of transistors in memory chips). In CDs, DVDs and computers, memory is stored in digital form.
2. Digital information can be written and read extremely quickly; it can be stored in compact memory
chips; it is not subject to distortion in the same way analogue information is.
3. Loudspeakers and other transponders that convert electrical signals into sound must be made to
vibrate to produce analogue sound waves that we can hear and recognise. Thus the electrical
signals fed to loudspeakers and earphones must be analogue.
4. The information for the answer to this question can be found throughout this chapter. It is strongly
recommended that one of the listed options is studied carefully.
5. The information you find should come from a minimum of three different sources. It can be written
up in point form.
6. Waves are used to carry information by being modulated. Radio broadcasts, wireless (wi-fi) internet
connections (using short wavelength radio waves), bluetooth, mobile telephones and modulated
laser light within optical fibres are all examples of waves being used to make particular forms of
communication possible.
7. When the ionosphere changes the speed of the waves carrying the GPS signal, an error is introduced
into the calculation of the distance from the satellite to the receiver. This error places a limit on the
possible accuracy of the position being displayed by the GPS receiver. Receivers in some countries
can receive an additional signal. This signal contains correction data according to the activity of the
ionosphere over a selected region of the Earth or it can be a local radio signal, known as differential
GPS (DGPS) which brings the error in the location down to a couple of centimetres.

Electrical energy in the home


Chapter 6
1. Fire, as well as power derived from humans or domestic animals. Of course, in another sense,
energy derived from food was essential to humans in the Stone Age.
2. During the period of the Industrial Revolution, people learned to extract energy from fossil fuels
using steam engines and internal combustion engines. Such energy sources were reliable and

307

Answers

powerful, and accelerated the growth of industries and technologies. Towards the end of the
Industrial Revolution, the invention of electricity provided humankind with an energy source that
was clean, efficient and versatile.
3. Some positive impacts:
Improvements in the standard of living, including entertainment, comfort and transportation.
Acceleration of the development of industries and technologies including machinery.
Stimulation of the growth of cities and populations and the creation of wealth.
Some negative impacts:
Pollution, including waste gases being released into the atmosphere and thermal pollution of
the waterways.
Accidents due to electric shocks and malfunctioning nuclear power plants.
4. (a) Metal towers support the long-distance transmission wires that deliver electricity from the power
station to households.
(b) At power stations, transformers are used to increase the voltage of the electricity (and decrease
the size of the current) to prepare for long distance transmission. The high-voltage electricity
decreases the energy lost as heat during the transmission. The subsequent transformers along
the power grid are responsible for gradually reducing the size of the voltage of the electricity.
This increases the current size to meet the demands of the households supplied and ensures
safety.
(c) Energy lost in the form of heat during transmission and the high material cost of long-distance
electric wires.
(d) Solar power and portable generators powered by diesel or biomass.
5. (a) Galvani proposed that animal electricity is the innate vital force or fluid secreted by the brain,
that it could activate nerves and muscles and be spanned by metals. Galvani used this theory
to explain the twitching of a frogs leg muscles when they were touched by a pair of different
metals.
(b) The original theory of animal electricity was incorrect. The twitching of the frogs leg muscles
was due to electricity produced by the contact of two different metals. Nevertheless, Galvani
was not completely wrong in stating the existence of animal electricity. The brain and the
nerves do generate electric impulses that cause muscles to contract under a physiological state;
however, these impulses disappear soon after the animal is killed.
(c) Luigi Galvanis work initiated further studies of electrochemistry as well as electrophysiology
for nerves and muscles. His work laid the groundwork for many other scientists to further
investigate electricity.
6. (a) Metallic electricity is the electricity generated by the contact of two different metals in the
presence of an electrolyte (conducting solution).
(b) The electricity produced by the contact of two different metals has the same effect on the
contraction of the muscles as the intrinsic nerve (electric) impulses generated by the brain.
Hence the frogs leg muscles contracted when touched by iron and brass.
(c) Volta correctly described the relationship between metal reactions and electricity. This helped in
understanding electron transfer reactions (oxidation and reduction).
(d) The voltaic pile was the forerunner of modern batteries.

Chapter 7
1. The electron will move towards and be attracted to the proton as opposite charges attract. The
electron will move towards the proton as it is 1 mass of the proton.
1800
2. Net charge = (1.602 10 19 ) (6.4 108 )
= 1.0 10 10 C

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chapter 7

3. Number of electrons =
=

Net charge
Charge of an electron
6 10 7
1.602 10 19

= 3.7 1012
4. (a) Refer to Figure 7.20.
e

positive

neutral

1st ball

2nd ball

Figure 7.20 Answer to question 4 (a)

(b) Since the two plastic balls are identical, after the contact they will share the original positive
charge equally. Hence each plastic ball will carry a charge of +7.0 3 1010 C.
5. As you are taking off your jumper on a dry day, the rubbing of the jumper against your body will
cause a build up of static charges; this is an example of charge by friction. The accumulated charges
then discharge, which results in you receiving a little zap.
6. Touch the electroscope with the glass rod: if the leaves of the electroscope open up, then the glass
rod is charged. To determine the sign of the charge, you will need to have an electroscope that has
already been charged positively or negatively. If the original glass rod is negative, it will cause the
leaves of a negatively charged electroscope to move further apart, since the negative charges of the
electroscope have now been reinforced. On the other hand, the same rod will initially collapse the
leaves of a positively charged electroscope as the negative charges from the rod start to neutralise
the positive charges of the electroscope.
7. When the plastic rod is rubbed with a piece of wool, the plastic rod becomes charged (by friction).
This charged plastic rod is able to attract any neutral object, hence another neutral plastic rod,
which causes it to swing towards it. After the contact, the charges from first rod are transferred to
second plastic rod (charge by contact), so that they both carry the same charge. This causes the two
rods to repel, as like charges repel.
8. Refer to Figures 7.21 (a), (b) and (c).

DC
power
source

+Q

metal plates

(a)(a)
Figure 7.21

(b)
Figure 7.21 (b)

Giambattista
College Physics 2nd Ed.
Figure 16.24ab

Figure 7.21 (c)

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Answers

9. F = qE
F = 1.602 10 19 5.00 10 3
he west
F = 8.010 10 16 N to th
10. F = qE
F = 1.602 10 19 4.20 10 3
F = 8.728 10 16 N downwards
11. (a) F = qE
F = (0.50 10 -9 ) (1.5 10 6 )
F = 7.5 10 4 N to the east

(b) F = qE
E =

F
q

E =

0.02
0.50 10 9

E = 4.0 10 7 N C 1 downwards
12. F = qE
F = (2.50 10 6 ) (1.602 10 19 )
F = 4.01 10 13 N left
13. By definition, the negative charge will start to move towards a position of higher electric
potential. A positive charge in the same situation will move towards a position of lower
electric potential.
14. Direct current always flows in one direction and is constant in size. Alternating current constantly
changes polarity and has variable amplitude.
15. Electron current consists of moving electrons and flows from the negative potential to the positive
potential, whereas conventional current theoretically consists of moving positive charges. It flows
from the positive potential to the negative potential.
16. V = IR
V = 2.4 10
V = 24 V
17. V = IR
V
R=
I
2.9
R=
0.30
R = 9.7
18. (a) Transmission wires have large electric resistance because of their extensive length. Resistance is
directly proportional to length; the longer the wire, the greater the chance of collisions between
the conducting electrons and the metal lattice and hence the greater the resistance.
(b) Yes, this can be compensated by making the wires thicker as resistance is inversely proportional
to the cross-sectional area. This is because a larger cross-sectional area would result in fewer
collisions between the conducting electrons and the metal lattice. Hence, the thicker the wires,
the lower the electric resistance.

