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Complete report of Basic Biology with the title Lazarro Spallanzanis

Experiment, created by :
: Bertha Tandi
Reg. Number
: 1414442010
: ICP B of Biology Education
After its checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, it
has fulfilled requirement.
Makassar, Desember
Assistant Coordinator,

Djumarirmanto, S.Pd


Nurfitrah Aulia Ayub

ID: 1214441027
Known by,
Lecturer of Responsibility

Drs. H. Hamka L,Ms

ID: 19621231 198702 1 005


A. Background


How and when life happens, so many questions that arise about the origin
of life. So many opinions and theories which were conducted to prove the
origin of life, many theories that have been raised by scientists about the issue
causing debate among experts, but they have not provided a satisfactory
answer. It started from Aristoteles (384-332 SM) who was explaining the
theory about the Abiogenesis theory (Generation Spontaneous Theory). Its
the first theory that was explain about the beginning of life. In Abiogenesis
theory (Generation Spontaneous Theory), it said all of the life came with
spontaneously or the life came from the thing which is not life.
Biology scientist hasnt believe with the Abiogenesis theory
(Generation Spontaneous Theory) and they had observed about the truth of
Abiogenesis Theory or Spontaneous Generation Theory. They are Francisco
Redi, Lazarro Spallanzani (Italian), and Louis Pasteur (French). And their
theory had given the name is the Biogenesis theory this theory to make
collapse the Abiogenesis theory (Generation Spontaneous Theory). Beside
that, to convince the Biogenesis theory Louis Pasteur was given his theory.
That is omne vivum ex ovo, omne ovum ex vivo, which means that the life
comes from egg, and the egg from comes from previous life (omne vivum ex
vivo) which means that the life comes from the previous life.
Experiment that will makes the unit student know about the beginning
of life and make the university student understand about the steps of
observation that had been done by Lazarro Spallanzani to give the evidence
about the Biogenesis theory. These experiments will also prove whether there
are microbes that exist in the tube is left open. So, the experiment report was
given the title Lazarro Spallanzanis Experiment. This experiment to get
good results and observations from these experiments is very useful for us to
add to the knowledge of the origin of life.
B. Purpose
The purpose of this practicum, to give the chance for the university
students to follow the steps that had been done by the scientist to solve the
biology problem. Especially to know where the life begins.

C. Benefit
Based on this practicum, the student will know and understand the theory
about beginning of life. Beside of that, the university student will know how
the steps scientist can be solve this biology problem.

Question about Where the life begins? had tried to answer with some
theory and experiment. One of the theory and the experiment is Spallanzani which
is not believe about Abiogenesis Theory or Generation Spontaneous theory that
said by Aristoteles (team teaching, 2014).
Started from the era of Aristoteles (300 SM) all the people believe that the
life body was happened with spontaneously from the thing that didnt life. This
argument sometimes we can say the Abiogenesis theory (Generation Spontaneous
theory). This argument was follow by John Needham (1745-1750). He make the
experiment with some of rice and meat that had been boiled. And then, he make

the conclusion from his experiment that said although the boiled water kept into
the closing bottle but the microbe (microorganisms) can be show in that water.
This argument was showed the development and improvement of biology science
in that era. But there are some of biology scientist doesnt agree and believe with
Abiogenesis theory (Generation Spontaneous theory), and then all of them trying
to make experiment and give an evidence to collapse the Abiogenesis theory or
Generation Spontaneous Theory. Schoeder and Theodore von Ducsh (1854) had
been done the same experiment with Lazarro Spallanzani, but they were filtered
the air that entered into the tube with sterile cotton, and the result is showing there
is not growth in the meal water that had heated (Ristiati, 2000).
Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani ( 1729-1799) disproved the theory of
spontaneous generation in 1768 by showing that if the meat borth was boiled for
several minutes and vessel in which it was boiled was sealed lightly nothing grew,
but if the vessel was either not heated to boiling point or was left unsealed the
animalcules appeared as Needham had observed. Alligators arose from Nile River
mud The final reaction products in these experiments were amino acids and sugars
as well as nucleotides. Spallanzani concluded that the animalcules developed from
small numbers of creatures already in the broth and that boiling killed them. This
was a leap in understanding an paved the was discovery of bacteria (Lan, 2012).
One of the first recorded investigations of spontaneous generation came in
1668. Francesco Redi, an Italian scientist, tested the idea that flies arose
spontaneously from rotting meat. He hypothesized that flies not meat produced
other flies. In his experiment, illustrated using present-day equipment in
experiment, Redi observed that maggots, the larvae of flies, appeared only in
flasks that were open to flies. Closed flasks had no flies and no maggots. The
results of his experiments failed to convince everyone, however. Although people
were beginning to use the microscope during Redis time and knew that organisms
invisible to the naked eye could be found almost everywhere, some thought that
these tiny organisms must arise spontaneously, even if flies did not. (McGraw,
Spallanzanis experimentation on spontaneous generation added to
evidence mounting against that theory. It is experiment on contributed to

