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Introduction

The word sericulture is derived from the Greek word sericos


meaning silk and the English word culture meaning rearing.
Sericulture is a unique combination of art and science of raising
silkworm which foam a protective covering called cocoon on boiling
the cocoon. the silk figment is unwinded and reeled in to the
continuous filament called the silk. Sericulture is a science which
deals with various aspects of silkworms. Its an agro based cottage
industry, the end product of which is silk. Mulberry silk is also called
Mori silk whereas, Non mulberry silk is called Vanya silk. Three main
branches of Sericulture are:
1. Moriculture (Mulberry cultivation) - Host plant cultivation, mainly
Agronomic aspects.
2. Silkworm rearing- has two branches- Grainage technology (egg
production) and Silkworm rearing (larval stage management)
3. Silk Reeling and weaving- Industrial aspects, cocoon onwards.
What is silk?
It is a natural protein fibre secreted by silkworms in form a thread
about 4001500m long, spun into a cocoon shell (protection to pupa inside)
Silk 2 proteins i.e. Fibroin inner core comprising 75% of silk Sericin
- outer gum comprising 25% of silk
These silk proteins are synthesized by silk glands present in
silkworms.
Besides proteins, silk has small residues of fat, resin, minerals and
waxy
materials. Silk is Queen of Textiles. sericulture refer to
the
conscious mass - scale rearing of silk production.
Mulberry silk, Non-mulberry silk are Tasar , Eri. Muga Out of which
mulberry silk constituted of 95% of the total silk and other contribute
05%.

History of sericulture

Historical evidence shows that silk was discovered in China and that
the industry spread from there to other parts of the world.

SILK DISCOVERY SECRETEThe Chinese has used silk since


the 27th century B.C..During the Roman Empire, silk was sold for its
weight in gold. The Chinese domesticated silk worms and fed them
with mulberry leaves. They unwound the silkworms' cocoons to
produce long strands of silk fiber. Silk is one of the oldest fibers
known to man. Its discovery as a weave able fiber is credited to the
Lady Xi Ling Shi, the 14-year-old bride of the Emperor Huang Ti, the
so-called 'Yellow Emperor' .One day in 2640BC, according to
Confucius, she was sitting under a mulberry tree, drinking a
cup of tea into which a silk cocoon fell from above. She
noticed the delicate fibers start to unravel in the hot liquid
and has been credited as the first person to 'reel' or unravel a
silk cocoon and use the filament to create a yarn for weaving.
Whether or not the legend holds true, it is certain that the earliest
surviving references to silk production place it in China and that for
nearly 3 millennia, the Chinese had a global monopoly on silk
production. The Chinese kept the secret of the beautiful and value
added material that, they were producing from the rest of the world
for more than 30 centuries. Travellers were searched thoroughly at
border crossings and anyone caught trying to smuggle eggs, cocoons
or silkworms out of the country were summarily executed. Demand
for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now
known as the 'Silk Road,'. of which mention is made as early as
300BC in the days of the Han Dynasty, taking silk westward and
bringing gold, silver and wools to the East.Silk was exported along the
Silk Road (the ancient trade route linking China and the
Roman Empire). This trade brought China a great wealth, but the
Chinese did not give away the secret on how silk was produced. The
Chinese could not keep their monopoly forever. The industry is said to
have spread to Tibet where a Chinese princess, carrying silkworm
eggs and mulberry tree seeds in her headdress, married the king of
Khotan in Tibet. From Tibet the industry spread slowly to India and
Persia .According to Western historians, mulberry-tree cultivation
spread to India through Tibet during 140 BC and cultivation of

mulberry trees, rearing of silkworms began in the areas flanking the


Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers. According to some Indian scholars
silkworms (Bombyx mori) were first domesticated in the foothills of
the Himalayas. Evidences in ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that
certain kind of wild silks were cultivated in India from time
immemorial. When British came to India, the flourishing silk trade
exploited and developed silk centres in many parts of the country.
The Company exported large quantities of silk produced in West
Bengal to England. The Companys monopoly was abolished in 1836
and the entire trade turned over to private enterprise, due to
improper organized system the silk industry in West Bengal declined.
By the time other silk producing states in the country viz., Jammu &
Kashmir,
Mysore
have
developed
the
industry.