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chapter 8

(c) Two limitations of using thicker wires are cost and practicality. Thicker wires require more
material and therefore are more expensive. Thicker wires are also heavier and consequently
more difficult to hang overhead.
19. As the temperature decreases, the lattice of the conducting material will vibrate less as a result of
the low energy state. This decreases the probability of collisions between the conducting electrons
and the lattice, and hence decreases the resistance.
20. Copper metal contains delocalised electrons that are free to move under the influence of an
electric field and therefore are able to conduct electricity. Similarly, salt water contains positive and
negative ions that are free to move through the solution under the influence of the electric field.
21. An electric insulator is a material that has neither free electrons nor ions that are free to move;
hence, it contains no charge carriers and therefore is unable to conduct electricity. Examples
include dry air, glass, plastics and rubber.

Chapter 8
1. A series electric circuit allows only one pathway for the flow of current. If one part of the circuit
breaks, then the entire circuit will fail.
2. A parallel electric circuit has more than one pathway for the flow of current. As a result, if one part
of the circuit breaks, the other part of the circuit may continue to function.
3. (a) RT = 10 + 20

RT = 30
1
1 1
(b) = +
RT
4 6
RT = 2.4

(c) The equivalent resistance (R1) of 2 and 8 resistors is:

1
1 1
= +
R1 2 8
R1 = 1.6

The equivalent resistance (R2) of R1, 6 , 20 and 14 resistors is:


1
1
1
=
+
R2 1.6 + 6 14 + 20
R2 = 6.2

Since R2 and 3 lies in series to each other, the total resistance of the entire circuit is equivalent to:

RT = 6.2 + 3
RT = 9.2

4. (a) VT = 2.5 + 3.5 + 1 + 4.5 + 2.5


VT = 14 V

(b) V = IR
V
I =
R
14
I =
5
I = 2.8 A
(c) Clockwise.

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Answers

5. (a) As the resistors are connected in series within the circuit, the currents of all resistors are equal
to each other. Hence:
I = I = I = 2.0 A
4
6
8

(b) The voltage passing through the resistor of 4 is:

V = IR
V = 4.0 2.0
V = 8.0
The voltage passing through the resistor of 6 is:

V = IR
V = 6.0 2.0
V = 12
The voltage passing through the resistor of 8 is:

V = IR
V = 8.0 2.0
V = 16

(c) VT = 8.0 + 12 + 16
VT = 36 V

(d) RT = 4.0 + 6.0 + 8.0


RT = 18

6. (a) As the resistors are connected parallel within the circuit, the voltage supplied by the power
source and the voltage for all resistors in the circuit are equal to each another.
V = V = V = 140 V
T
4
6

(b) The current passing through the 4 resistor is:

V = IR
V
I =
R
140
I =
4.0
I = 35 A
The current passing through the 6 resistor is:
V = IR
V
I =
R
140
I =
6.0
I = 23.3 A

(c) I T = I 4 + I 6
I T = 35 + 23.3
I T = 58.3 A

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chapter 8

(d)

1
1
1
=
+
RT
4.0 6.0
RT = 2.4

(e) I = 58.3 A
7. (a) An ammeter needs to be connected in series with the circuit or the resistor that is to have its
current measured.
(b) An ammeter needs to have a very small resistance so that when it is inserted in the circuit, it
does not appreciably reduce the current flowing through the circuit or the resistor.
8. (a) A voltmeter should be placed in parallel to the electric component that is to have its potential
difference measured.
(b) The very large resistance of a voltmeter is to ensure that only little current is diverted to the
voltmeter, so that the voltage reading will not be underestimated. High resistance is also needed
to prevent the voltmeter from overloading.
9. (a) As the resistors are connected in parallel, the voltage supplied by the power source and the
voltage across all resistors in the circuit are equal.
V = V = V = V = 14 V
T
3
4
6

(b) The current passing through the resistor of 3 is:


V
I =
R

14
I =
3.0
I = 4.7 A
The current passing through the resistor of 4 is:
V
I =
R

14
I =
4.0
I = 3.5 A
The current passing through the resistor of 6 is:
V
I =
R

14
I =
6.0
I = 2.3 A
(c) I T = I 3 + I 4 + I 6

I = 4.7 + 3.5 + 2.3

I T = 10.5 A

(d)

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
RT
3.0 4.0 6.0
RT = 1.3

10. The equivalent resistance (R1) of 16 and 12 is:


1
1
1
=
+

R1 16 12
R1 = 6.9

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Answers

Since R1 is in series with the resistor of 24 , the total resistance of the circuit is equal to:

RT = 6.9 + 24

RT = 30.9
The total current of the circuit is equal to:
V
I =
R
240
I =
30.9
I = 7.8 A
As R1 (the equivalent resistance of 16 and 12 ) lies in series with the resistor of 24 , the
current passing through R1 will be equal to the total current of the circuit, hence 7.8 A.
As the 16 and 12 resistors are connected parallel to one another, the current of 7.8 A will be
shared proportionally between the two resistors, with the larger proportion of the current running
through the resistor with the smaller resistance and the smaller proportion of the current running through
the resistor with the greater resistance. Hence the current passing through 16 resistor is equal to:
7.8
I 16 =
12
(16 + 12)
I 16 = 3.3 A

11. (a) The equivalent resistance (R1) of 4.0 , 6.0 , 12 and 18 is:
1
1
1
=
+
R1 4.0 + 6.0 12 + 18
R1 = 7.5
As R1 (the equivalent resistance of 4.0 , 6.0 , 12 and 18 ) and the resistor of 13 are
connected in series with one another, the total resistance of the circuit is:
RT = 7.5 + 13

RT = 20.5
(b) Since R1 and the resistor of 13 are placed in series, the current passing through the resistor of
13 is equal to the current passing through R1.
I = I
= 5.0 A
R1
13

As the resistors of 4 and 6 (effectively 10 ) and resistors 12 and 18 (effectively 30 )


are connected parallel to one another, the current of 5 A will be shared proportionally, with the
larger proportion of the current running through the resistor with the smaller resistance and
the smaller proportion of the current running through the resistor with the greater resistance.
The current passing through the 4 and 6 resistors is equal to:
5.0
30
(10 + 30 )
I = 3.75 A
The current passing through the 12 and 18 resistors is equal to:
I =

5.0
10
(10 + 30 )
5.0
I =
10
40
I = 1.25 A
I =

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chapter 8

(c) V = IR
V = 5.0 13
V = 65 V
(d) The total voltage across the 4.0 and 6.0 resistors is equal to the total voltage across the 12
and 18 resistors, which is equal to 3.75 3 (4 + 6) = 37.5 V. (Alternatively, 1.25 3 (12+18) = 37.5.)
VT = 65 + 37.5

= 102.5 V
12. (a) The reading of the ammeter is effectively the total current of the circuit, which can be calculated
by dividing 24 V by the total resistance of the circuit.
Since R20 and R10 are parallel, the sum of their resistance (R1, as shown in Fig. 8.28) is
given by:
20

R1
10
5.0
20

Figure 8.28

1
1
1
=
+
R1 10 20

1
= 0.15
R1
R1 = 6.7

As both R20 and R10 are in series with R5 , the sum of their resistance is given by:

Hence the resistance of the circuit is calculated to be:


1
1
1
=
+
RT
20 11.7

R1 + R 5 = 11.7

RT = 7.4

Hence the total current or the current registered by the ammeter is:
V
IT = T
RT
24
7.4
I T = 3.3 A
IT =

315

Answers

(b) The current of R20 is calculated to be:


I 20 =

V20
R20

24
20
= 1.2 A

I 20 =
I 20

Since R20 is parallel to R5 and R1, the sum of their current is equal to the current of the
circuit.

IT = I20 + I R5 & R1
I R5 & R1 = IT I20
I R5 & R1 = 3.3 1.2
I R5 & R1 = 2.1 A
As R5 and R1 are in series, the current running through each of these resistors would be
equal.
I5 = IR1 = 2.1 A

Since R10 and R20 are placed in parallel to each other, the current of 2.1 A is shared
proportionally between these two resistors, with the larger proportion of the current running
through the resistor with the smaller resistance and the smaller proportion of the current
running through the resistor with the greater resistance.