foundation of bacteriology an his studies of their mortality when subjected to

intense heat played a seminal rote in the invention of food canning (Magill,1999).
Louis Pasteur is a master of biochemistry and microbiology. In the 1865,
he observed by boiling the broth in tube also, but the tubes check didnt close
properly, but in formed as likely letter of S, so its end still opened. The air could
reach the inside part of this tube, but Louis Pasteur had an argument that any
bacteria or microorganism which floated in the air would trapped in the long
tubes check. In fact, as commonly the broth was still sterile until it flowed the
broth to the tubes check, then it flowed back again. Through this observation,
Louis Pasteur success collapsed the Abiogenesis (Generation Spontaneous) theory
(Kimball, 1999).
Spontaneous generation idea was not completely rejected until the mid1800s. It was replaced by the theory of biogenesis (bi oh JEN uh sus), which
states that only living organisms can produce other living organisms. Louis
Pasteur designed an experiment to show that biogenesis was true even for
microorganisms. Pasteurs experiment is illustrated in this experiment . In one
flask, only air was allowed to contact a sterile nutrient broth. Nutrient broth
supports the growth of microorganisms. In another flask, both air and
microorganisms were allowed to contact the broth. No microorganisms grew in
the first container. They did, however, grow in the second container. Louis Pasteur
take the conclusion from his experiment, its saying Omne vivum ex ovo, omne
ovum ex vivo. Louis Pasteur conclusion supported by John Tyndall who found the
method which is said Tyndalisation (Ristiati, 2000).
Francisco Redi (1626-1697) an Italian medical experts try to prove the
non-truth of opinion "spontaneous generation" by making experiments whose
results stating that the small animals (flies) that appear on various substrates
derived from its mother laid eggs. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) conducted a
series of experiments by inserting the substrate in the form of organic compounds
into the bottle gourd, the top of the bottle is closed tightly and then heated (to be
sterile). After being stored for some time, was not found life in the bottle, this is

different from the bottles that are not heated (as control), which became rotten and
overgrown with a variety of living microorganisms (Kusnadi, 2003).
American scientists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey in 1953, were the first
to show that simple organic molecules could be made from inorganic compounds,
as proposed by Oparin and Haldane. Miller and Urey built a glass apparatus,
illustrated in the experiment , to simulate the early Earth conditions hypothesized
by Oparin. They filled the apparatus with water and the gases that they thought
had made up the early atmosphere. The water was boiled and electric discharges
were used to simulate lightning as an energy source. Upon examination, the
resulting mixture contained a variety of organic compounds including amino
acids. Because amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, this discovery
supported the primordial soup hypothesis. Later, other scientists found that
hydrogen cyanide could be formed from even simpler molecules in simulated
early Earth environments. Hydrogen cyanide can react with itself to eventually
form adenine, one of the nucleotide bases in the genetic code. Many other
experiments have since been carried out under conditions that probably reflect the
atmosphere of early Earth more accurately. The theory of spontaneous generation
held that living creatures could develop from lifeless matter (McGraw, 2008 ).


A. Time and place

Day / date : Monday, 15 Desember 2014
: 04:00 pm 05:50 pm

: Green House of Biology, Mathematics and Science Faculty of

state uneversity of makassar

B. Tools and Materials

1. Tools
a. 4 peace reaction tube
b. 1 peace tube reaction rack
c. 2 peace cork cover
d. 1 peace spiritus lamp
e. 1 peace wood clamp
2. Material
a. 40 mL liquid broth
b. 1 peace candle
c. Match
d. Label

C. Work Procedure
1. All tubes filled with broth correcting each five drops.
2. For the first tube is closed with a cork and spilled molten wax between the
tube between the mouth of the jar lid wit candle.
3. For the second tube over the liquid broth on the and left open
4. For the third heated the tube on a bunsen and closed with a cork and wax
spilled between the tube between the mouth of the jar lid
5. for the fourth tube as control no heat and is opened

5. All tube placed in a rack.

6. Observed and recorded every day for 5 days.

A. Result
a. Table of observation result










Information of table :





Sign( - )means no change from the previous condition.

Sign (+) means a little change from the previous condition .
Sign (+ + )means a half before the change of conditions .
Sign (+ + +) means a lot of changes from the previous conditions.