COUNTRIES TO LEARN SECRET OF SILK


KOREA -

In spite of their secrecy, however, the Chinese


were destined to lose their monopoly on silk production.
Sericulture reached Korea around 200 BC, when waves of
Chinese immigrants arrived there.
JAPAN Then the secret of silk came to Japan it was said
that during 300 B.C. there was a Japanese General named as
semiramus who Conquered Korea. Among his prisoners some
were sericulturist whom he took to Japan and started
sericulture in Japan.
TIBET - The Chinese could not keep their monopoly forever.
The industry is said to have spread to Tibet when a Chinese
princess, carrying silkworm eggs and mulberry tree seeds in
her headdress, married the king of Khotan in Tibet.
INDIA - From Tibet the industry spread slowly to India and
Persia. According to Western historians, mulberry-tree
cultivation spread to India through Tibet during 140 BC and
cultivation of mulberry trees, rearing of silkworms began in
the areas flanking the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers.
According to some Indian scholars silkworms (Bombyxmori)

were first domesticated in the foothills of the Himalayas.


Evidences in ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that certain
kind of wild silks were cultivated in India from time
immemorial. When British came to India, the flourishing silk
trade exploited and developed silk centers in many parts of
the country. The Company exported large quantities of silk
produced in West Bengal to England. The Companys
monopoly was abolished in 1836 and the entire trade turned
over to private enterprise, due to improper organized system
the silk industry in West Bengal declined. By the time other
silk producing states in the country viz., Jammu & Kashmir,
Mysore have developed the industry.
About two and half centuries ago silk was introduced into
Karnataka by Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the State. Today it is
the biggest silk producing centre in India. the common
people were able to wear garments of silk. Silk was as
valuable as gold.

Silk route

It is also known as silk road .the silk road


was a
prestigious network of trade route linking the
civilization of the east represented by china with the
civilization of west represented by Rome. it was the route
used by Buddhist priest and also the trader who exchange
goods as well as ideas of two great civilization of the time
.Chinese silk are exchange for gold . wool , horse , jade and
glass of the west and ideas from Buddhism was exchanged
for those from Nestorian Christianity . the 6,400 km long silk
route (actually a caravan tract) started what is now Sian
followed the great wall of china to north west across the
Pamir mountain and the takla makan deserts to cross
Afghanistan to Antioch in Syria , and from then visa Egypt
and the medetrian port to Europe . it was hazardous route.

few person travelled the entire route . good where handed


staggered progression through middle men the famous
Marco polo travelled by silk route and brought silk from
china .The silk road was not used after the fall of roman
empire until it was revived by Mongols. India was on the first
fabled road .Indian caravans laden with luxury goods like
spices and indigo traded them for silk from china. the road
now partially exist in the form of paved highway connecting
Pakistan and sin kiang in china.
GEORAPHICAL DISTRUBTION IN INDIA :1 Karnataka
2 Andhra Pradesh
3 Tamil Nadu
4 West Bengal
5 Jammu & Kashmir

Non-Traditional
States
6
7
8
9

Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Chhattisgarh

10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jharkhand
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh 15 Maharashtra
Manipur
Mizoram
Meghalaya
Nagaland
Orissa
Punjab
Sikkim
Tripura
Uttarakhand
Uttar Pradesh

Scope and importance of mulberry and non mulberry


sericulture in India.

Sericulture has been adopted long year ago by


Indians. Sericulture require condition suitable for
mulberry being a hard perennial plant growing in a
wide verities of soil condition and adapted to be
cultivate as rain feed crop it is ideally suitable for
India with large amount of waste land unstable for
other plant .Indian farmer are now increasely turning
to mulberry cultivation because of its various scope
and importance are.
1.

Paying occupation

Sericulture is a highly
percentage income gain

occupation and the


by particular groups

involved in sericulture i.e. silkworm rearing , reeling


, weavers, twister, and trader is 54.5%, 6.5%,
12.7%, 8.6%, and 17.7% respectively
The data shown that the money maximum is earn
by the silkworm reares
i.e. the rural people of
India improve their living style.