I 10

2.1
20
30
= 1.4 A

I 10 =

2.1
10
30
= 0.7 A

I 20 =
I 20

(c) By using the equation V = IR, we can determine potential differnce across R5 .
V5 = I5 R5
V5 = 2.1 3 5
V5 = 10 V
13. The voltage across the 2.0 resistor is equal to:



V = IR
V = 2.0 10
V = 20 V
Hence the total combined voltage of the R, 4.0 and 6.0 resistors is equal to:
V = VT V2
V = 50 20
V = 30 V
And the total equivalent current passing through the R, 4 and 6 resistors is the same as the
current passing through the 2 , that is, 10 A.

316

chapter 9

Hence:
VT = I T RT
30 = 10 (

1
)
1
1
+
6 R+4

1
1
10
+
=
6 R + 4 30
1
1 1
=
R+4 3 6
R=2
14. (a) Most households have a separate circuit for lighting, heating and power points that are
connected in parallel to each other.
(b) Allow each of the three circuits to draw a different amount of current from the main power supply.
Allow the fuse capacity (or circuit breaker) to be tailored individually to each circuit.
If one circuit breaks down, the others will continue to function.
Allow the circuit for heating to be switched off separately during peak hours.
(c) See the final first-hand investigation in Chapter 8.

Chapter 9
1.
Voltage (V)

Current (A)

Resistance ()

10

2.0

5.0

2.0

2.7

0.75

200

4.00

50.0

1.3 3 102

5.8

23

9.0

1.5

Power (W)
20
5.3
800
7.6 3 102
14

Energy in 5 minutes
(J)
6.0 3 103
1.6 3 103
2.40 3 105
2.3 3 105
4.1 3 103

E
t
16 000
=
15 60
16 000
=
900
= 18 W
= Pt
= 15 1.2 60 60

2. P =
P
P
P
3. E
E

E = 6.5 10 4 J
E = 65 kJ
4. P = VI
P
I =
V
60
I =
120
I = 0.500 A

317

Answers

P
V
40
I =
240
I = 0.167 A

5. I =

V
I
240
R=
0.17
R = 1.44 10 3
R=

6. (a) P = VI

P
P
(b) E
E

= 1.5 2 250 10 3
= 0.750 W
= Pt
= 0.75 45 60

E = 2.03 10 3 J
V
R
6
I =
4
I = 1.5 A

7. I =

W
W
W
W

= Pt
= VIt
= 6 1.5 20
= 180 J

8. 1 kW hr = 1000 60 60
= 3.6 10 6 J
in 1500 J, there is
1500
= 4.167 10 4 kW hr
6
3.6 10
2.2 10 6
3600 1000
E = 0.61 kW hr

9. E =

10. (a) E = Pt
E = 4200 50 60
E = 1.26 10 7 J

12 600 000
(b) E =

3 600 000
E = 3.50 kW hr

318

chapter 9

(c) Costs = 3.5 1.83 0.15


Costs = $0.96
11. (a) As the resistors of the 60 and 40 are placed in series within the circuit, the current running
through these resistors is equal to each other. Hence the power dissipation in each of these
resistors is equal to:
The power dissipation of the 60 resistor:

P = VI
P = 60 4 4
P = 960 W
The power dissipation of the 40 resistor:
P = VI
P = 40 4 4
P = 640 W
Similarly, as the resistors of the 12 and 18 are placed in series within the circuit, the current
running through these resistors is equal to each other. Hence the power dissipation in each of
these resistors is equal to:
The power dissipation of the 12 resistor:
P = VI
P = 12 5 5
P = 300 W
The power dissipation of the 18 resistor:

P = VI
P = 18 5 5
P = 450 W
The equivalent current running through the resistors of the 12 , 18 , 40 and 60 is:

I1 = 4 + 5

I1 = 9 A

Since the resistors of the 12 , 18 , 40 and 60 are placed in series with the 50 and
20 resistors, the same current will be running through the 50 and 20 resistors, that is,
9 A. Hence:
The power dissipation of the 20 resistor:
P = VI
P = 20 9 9

P = 1.62 10 3 W
The power dissipation of the 50 resistor:

P = VI
P = 50 9 9
P = 4.05 10 3 W

(b) PT = 960 + 640 + 300 + 450 + 1620 + 4050


PT = 8.02 10 3 W

319

Answers

12. (a) The reading of A1 and A3 is:


V
R
40
I =
8
I = 5.0 A
As the resistors of the 10 and 20 are placed in parallel to each other, the 5 A current will be
shared proportionally. Hence the reading of A2 and A4 is:
5
20
A2 =
10 + 20
A2 = 3.3 A
I =

5
10
10 + 20
A4 = 1.7 A
A4 =

(b) V2 = 3.3 10 + 40
V2 = 73 V

(c) P = 5 73
P = 3.7 10 2 W

(d) E = VIt
E = 40 5 (20 60 )
E = 2.4 10 5 J

(e) q = It
q = 1.7 (20 60)
q = 2.0 10 3 C
V
I
10
=
2.5
= 4.00
= VI
= 10 2.5
= 25.0 W

13. (a) R =
R

R
(b) P
P
P

(c) E = Pt

E = 25 (10 60 )
E = 15000 J
E = 15.0 kJ
(d) Q = mCm T
Q = 15 000 J (the heat gained by the water is equal to the energy supplied by the coil)
m = 100 g
C m = 4.18 J g1 K 1

320

T =

Q
mCm

T =

15000
100 4.18

Q = mCm T
Q = 15 000 J (the heat gained by the water is equal to the energy supplied by the coil)
m = 100 g

chapter 10

C m = 4.18 J g1 K 1
T =

Q
mCm

15000
100 4.18
T = 35.9
T =

(e) Q = mCm T
m = 100 g
T = 30
C m = 4.18 Jg 1K 1
Q = mCm T
Q = 100 4.18 30

Q = 12 540 J
F
S
N
Hence the percentage of energy been lost to the environment is equal to:
15000 12 540
100% = 16. 4%
15 000

Chapter 10
1. A magnetic field is a region in which an object that possesses magnetic properties will experience a force.
2. Magnetic poles are regions where the magnetic field lines are most dense. The magnetic field
strength is the greatest at the magnetic poles.
3. See Figure 10.22.

N
magnetic field

Figure 10.22

4. By definition, a north magnetic pole should only be


attracted to a south magnetic pole. The fact that the
north magnetic pole of a compass needle points to the
geographic North Pole means that it must be associated
with a south magnetic pole.
5. See Figure 10.23.
6. Using the right hand grip rule, the fingers of the right
hand curl in a clockwise direction, hence the thumb of
the right hand points down. Therefore the direction of the
S
S
N
conventional
current Nis down.

Figure 10.23

321

Answers

7. See Figure 10.24.


8. An electromagnet is a solenoid wound on a
soft iron core. The presence of the soft iron
does not influence the pattern of the field but
is there to help to concentrate and intensify
the magnetic field produced by the coil.
9. Electromagnets can provide much
stronger magnetic fields.
Electromagnets can be switched on and off
I
I
and therefore offer a degree of control.
Electromagnets can have their magnetic
field strength adjusted.
Figure 10.24
10. Magnetic fields in a loudspeaker are used
to vibrate the coil. As electric signals are fed into the coil wound on the magnetic core, the coil
produces its own magnetic field. The interaction between the magnetic field produced by the coil
and the magnetic field produced by the magnetic core causes the coil to vibrate. This vibration is
then transmitted to the paper cone, which results in the production of sound.
11. The density of the field lines represents the strength of the field.
The arrows of the field lines indicate the direction of
tangent to the field line
the field.
Field lines running in the same direction will add
whereas they will cancel if they are running in the
opposite direction.
circular magnetic field
Field lines do not cross each other.
The direction of an electric field is defined by the
compass
direction of the force on a positive charge, whereas
the direction of a magnetic field is in line with the
direction of the north pole.
12. See Figure 10.25.
13. The answer is point D.
current-carrying wire
Figure 10.25

Chapter 11
1. An electric shock is a consequence of electricity passing through the body, causing damage to
the skin, soft tissues, muscles and nerves. Heart fibrillation and breath cessation may also
result.
2. A static charge generator does not produce sustained current if touched. Since it is the current
flowing through the body during an electric shock that does the damage, a static charge generator
is comparatively safe to touch, even when it is generating a high voltagealthough larger
generators are still dangerous.
3. When the skin surface is wet, the bodys electric resistance may drop to only a few thousand ohms.
If there is an electricity leak from the switch, a relative large current will be able to flow through
the body. This will increase the risk of suffering an electric shock and its severity.
4. At a current of 1 to 5 mA, the person may feel numbness or a tingling sensation. As the current
increases to 100 mA, involuntary muscle contractions occur and the person will not be able to let
go of the power source. Breathing maybe affected. Burns to the skin and soft tissues will result.
All these effects increase in severity as the size of the current increases. A current above 100 mA is
likely to cause heart fibrillation, resulting in death.
5. An electrician will always touch a suspect wire with the back of the hand as an electric current
causes involuntary contraction of muscles as it passes through the body. This way, when the hand
muscles contract, the hand will close and move away from the wire.