The picture result of observation

1. Day 0

Tube 1

Tube 3
2. First day

Tube 2

Tube 4

3. Second day

4. Third day

5. Fourth day

6. Fifth day

B. Discussion
Based on the experiment during 5 days, in the broth appeared the
following change :
a. Tube I
Tube I which the broth was heated and it let to open (without
cover), on the 1st day there was not a change yet. This condition occur
until the 3rd day. But on the 4th day, its color change become turbid, smell,
and there exist sediment. Its caused by the broth already contamination
with the bacteria from the air, although it had been simmered before.
b. Tube II
Tube II which was closed by using cork, and then between tubes
mouth and cork is dripped with liquid candle, but it doesnt be heated on
the 1st and 2nd day, there is not change that occurred yet. But on the 3 rd-5th
day, its colour become turbid, there was sediment, but there was not
smell. It is caused by the broth doesnt be heated. So, the microorganism
that life inside still alive, although there is not air which come into the
c. Tube III
Tube III which the broth was heated and closed by cork. Then,
between tubes mouth and cork is dripped a liquid candle. From the 1 st-5th
day, there is not change occur to this broth. Its color still transparent,
there is no smell and sediment. Its caused by the broth in the tube is
isolated from external air, so it doesnt contamination by external
microorganism, more ever formerly its already heated, so the bacteria in
the broth is already destroyed.
d. Tube IV
For the fourth tube is a control tube on the first day nothing
changes, on the second day there was a little change of color , on the third
day there is also a change in color, until the fifth day of color and smell
remain, but there is no change in the foam and sediment. Changes in the
broth due to the presence of microbes that enter the tube.

Biogenesis Theory which say that the organism come from the
previous organism already prove and it collapse the Abiogenesis Theory and
the existence of microorganism in the liquid broth can prove by seeing the
alteration that happened in liquid broth. Through the experiment of Lazarro
Spallanzani, the broth in the tube which is closed and heated doesnt
contaminated and still clear. Surely, this case defend the biogenesis theory.

A. Conclusion
Based on the practicum about Lazarro Spallanzanis experiment, the
practicum draw the conclusion as follows. Biogenesis Theory which say
that the organism come from the previous organism already prove and it
collapse the Abiogenesis Theory and the existence of microorganism in the
liquid broth can prove by seeing the alteration that happened in liquid broth.
Through the experiment of Lazarro Spallanzani, the broth in the tube which is
closed and heated doesnt contaminated and still clear. Surely, this case
defend the biogenesis theory.
B. Suggestion
I hope for next observation about the eternity. The quality of the tool that
we use in the influence eternity must be improve.

A. Question
1. What are the causes of changes in the experiment above broth ?
2. Where it came from living things that cause changes in the broth ?
3. Changes in the broth occurred in tubes treated how ? Why is this so ?
4. In the tube is treated how the broth has not changed ? Why no changes in
color and smell ?
5. Could it be from the broth ingredients suddenly appeared a new
microorganism ?
6. The results of the above experiments can be used as strong evidence
refuting the theory of spontaneous generation?
B. Answer
1. The causes a change in the broth experiments are microorganisms that live
in the broth.
2. Those organisms that cause changes in the broth derived from the spores
of living creatures that may be carried on with the stock or may be derived
from free air.
3. Liquid broth is undergoing changes that are bouillon broth in tubes are not
sterilized or not insulated tube of free air or water that is sterilized broth
but not closed tube , or the tube is closed but not sterilized broth . So the
microorganisms that had come into the tube to perform the activity .
4. he broth that does not change the color and smell are located in the broth
tubes are sterilized by means of heated air and isolated from the outside
with a cork stopper . This happens occurs because microorganisms that
had come into the tube when the tube is heated die , and new
microorganisms can not grow because the tube is isolated from the outside
5. No, because the real living things come from living things as well , instead
of inanimate objects.
6. Yes , because it can be proven by looking at the changes that occur in each
tube . In the third tube of microorganisms that cause a change in the broth
is derived from a microorganism free air , the tube II meyebabkannya ie
microorganisms that originate or are involved with the stock , while the IV
tube is berasl microorganisms from the air and are joined together broth .

While on the tube to I did not change because the tube is heated or
sterilized and isolated from the air.


Frank N Magill.1999. Dictonary of Biology .New Yeork: Routledge

Lan C Shaw.2012. The Science of Keeping Food Safe. USA: Wiley-Black Well
Kimball, John. 1999. Biologi, edisi keiima. Jakarta : Erlangga.
Tim Pengajar Biologi. 2014. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar :
Laboratorium FMIPA UNM.
McGraw. 2008. Biology. United State of Amerika. The Mcgraw Hill
Kusnadi. 2003. Common Textboox Microbiology. Jakarta : Development of
and Mathematics.
Ristiati, Ni Putu. 2000. Introduction to General Microbiology. Jakarta : Proyek
Pengembangan Guru Sekolah Menengah.