2.

Highly remunerative in cash

Sericulture is highly profitable and benifitable


crop the comparative data between sericulture
and other cash crop shown that the person earn
much more money as they earn from any other
cash crop.
s.n
o
A
B
C
D
E

3.

Crop
Ground nut
Sugarcane
Paddy
Cotton
Sericulture

Average
income\annum\acre
Rs, 4, 000/Rs , 16, 000/Rs, 10, 000/Rs , 4, 500/Rs, 18, 000/-

Employment oriented, More than 70 lakh

persons are engaged in various sericulture


activities in the country. It is estimated that
sericulture can generate employment @ 11 man
days per kg of raw silk production (in on-farm and
off-farm activities) throughout the year. This
potential is par-excellence and no other industry

generates this kind of employment, especially in


rural areas, hence, sericulture is used as a tool for
rural reconstruction .in Japan its highly cost and
non-avalibity of labour that have leaders to the
deduce of sericulture there.
One hectare of mulberry creates remunerative
employment to 12-13 person throughout the year.

4.

Less investment is required

It is an ideal cottage industry requiring low initial


investment i.e villager made simple appliance for
rearing ,and reeling , rearing house of simple
construction and labour with little training .Govt also
provide appliances on subsidies rate Banks and other
funding agencies also have many loan scheme for
sericutural purposes .
5. Gestation period
Gestation period is very less .It is an ideal
activity for the rural people engaged in agriculture.
The farmer can take up sericulture activities because
of small gestation period i.e. around 25-28 days .
Farmer assured income within month
6.Women folk
as sericulture is an art and all of us `know that
women does the work of art better than the men and
a lot of money. it improves socio economic status of

women .about 60% are the women engaged in


sericultural activities
7. Environment friendly
nothing in the sericulture is waste . unfit mulberry
twigs can be used as fuel . the litters fertilizer or for
biogas production . defective cocoons waste form to
silk for spun silk industry . it cause no noise or any
other type of pollution and thus causes no harm to
ecological balance of earth .
8.Easy to operate .
sericulture is easy to operate the tool use in it are
simple and can be operated by any one will little
guidance .it does not require high qualification so it is
help full on rising economical condition of ruler area .
9 In hilly areas where the crops are not grown
sericulture can be done there.
10. Ideal programme for weaker section of
society

Sericulture can be practiced even with very low land holding.


acre of mulberry garden and silkworm rearing can support
a family of three without hiring labour.
Features such as low gestation, high returns make
sericulture an ideal programme for weaker sections of the
society.

Vast tracts of forest based tasar food plantations available in


the country, if judiciously exploited for rearing tasar
silkworms, can offer supplementary gainful employment for
tribal.
10 TRANSFER OF MONEY FROM RICH TO POOR

Silk is produced in developing countries but consuming in


developed countries. Sericulture being a cottage industry is
practiced primarily by rural poor people and the final
product, the silk is consumed by rich and effluent class of
society. Majority of silk goods are purchased by the urban
rich and the middle-class and around 57% of the final value
of silk fabrics flows back to the primary producers in the
rural areas. Sericulture is also an eco-friendly sustainable
economic activity and helps to check migration of rural
youths to urban areas.
best of luck

SS

Seminar on
INTRODUCTION TO SERICULTURE
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRUBTION , SCOPE OF
MULBERRY AND NON MULBERRY
SERICULTURE ,HISTORY AND SILK ROUTE
Submitted to

DEPARTMENT OF SERICULTURE
POONCH CAMPUS
UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU
Presented by

MOHD BASHIR
(Roll no.09- M.Sc. 1semester, 2012-2014)

Guided by

TEACHING FACULTY OF DEPARTMENT OF


SERICULTURE

Sign. Of the Seminar convener


student

Sign. Of the

I with my due respect and humble express want to profound gratitude to


my teachers- Dr Harjeet Singh, Dr Nirmal Singh, professor Ameet singh
and professor Ravneet kour for their valuable guidance that enabled me to
complete this script.
I am highly thankful to my dear classmates, who through their multifaceted ways enriched my knowledge and brimmed me with all the information
that proved highly beneficial.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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