322

chapter 12

6. Current passing from one arm to the opposite leg is most dangerous because this pathway crosses
the chest and is more likely to stun the heart and affect breathing. It also means that the current
passes through the greatest amount of body tissue, so burns are usually severe.
7. AC oscillates at a frequency that resonates with the intrinsic frequency of the electric activity of the
heart. It is more likely to cause heart fibrillation than a similar-sized direct current.
8. Not handling electric devices or appliances with wet hands.
Replacing old electric appliances.
Following manufacturers instructions.
9. Insulation sets up a physical barrier to prevent the flow of electricity from the appliance to the user.
The advantage of using double insulation is that if one layer of insulation fails, there is a second
layer.
10. By definition, for a series circuit, if one part of the circuit fails, then the entire circuit will fail.
Only when the fuse is in series with the devices or the circuit it controls will its melting break the
circuit. If connected parallel with the fuse, devices will continue to function, even when the fuse
melts.
11. A circuit breaker is a special type of switch that opens (turns off) when the current exceeds the
threshold value. This can be achieved by using either a bimetallic strip or an electromagnet. It helps
to protect the circuit from overheating and electric fires. A circuit breaker can be reset easily, which
is an advantage over a fuse.
12. An earth wire is an accessory wire that connects the case of an electric appliance to an
underground pipe or metal stake. An earth wire ensures users safety in the case of unwanted
electricity leak by diverting it to the ground.

Moving about
Chapter 12
1. (a) A frame of reference is an object or a coordinate system that can be used to describe or
compare motions.
(b) Distance is a scalar measurement of how far an object would have to travel between two
implied points.
(c) Displacement is a vector measurement used to describe the change in position of an object
within a coordinate system or when compared to a frame of reference. It is the straight-line
distance in a given direction.
(d) Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. It has both magnitude and direction.
(e) Speed is the rate of change of distance; it is a measure of how fast a particular size distance is
covered.
2. (a) 8 m, N52oE.
(b) 12 m
displacement
Velocity =
(c)
time
displacement = 8.0 m
time = 15 s
8.0
Velocity =
15
Velocity = 0.53 m s1 N52oE

323

Answers

distance
time
= 12 m
= 15 s
12
=
15
= 0.80 m s1

(d) Speed =
distance
time
Speed
Speed

73 1000
= 20.28 m s1
3600
65 1000
Speed of the Toyota Camry in m s1 =
= 18.06 m s1
3600
Difference of their speeds = 2.22 m s1
Diffence in distance = 234 m

3. Speed of the Porsche Boxster in m s1 =

Difference in distance
Difference of their speeds
234
=
2.22
= 105 s
or 1.76 mins

Time taken to catch up =

35
60
20
(30 60) +
(10 60) +
(5 60)
3.6
3.6
3.6
Total distance travelled = 29 167 m

4. Total distance travelled =

Total time taken = (30 + 10 + 5) 60 = 2700 s


Total distance travelled
Average speed =
Total time taken
29 167
=
2700
= 11 m s1
total distance
5. (a) Average speed =
total time
distance = 30 000 m
time = 20 60 = 1200 s
30 000
Average speed =
1200
= 25 m s1
(b) The size of the average speed does not indicate that throughout the entire journey, Trevor was
driving at a constant velocity of 25 m s1. He was travelling at 80 m s1 at one point in time
to compensate for periods of time when he was travelling slower than the average speed, for
instance, when stopped at traffic lights.
total displacement
total time
displacement = 18 000 m
time = 20 60
= 1200 s
324
18 000
Average velocity =
1200

(c) Average velocity =

total displacement
total time
displacement = 18 000 m
time = 20 60
= 1200 s
18 000
Average velocity =
1200
= 15 m s1 N 58o E
Average velocity =

chapter 12

Distance
Average speed
distance = 1000 m
Time =

6. (a)

average speed = 4 m s1
1000
4
= 250 s

Time =

Time remaining = 250 210


= 40 s
Distance remaining = 200 m
distance
Average speed =
time
200
=
40
= 5.00 m s1
7. (a) In the first 12 seconds, the ball is moving at a non-constant velocity. The concave nature of the
graph means that the gradient of the graph gradually decreases; hence, the velocity of the ball is
gradually decreasing in the first 12 seconds.
(b) 15 m
(c) 0 or stationary, since the slope of the graph at t = 20 s is equal to zero
8. (a) To determine at which section of the graph the bicycle has the highest speed, we must
determine the section of the graph with the steepest slope.
The slope (speed) between A and B:
15 0
m=

30

(b)

= 5 m s1
The slope (speed) between B and C is 0, since this section is a horizontal line.
The slope (speed) between C and D:


m=

25 15
75

= 5 m s1
The slope (speed) between D and E:
m =

0 25
97

= 12.5 m s1

325

Answers

The slope (speed) between E and F:

m=

15 0
10 9

= 15 m s1
Therefore, during the section between E and F, the bicycle is travelling at the highest speed,
15 m s1.
(b) At t = 7.0 s and t 9.0 s, the bicycle reverses its direction of motion.
(c) 15 m
9. (a) The vehicle is at first travelling at a constant velocity of 30 m s1 for 20 s. It then decelerates for
20 s to come to a stop.
(b) By calculating the slope of the graph:

m=

0 30
40 20

= 1.5 m s2
Hence the acceleration of the object at t = 30 s is 1.5 m s2, against the initial velocity.
(c) The distance the object has travelled in 40 s will equal the area under the curve up to t = 40.0 s;
hence:
(20 + 40 ) 30
area under curve =
2
= 900 m
10. (a) To determine the height of the lift at t = 12 s, we need to calculate the displacement of the lift at
12 seconds, which is essentially the area under the curve up to t = 12.0 s:
(4 + 12) 10
2
= 80 m
(b) Similarly, the area under the curve, and hence the displacement, at t = 32 s is:

(20 + 32) 10
2
= 260 m
(c) The velocity of the lift is 0 from 32 s to 40 shence the lift has not moved. Therefore its height
will remain the same at 260 m.
(d) The gradient of the graph at t = 24 s is zero. Hence the lift is not accelerating and is moving at a
constant velocity of 10 m s1 at t = 24 s.
(e) By calculating the slope of the graph,

area under curve (trapezium) =

area under curve (trapezium) =

m=

0 10
32 28

= 2.5 m s2
Hence the acceleration of the lift at t = 30 s is 2.5 m s2, downwards.

(f) Total area = area of trampezium 1 + area of trampezium 2


(20 + 32) 10
(16 + 4 ) 10
=
+ [
]
2
2
= 160 m

326

chapter 13

Chapter 13

T5

T4

T3

T2

T1

Engine

4
3 to speed up
2 or slow 1down, or change direction, shape
1. Force is a push or a 5pull. It causes
an object
or configuration.
2. Change in velocity = final velocity initial velocity
40 km hr1

60 km hr1

40 km hr

60 km hr1

=
R

40 km hr1

Figure 13.32

R=

40 + 60
2

60 km hr1

40 km hr

60 km hr1

=
R

= 72 km hr1

60
tan =
40
= 56 east of south as shown
Hence the change in velocity is 72 km hr1, at 146o (56 + 90o).
3. Newtons first law of motion states that a body will continue to move at a constant velocity or remain
stationary unless it is being acted upon by a net (resultant) force. This resistance to change in motion is
commonly described as inertia; hence, Newtons first law of motion is also known as the law of inertia.
4. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
A13.41d corr
5. Newtons second law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net
unbalanced force acting on the 2x
object and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
6. (a)
x
60

45 N

15 N

x
60

45 N
y

10 m

30 N

25 m
15 N

50 N

Figure 13.33 (a)

R = 152 + 152
= 21 N

2x
15
15
x
x
tan = 1
45 N
60 60
= 45
y
Hence the net force is 21 N, at an angle of 135 T.

tan =

45 N
y

327

Answers
=

60 km hr1

(b)
10 m

30 N

25 m
40 km hr-1
50 N

Figure 13.33 (b)


-1

40 km hr

R = 25 10
= 15 N 60
to km
thehr-1left

(c)

-60 km hr-1

2x

x
60

45 N
30 N

x
60 R

45 N
y

50 N
Figure 13.33(c)

R=

50 2 + 30 2

= 58 N

45 N
y

50
30
= 59
Hence the force is 58 N, acting at an angle of 121 T

tan =

(d)
2x
x
60

45 N
y

x
60

45 N
y

Figure 13.33 (d)

Since the top two vectors are symmetrical, after vector resolution, their horizontal components
(y) cancel out. This leaves the vertical components, which are then added to third vector.
x
cos 60 =
45

x = 22.5 N
2 x = 45 N up
Adding 2x to the third vector, which is 45 N down, the resultant force (R) is 0.

328

chapter 13

F
m
F = 50 N
m = 0.020 kg
50
a=
0.020
a = 2.5 103 m s2 in the direction of the net force
8. a = F
m
F = 5.0 10 27 N
7. a =

m = 1.67 10 27 kg
a=

5.0 10 27
1.67 10 27

a = 2.99 m s2
v = u + at
t = 220 s
u = 3 10 3 m s1
v = 3 10 3 + 2.99 220
v = 3.66 10 3 m s1
vu
9. a =
t
v = 0 m s1
u = 30 m s 1
t = 6 seconds
0 30
a=
6
a = 5.0 m s 2
vu
10. (a) a =
t
v = 58 m s1
u = 0 m s1
t = 12 seconds
58 0
a=
12
a = 4.83 m s2
F = ma
m = 3.4 10 3 kg
a = 4.83 m s2
F = 1.64 10 4 N

329

Answers

(b) Required engine thrust = 3.0 10 2 + 1.64 10 4

= 1.67 10 4 N
11. (a) The force acting on the brick down along the surface of the roof (Wp) can be obtained by
resolving the weight force of the brick. Once the force is known, acceleration can then be
calculated.

Wp

Wn

25
25

Figure 13.34

W = mg
W = 2 9.8
= 19.8 N
Wx = W sin 25
= 8.28 N

F
m
m = 2 kg
F = 8.28 N
a=

8.28
2
a = 4.14 m s2 down the plane of the roof
a=

(b) v = u + at
a = 4.14 m s2
u = 0 m s1
t = 1.4 seconds
v = 0 + 4.14 1.4

v = 5.80 m s1
12. Newtons third law states that for every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction
force.

330

chapter 13

13. (a) W = mg
m = 2 kg

g = 9.8 m s2
W = 2 9.8
= 19.6 N down
(b) 19.6 N up (to perfectly balance the weight of the book)
mv2
r
Fcr
v=
m
Fc = 2.20 10 2

14. Fc =

r = 2.10 m
m = 4.00 kg
2.20 10 2 2.10
4.00
1
= 10.7 m s

v=

15. (a)

a=

F
mtotal

mtotal = 5 4.0 10 3 + 1.0 10 4 = 3.0 10 4 kg


F = 3.0 10 4 N
a=

3.0 10 4 N
3.0 10 4 kg

a = 1.0 m s 2

(b) Couple 3 (T3 ) is pulling three carriages; therefore the tension is equal to:
F = ma
m = 3 4.0 103 = 1.2 104 kg

a = 1.0 m s2
F = 1.2 10 4 kg 1.0 m s2
F = 1.2 10 4 N

Couple 5 (T5 ) is pulling one carriage; therefore the tension is equal to:
F = ma

m = 4.0 103 kg
a = 1.0 m s2
F = 4.0 10 3 N

331

Answers

16. Table 13.3

Force (N)

Mass (kg)

Acceleration
(m s2)

10

10

1.0

10

50

1.5

6.0

60

3.0 3 102

1.5

3.0

0.50

2.8

2.8

1.0

vu
a
v = 16 m s1

u = 0 m s1
a = 0.80 m s2
16 0
0.80
t = 20 s
t=

(b) x = ut +

1 2
at
2

u = 0 m s1
a = 0.80 m s2
t = 20 s
1
0.80 20 2
2
= 160 m
(c)
2 minutes = 120 s
1
160 m + 16 m s 3 (120 s) = 2.08 3 103 m
18. (a) By calculating the area under the curve up to each point:
x= 0+

10 10
= 50 m s1
2
10 20
= 100 m s1
B=
2
C = 100 m s 1 (no acceleration)
A=

10 20 15 5

= 62.5 m s 1
2
2
10 20
15 10
E =

= 25 m s1
2
2
1
F = 25 m s (no acceleration)

D=

332

Displacement (m)
after 10 s (starting
from rest)

9.0

17. (a) t =

Velocity (m s1)
after 10 s (starting
from rest)

5.0
10

25
50

Velocity (m s1)

chapter 14

120
110

100

90
80
70
D

60
A

50
40
30
20

40

50

10
0

10

20

30

60

80
Time (s)

Figure 13.35

(b) After 50 seconds the lift has gone up (it is above its starting position) as the area under the velocitytime graph is positive.

Chapter 14
1. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. See Chapter 14.
2. The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be
transformed or transmitted.
3. As stated by the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created. The kinetic energy generated
must be derived from another form of energy source, in this case from the rats burning food through a
series of biochemical reactions. Hence the kinetic energy obtained is not free and is derived from the
chemical energy stored in the food. Further, growing and processing food is not necessarily a clean
process, and neither is the biochemical process for the rats to digest the food to generate the energy.
4. (a) Kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy.
(b) Nuclear energy to kinetic energy, then to electrical energy.
(c) Electrical energy to light and heat energy.
(d) Electrical energy to sound energy.
5. W = Fs
F = 360 N
s = 64 m
W = 360 64
=
6. W =
F =
s=

2.30 10 4 J
Fs
30 N
6m

W = 30 6
= 180 J
7. W = Fs
F = 100 N
s = 1.2 m
W = 100 1.2
= 120 J

333

Answers

8. (a)

truck

In order to push the chest up the ramp,


the force that needs to be applied along
the ramp (Fp) needs to be at least equal
to the component of the weight force that
is acting parallel down the ramp (mgp).

chest
Fp

Wp(mgp)

ramp

4m

0.8 m

To find the weight force acting parallel to the ramp:


W p = W sin
W p = W sin
W = mg
W
mg kg
m=
= 120
m = 120 kg 2
g = 9.8 m s
9.8 m s92.8 = 1176 N
Wg =
= 120
W = 120 9.8 = 1176 N
0.8
sin = 0.8 = 0.2
sin = 4 = 0.2
4

W p = 1176 0.2
W p = 1176 0.2
= 235.2 N
= 235.2 N
ii)
ii) the50work
To find
done:
m
W = Fps
W = Fps
= (235.2) 4
= (235.2) 2 4
= 9.4 10 J
= 9.4 102 J

22 m

Note W is often used in Physics to mean both weight and work. Students should be clear
which is being used.

(b) E p = mgh
m = 120 kg
g = 9.8 m s2
h = 0.8 m
E p = 120 9.8 0.8
= 9.4 10 2 J

334

chapter 14

(c) The value calculated in (a) is the same the as that calculated in (b). This comes as no
surprise as the gravitational potential energy gained by the chest is derived from the work
done on it.
(d) No. It is evident from the calculations that whether the chest is pushed up the ramp or lifted
straight up, the energy required is 9.4 3 102 J.
1
mv 2
2
m = 1 600 kg

9. E k =

v = 15 m s 1
1
E k = 1600 152
2
= 1.8 10 5 J
1
mv 2
2
m = 14 kg

10. E k =

v = 0 .42 m s1
1
E k = 14 0.422
2
= 1.2 J
11. (a) E k = Final E k Initial E k
1
1
mvf 2 mvi2
2
2
1
= m (vf 2 vi 2 )
2
m = 0.2 kg

Ek =

vf = 1 m s

vi = 1 m s1
1
0.2 [( 1)2 12 ]
2
= 0J

Ek =

(b) Similarly:
1
E k = m (vf 2 vi 2 )
2
m = 0.2 kg

v f = 0.5 m s1
vi = 1 m s1

1
0.2 [( 0.5)2 12 ]
2
= 0.075 J
Hence 0.075 J of kinetic energy has been lost after
hitting the wall.
Ek =

1
mv 2
2
m = 60 kg

12. (a) E k =

v = 10 m s1
1
E k = 60 10 2
2
0 10 3 J
= 3.0

(b) The work done by the athlete is equal to the kinetic energy gained. Hence the work done is
equal to 3.0 3 103 J.

335

Answers

W
s
W = 3.0 103 N
d = 5.0 m

(c) F =

3.0 103
5. 0
= 6.0 102 N
13. The kinetic energy the skateboarder possesses while travelling at 9.0 m s1 will equal:
F =

1
mv 2
2
m = 65 kg

Ek =

v = 9.0 m s1

1
65 9.0 2
2
= 2.6 10 3 J
To bring the skateboarder to a stop, an equal amount of energy is required to act in the opposite
direction so that the final kinetic energy of the skateboard is zero. Hence the work required is 2.6 3 103 J.
14. (a) The kinetic energy (Ek) gained is equal to the work done (W) on the sack.
Ek =

W
F
d
W

=
=
=
=

Fs
4.4 N
0.65 m
4.4 0.65

= 2.86 J
Hence Ek = W = 2.86 J.

11
2
(b) E
E kk =
= 2 mv
mv 2
2
E
E kk
22
vv =
=
m
m
.
E
=
2
86
E kk = 2.86 JJ
m = 20 kg
m = 20 kg
22..86
86
22
vv =
=
20
20
1
0
.
53
m
vv =
= 0.53 m ss 1

15. (a) E p = mgh


m = 400 kg
g = 9.8 m s2
h = 12 m
E p = 400 9.8 12
= 4.7 10 4 J

336

chapter 15

(b) The work done to raise the pile driver to 12 m high is equal to the gravitational potential
energy gained by the pile driver when it is at that height.

W = Ep
W = 4.7 10 4 J

(c) When released and fallen by 12 m, the gravitational potential energy gained will be
converted to kinetic energy (since there is no friction), which increases the speed of the
pile driver.
E k = E p = 4.7 10 4 J
1
mv 2
2
Ek 2
v =
m

Ek =

47 040 2
400
= 15.3 m s 1
=

16. The work required to stop the car is equal to (equally opposing) the kinetic energy of the car,
which is proportional to the square of its speed. Hence, doubling the speed of the car will cause
its kinetic energy to increase by four times. This means the work required to stop the car will also
be increased by four times. Since work is equal to the product of distance and force, and assuming
that the brake force remains constant, a four-fold increase in the work required will lead to a four
times increase in the distance the car will skid before coming to rest. Hence, the car would skid for
a distance of 160 m (40 3 4) if it were travelling at 60 km hr1.

Chapter 15
1. Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. A large momentum indicates that the
object has a large mass or is moving very fast.
2. p = mv
m = 5.4 10 3 kg
v = 25 m s1
p = 5.4 10 3 25
p = 1.4 10 5 kg m s1 south
3. p = m (v u)
m = 0.200 kg
u = 50.0 m s1
v = 50.0 m s11
p = 0.200 (50 50)
= 20 kg m s1

337

Answers

4. p = m (v u)
u = 0 m s1
v = 20 m s1 down
m = 80 kg
p = 80 (20 0)
= 1.6 10 3 kg m s1 down
5. p = mv
p1 = 3.0 5.0 = 15 kg m s1 north
p2 = 4.0 3.0 = 12 kg m s1 south
p3 = 4.0 2.5 = 10 kg m s1 north
The total momentum is the vector sum of p1, p2 and p3, which is equal to
ptotal = 15 + (12) + 10
= 13 kg m s1 north
6. (a) Impulse is defined as the product of net force by the time over which a force is exerted on an
object.
(b) Since impulse is equal to the product of net force and time, it can be increased by:
increasing the net force acting on the object
increasing the time over which the net force acts
a combination of both of the above
(c) A large impulse implies that the object will have a large change in its momentum as

7. I
F
t
I

I = p.
= Ft
= 124 N
= 0.031 s
= 124 0.031

= 3.84 N s
8. The completed table.
Table 15.2

Momentum of
the object before
collision (kg m s1)

338

Momentum of the
object after collision
(kg m s1)

Change in
momentum as a
result of collision
(kg m s1)

Impulse acting on
the object (N s)

Average force acting


on the object if the
time duration is
2 s (N)

40

20

20

20

10

20

36

16

16

295

95

200

200

100

370

90.0

460

460

230

chapter 15

9. (a) p = m (v u)
m = 6.0 10 2 kg
v = 30 m s1
u = 15 m s1
p = 6.0 10 2 ( 30 15)
= 9.0 10 3 kg m s 1 in the direrction of the motion

(b) As the impulse is equivalent to the change in momentum of the motorbike, the impulse on the
motor bike is 9.0 3 103 N s in the direction of motion.

(c) F =

I
t
I = 9.0 10 3 N s
t = 0.30 s
9.0 10 3 N s
0.30
= 3.0 10 4 N

F =

10. Impulse is equal to the change in momentum. Calculate the change in momentum first:
p = m ( v u)
m = 0.125 kg

u = 20.0 m s1
v = 15.0 m s1
p = 0.125 (15.0 20.0)
p = 4.38 kg m s1
I = 4.38 N s

Or 4.38 N s in the opposite direction to the initial direction of the ball.

11. (a)
p
p=
m ((vv u
u))
=m
m
m=
= 65
65 kg
kg
1
vv =
0
m
= 0 m ss1

1
own
wn
u=
= 11
u
11 m
m ss1 d
do

p
p=
= 65
65
((00 11
11))
1
=
= 717
717 kg
kg m
m ss1 (not
(not rounded
rounded off)
off)
Since
the
change
in
momentum
(p)
Since the change in momentum (p) is
is equal
equal to
to the
the impulse
impulse (I)
(I)

II =
= 717
717 N
N ss
II
F
F =
= t
t
tt =
0
= 0..50
50 ss
717
717
F
=
Fnet
=
net
00..50
50
3
3

=
1
= 1..44
10
10 3 N,
N, or
or 11..44
10
10 3 N
N up
up

339

Answers

(b) Similarly
I
F =
t
I = 716.53 N s

t = 0.010s
717
F =
0.010
F = 7.2 10 4 N or 7.2 10 4 N up
12. (a) The total impulse acting on the object is determined by calculating the area under the curve for
this graph.
area = area of the triangle + area of the trapezium + area of the rectangle
20 1000 (1000 + 600) 20

=
+
+ 15 600
2
2
= 3.5 10 4 N s
(b) Since impulse is equal to the change in momentum, the change in momentum in this case is
equal to 3.5 3 104 kg m s1

(c) p = m v
p
v =
m
p = 3.5 10 4 kg m s1
m = 2.00 kg

3.5 10 4
2.00
= 1.75 10 2 m s 1 (since u = 0 this is the final speed, v)
13. The change in momentum (p ) and the impulse I is the same in both cases, as the fast-moving
ball must eventually come to rest. Since I = Ft, for a constant impulse, making the stopping time
10 times shorter means that the force experienced must be 10 times greater.
14. Since the rifle-bullet system is a closed system, its total momentum should be conserved, in other words,
it should have no change. The total momentum of the rifle and the bullet before the shooting is 0 (since
nothing is moving); therefore, the total momentum after the firing of the bullet should also be 0.
v =

ptotal = mRv R + m Bv B
=0
mB = 0.010 kg
v B = 800 m s1

m R = 4.50 kg
4.50 vR + (0.010 800) = 0
vR = 1.8 m s1

Therefore the recoil speed is 1.8 m s1, in the opposite direction.


15. (a) According to Newtons third law, the astronaut needs to throw the spanner backwards in order
to help being propelled forward to return to the spacecraft.

340

chapter 15

(b) Consider the astronaut and the spanner a closed system. The total momentum of the system
before and after the throw is conserved and is equal to 0. This is a direct consequence of the
law of conversation of momentum.
ptotal = mAv A + m S v S
=0
mS = 0.20 kg

v S = 10 m s1
mA = 100 kg
100 v A + (0.20 10) = 0
vA = 0.02 m s1

Or 0.02 m s1 in the opposite direction to which the spanner is thrown towards the spacecraft.
16. (a) The total momentum of the two trolleys before the collision (pi) can be found by adding the
momentum of the trolleys:
pi = m1v 1 + m2v 2
m1 = 4.0 kg
v 1 = 2.5 m s1

m 2 = 1.0 kg
v 2 = 0 m s1
p i = 4 2.5 + 1 0

= 10 kg m s1 in the direction of the first trolley


(b) Extrapolating from the law of conservation of momentum, the total momentum before and after
the collision should be equal. Hence the total momentum of the two trolleys after the collision
is 10 kg m s1.
Knowing themomentum of the two trolleys aftter thecollision (pf )and the total mass, the velocity
(c) Knowing the momentum of the two trolleys after the collision
(pf ) and the total mass, the
can becalculated
velocity
can be :calculated:

p f = mv
10 kg m s1 = (4.0 kg + 1.0 kg) v
v = 2.0 m s 1 in the direction of the first trolley
17. We first calculate the initial total momentum of the bullet and the soft ball (pi).
pi = m ballvball + m bulletv bullet
m ball = 0.200 kg
vball = 0 m s1

m bullet = 0.010 kg
v bullet = 400 m s 1
pi = 0.200 0 + 0.010 400

= 4.0 kg m s1
According to the law of conservation of momentum, the initial total momentum is equal to the final
total momentum, pi = pf.
Knowing the final total momentum of the ball and bullet (pf ) and the total mass, the velocity can
be calculated:

341

Answers

p f = m ball and bullet v ball and bullet


4.0 kg m s1 = (0.010 kg + 0.200 kg) vball and bullet


vball and bullet =

4.0 kg m s1
0.210 kg

= 19.0 m s1
18. The initial speed (momentum) of the arrow can be calculated from the initial total momentum of
the wooden block and the arrow (pi), which is equal to the final total momentum after the strike
(pf ), according to the law of conservation of momentum.
p f = marrow and blockv arrow and block
= (0.030 kg + 1.0 kg) 5.0 m s1
= 5.15 kg m s1 (not rounded off)
pi = m arrowv arrow + m blockv block
pi = p f = 5.15 kg m s1
m arrow = 0.030 kg
m block = 1.0 kg
v block = 0 m s1
5.15 = 0.030 kg varrow + 1.0 kg 0 m s1
varrow = 1.7 10 2 m s1
19. (a) First, calculate the total momentum of the two cars before the collision (pi).

pi = mAvA 1 mBVB
mA = 1500 kg

70.0 3 1000 (convert to m s1)

vA =

3600

= 19.44 m s1
mB = 1500 kg
40 3 1000
= 11.11 m s1

vB =

3600

pi = 1500 3 19.44 1 1500 3 (11.11)

= 1.25 3 104 kg m s1 to the east
According to the law of conservation of momentum, the total momentum after the collision (pf ) is:

p f = pi = 1.25 104 kg m s 1 to the east

(b) Knowing the total momentum of two cars after the collision (pf) and their total masses, their
velocity can be found:
p f = mwreck vwreck

1.25 10 4 kg m s1 = (1500 kg + 1500 kg) vwreck


1.25 10 4
3000
= 4.17 m s1 east

vwreck =

342

chapter 15

(c) The kinetic energy of the first car is equal to:


1 2
mv
2
m = 1500 kg

Ek =

v = 19.44 m s1
1
44 2
E k = 1500 19.4
2
E k = 2.84 10 5 J

The kinetic energy of the second car:


1
E k = mv 2
2
m = 1500 kg
v = 11.44 m s1 (absolute value as energy is not a vector quantity)
1
(1500 ) (11.44)2
2
E k = 9.26 10 4 J
Ek =

The initial total kinetic energy is the sum of the initial kinetic energy of each of the cars.

E k = 2.84 10 5 + 9.26 10 4

= 3.77 10 5 J
The total final kinetic energy:
1
m v 2
2 wreck wreck
= 1500 + 1500 = 3000 kg

Ek =
mwreck

v wreck = 4.17 m s1
1
m
v 2
2 wreck wreck
1
= 3000 (4.17)2
2
= 2.61 104 J

Ek =

The amount of kinetic energy converted into other forms of energy during the collision is the
change in kinetic energy before and after the collision:

Ek = 3.77 3 105 J 2.61 3 104 J

= 3.51 3 105 J
20. Knowing the mass of the two blocks and their velocity after the collision, we can determine the
final momentum of the two blocks (pf):

p f = m 2 blocks v2 blocks
v 2 blocks = 5.50 m s1
m 2 blocks = 0.500 kg + 0.300 kg = 0.800 kg
p f = 0.800 5.50
p f = 4.40 kg m s1
Using the law of conservation of momentum, the initial momentum is equal to the final momentum;
343
pi = p f = 4.40 kg m s1
pi = mAv A + mBvB

m 2 blocks = 0.500 kg + 0.300 kg = 0.800 kg


Answers

p f = 0.800 5.50
p f = 4.40 kg m s1

Using the law of conservation of momentum, the initial momentum is equal to the final momentum;
pi = p f = 4.40 kg m s1

pi = mAv A + mBvB
mA = 0.500 kg
v A = 5.00 m s1
mB = 0.300 kg
vB = ?
4.40 = 0.500 5.00 + 0.300 vB
vB = 6.33 m s1

Hence the initial speed of block B is 6.33 m s1.

Chapter 16
1. (a) Inertia is the tendency for an object to remain in its original motion. It is a direct consequence
of Newtons first law of motion.
(b) A bike will keep moving along a road even if the rider has a rest from pedalling for a short
time; long jumpers rely on the inertia they have gained during the sprint phase to help them
move forwards when they jump.
(c) A car tries to stop when a child runs out onto the road; a passenger in a car continues to move
forward when the car is involved in a crash and stops quickly.
2. Newtons first law does not seem to be apparent in this case (in fact in most cases) due to
the friction forcea net forceacting on the ball to oppose its motion. Friction cannot be
eliminated; therefore the ball will not be able to maintain a constant speed without any input
of force.
3. (a) While the car comes to rest almost instantaneously, Janes inertia results in her continuing to
move forward. Following this path of motion, Jane may hit the dashboard or the windscreen of
the car.
(b) In this case, the abnormal deceleration inflates the air bags. The inflated air bags prevent
Sam and Jane coming into contact with hard parts of the car, especially their heads against
the steering wheel and the dashboard. The air bags also effectively increase the time taken
(and the distance) for Sam and Jane to come to a stop. The air bags act as a deflating
cushion, reducing the maximum force applied to Sam and Janes bodies by increasing the
time of the deceleration. The air bags helped reduce the chance of fatal head injuries in this
accident.
4. The crumple zone is designed to deform during a collision. Such a deformity will lengthen the
time interval over which the momentum of the vehicle and its occupants are brought to zero. This
decreases the maximum net force experienced by the occupants during the collision.
1
mv 2
2
m = 1.4 10 3 kg

5. (a) E k =

v = 40.0 km h1 = 11.1 m s1
E k = 0.5 (1.4 10 3 ) 11.12
= 8.6 10 4 J

344

chapter 17

(b) To stop the car, the work done needs to equal to the kinetic energy of the car:
W= F s
= Ek
E k = 8.6 10 4 J
F = 3.6 10 3 N

8.6 10 4
3.6 10 3
= 24 m

(c) Similarly:
W= F s
= Ek
s=

Ek =

1 2
mv
2

= 0.5 (1.4 10 3 ) (

60 1000 2
)
3600

= 1.9 10 5 J
F = 3.6 10 3 N
1.9 10 5
3.6 10 3
= 54 m

(d) A 20 km hr1 speed reduction from 60 km hr1 to 40 km hr1 has reduced the stopping distance
by more than half. This means that in the case of a child suddenly running onto the road, there
is a higher chance of the car being able to stop in time to avoid a potentially fatal collision.
6. Choose two from the following: anti-lock braking system (ABS), electronic brake distribution (EBD),
electronic vehicle stability control (ESC), cruise control with radar or corner-sensing headlights. For
detail, see Chapter 16.
s=

The cosmic engine


Chapter 17
1. Use the information in this chapter and construct a flow chart showing the advances in
chronological order.
2. Geocentric models had the Earth at the centre of the Universe with the Moon, Sun, planets (which
were visible at the time) and stars revolving around it. Later geocentric models became very
complex, using epicycles or circles on circles, to explain the observed motions of these bodies.
Heliocentric models also used circles for the orbits of the bodies in motion, but had the Sun at the
centre. These models do not require such complex epicycles and can be explained using gravity as
the force holding the bodies in their orbits rather than transparent spheres.
3. (a) In observing the four largest moons of Jupiter orbiting their parent planet, Galileo was able to
show that not everything revolved around the Earth, as geocentric models proposed.

345

Answers

(b) Galileo made observations no one had made before because he refined and was the first to use
the telescope.
4. As has been stated, the complicated epicycles used in later geocentric models were required to fully
explain the better, more refined observations of the planets motions through the night sky. As more
accurate observations were made, more epicycles were needed.
5. Useful websites for this question are provided here.

WWW<

USEFUL WEBSITES:
Australian Astronomy site:
http://www.astronomy.org.au/ngn/engine.php
Astronomy.com site:
http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
NASAs home page:
http://www.nasa.gov/lb/home/index.html
The European Space Agencys home page:
http://www.esa.int/esaCP/index.html

Chapter 18
1. Friedmann predicted that the Universe is expanding. This prediction was made without evidence.
It was made to answer the question, Why is gravity not contracting the Universe into itself?
2. Hubble observed the red shift of the spectra of distant galaxies that could only be explained by
these galaxies moving away from us. The further away the galaxy, the faster it is receding.
3. Energy can be converted into matter and vice versa. They are linked by the relationship E = mc2
whereby a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy.
4. The Big Bang was the event that created the Universe. In an instant, all the energy in the Universe
came into being, and shortly afterwards condensed into matter.
5. For information to respond to this question, you should practise making a concise summary of the
details shown on page 272.
6. The Big Bang did not originally spread matter out in a perfectly even distribution. The slightly
denser regions were able to contract under the influence of gravity once the particles had slowed
sufficiently (by cooling).
7. Suggested resources include:
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_theory.html
http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/
http://universeadventure.org/eras/media/conseq-calendar.swf

8. The way in which a gas expands when it is cooled has many practical applications. These include
refrigerators, air conditioners and in liquefying gases. In the same way, as the Universe expanded,
its density and pressure decreased. The particles lost kinetic energy, and thus a decrease in
temperature occurred. The more the Universe expanded, the more it cooled.

Chapter 19
1. The dominant wavelength will decrease with increasing temperature.
2. As the temperature increases so that green is the dominant wavelength being emitted, sufficient red
and blue is also being emitted, along with the green. The human eye perceives such a mixture of
colours as whitenot green.
3. The lower down a HertzsprungRussell diagram, the less luminous the star. The further to the
right, the cooler the star. Such a star is likely to be a red Main Sequence star, or red dwarf, fusing
hydrogen nuclei in its core.

346

chapter 20

4. Stars that are white have approximately the same surface temperature. The lower group of stars
must be less luminous by being smaller. White dwarf stars are such starsthey form a group below
the white Main Sequence stars on a HertzsprungRussell diagram.
5. The intensity of radiation emitted from a source changes as the square of the inverse of the distance
from the source.
6. Main Sequence stars are fusing hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei in their cores. White dwarf stars
have no nuclear reaction occurring in themthey are the residue of former stars left to radiate their
heat energy through their relatively small surface areas. This makes their surfaces sufficiently hot to
appear whiteuntil they cool further.
7. The brightness of any star is (a) proportional to its luminosity and (b) obeys the inverse square
law.

Chapter 20
1. These differences can be explained by the nature of the radiation:
(a) Alpha particles have a charge of +2 electrons (due to the two protons) and have much more
mass than beta particles. They are far more likely to interact with matter and knock electrons
out of their orbitscausing ionisation easily but with little penetrating power. They are
deflected when moving through electric and magnetic fields, as a force is exerted on moving
charges in these fields.
(b) Beta particles, electrons, have a charge of 1 and very little mass. They can still knock electrons
out of their orbits but are less likely to do so. They can penetrate matter better than the larger,
more massive, alpha particles. With less mass, they are deflected far more than alpha particles
when moving through electric or magnetic fields, but in the opposite direction as their charge is
opposite.
(c) Gamma rays are not particles and do not have charge. They interact weakly with matter and
so can penetrate much further than beta particles; however, without mass, it is more difficult
for gamma rays to cause ionisation. Without charge, they are unaffected by electric or magnetic
fields.
2. The energy associated with the release of nuclear radiation comes from the nucleus itself. The
kinetic energy imparted to alpha and beta particles results in less energy in the nucleus. A nucleus
that emits a gamma ray will have its energy reduced by the same energy contained in the gamma
ray.
3. (a) When an alpha particle is emitted, the remaining nucleus will have two fewer protons and two
fewer neutrons.
(b) When a beta particle is emitted, a neutron has turned into a proton and an electron. Thus the
remaining nucleus will have one fewer neutron but one more proton.
4. The spontaneous transformation of a neutron into a proton and an electron (which is immediately
emitted from the nucleus) is how a beta particle is formed. The electron never really existed in the
nucleusas soon as it formed it is ejected.
5. (a) The solar wind is mostly composed of protons, with a small percentage being electrons and
ions of small atoms.
(b) The solar wind can vary in speed from around 300800 km s1. In times of low solar activity, the
speed is lower. Coronal mass ejections usually boost the speed of the solar wind to its upper
limits.
(c) The solar wind originates from the Suns coronaan extremely hot region of low-density
particles, extending up to a million kilometres into space around the Sun. The high speed of the
particles allows them to escape the Suns gravity.
6. Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding photosphere (visible surface) of the Sun by several
hundred to one thousand degrees. Alone, they would be seen as being bright, but the surrounding
photosphere is brighter, so they appear dark.

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Answers

7. The number of sunspots visible varies with the solar cycle, as does the speed and intensity of the
solar wind. Aurora events in the geographic north and south polar regions of Earth, triggered by
solar storms hitting the Earth, also vary in frequency and intensity with the sunspot cycle (see
Chapter 20, Fig. 20.10).
8. The variations in the Earths magnetic field may cause compasses to fluctuate and cause currents to
flow in long electricity transmission lines, leading to the overloading of transformers or to circuits
being cut. This may cause blackouts. Another event might be the aurora: glowing lights in the night
sky may be observed from polar regions (see Chapter 20, Fig. 20.10).

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