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Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) consists of a Central Processing Unit

(CPU) containing an application program and input and output interface module, which is
directly, connected to the field I/O devices. The program controls the PLC so that when
an input signal from an input device turn ON, the appropriate response normally involve
turning ON an output signal to some sort of output devices. PLC is a specialized
computer to control machines and processes. It uses a specialized computer to store
instruction and execute specific functions that include on/off control, timing, counting
and data handling.

Programmable logic controllers offer several advantages over a conventional

relay type of control. Relays have to be hardwiring to perform a specific function. When
the system requirements change, the relay wiring also must be changed or modified. In
extreme cases, such as in auto industry, complete control panels had to be replaced since
it was not economically feasible to rewire the old panels witch each model changeover.
The programmable controllers have eliminated much of the hardwiring associated with
conventional relay control circuits. It is small and inexpensive compared to equivalent
relay based process control systems.

In addition to cost savings, PLCs provide many other benefits including:

• Increased Reliability

• More Flexibility

• Lower Cost

• Communication Capability

• Faster Response Time

• Easier Troubleshoot
Figure 1: PLC System Architecture

The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program is written for the
PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program.
In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. However, a PLC is designed to be
programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a
PLC to control not only simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole
house, including turning lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built
security system, etc.

A typical PLC divided into parts, as illustrated in Figure 2. These components are
the central processing units (CPU), the input/output (I/O) section, the power supply and
the programming device.

Figure 2: Parts of PLC

The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive
manufacturing industry. Programmable controllers were initially adopted by the
automotive industry where software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control
panels when production models changed. Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety
interlock logic for manufacturing automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or
thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop
controllers. The process for updating such facilities for the yearly model change-over was
very time consuming and expensive, as electricians needed to individually rewire each
and every relay.

In 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors)

issued a request for proposal for an electronic proposal came from Bedford Associates of
Bedford, Massachusetts. The first PLC, designated the 084 because it was Bedford
Associates' eighty-fourth project, was the result. Bedford Associates started a new
company dedicated to developing, manufacturing, selling, and servicing this new
product: Modicon, which stood for Modular Digital Controller. One of the people who
worked on that project was Dick Morley, who is considered to be the "father" of the PLC.
The Modicon brand was sold in 1977 to Gould Electronics, and later acquired by German
Company AEG and then by French Schneider Electric, the current owner. One of the
very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicon's headquarters in North
Andover, Massachusetts. It was presented to Modicon by GM, when the unit was retired
after nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Modicon used the 84 moniker at the
end of its product range until the 984 made its appearance.

The automotive industry is still one of the largest users of PLCs. Most commonly, a
PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. A PLC can run an
automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They are designed and to
withstand most harsh environments a PLC will encounter.

1) To understand PLC’s terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and

types of PLC memory devices.

2) To learn the program instruction that perform logical operations and ladder logic

3) To understand and program the control of outputs using the timer instruction
control bits.

4) To apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to control systems

5) To install hardware components used in PLC systems.


In the end of this experiment we found that:

• Student able to draw a basic electro-pneumatic circuit with PLC, install and test
run it to move an actuator.
• Student able to design, construct, and troubleshoot of this PLC circuits.
• Student able to identify and operate a few types of electro pneumatic components
including relay and its contactors.

1. Never disconnect electro pneumatic lines or disassemble electro pneumatic

equipment when the pneumatic system power motor is running.
2. Make sure I/O and extension connector are installed correctly.
3. Use the PLC in an environment that meets the general specification contained in
this manual.
4. Make sure all external load connected to output does NOT exceed the rating of
output module.
5. Install a safety circuit external to the PLC that keeps the entire system safe even
when there are problems with the external power supply or PLC module.
Otherwise, serious trouble could result from erroneous output or erroneous
6. Never manually actuate switches, solenoids, relays, or valves on pneumatic
systems under pressure unless you are competent and qualified to perform these
7. All personnel taking part in and observing operation of power equipment must
remain alert, keep clear of moving parts, and be thoroughly familiar with the
safety precautions applicable to that equipment. At no time should skylarking be
allowed in the vicinity of operating power equipment.
8. Never use electrical or electronic equipment known to be in poor condition.
9. Use the right voltage. Most pneumatic devices are powered by air and controlled
with an electronic control valve.
10. Check and secure all of the mountings, fittings, piping, tubing, connectors and
connections before connecting any electro pneumatic components or systems to a
power supply.

Sensor (limit switch)

Double acting cylinder

5/2 way DCV single

solenoids with spring

Power supply

Output component (coil)

Solenoid (Y1)

Figure 3: pneumatic circuit task 1

1. First, electro-pneumatic circuit was created according to the task given and was
installed into the electro-pneumatic trainer by double acting cylinder, 5/2 way
DCV single solenoids and internal relay.
2. Second, the input of push button 1(SA) and push button 1(SB) was connecting to
24V and the output SA & SB was connecting to normally close contact RB. The
output of RB was connecting to output component coil (internal relay RA).
3. Third, the input component contact RA was connecting to output of push button
SA and SB as OR gate style.
4. Fourth, the input of sensor (AE) was connecting to 24V and the output was
connecting to contact RA and output of RA was connecting to output component
coil (RB)
5. Fifth, the input component contact RB was connecting to output of sensor (AE) as
OR gate style.
6. Then, the input of relay contactor RA was connecting to 24V and the output was
connecting to normally close contact (RB). After that the output of normally close
contact (RB) was connecting to solenoid (Y1).
7. After that the circuit was operated and do same troubleshoot if got any problem
with the circuit.

PLC Input card PLC output


component Output
(Switch & S component
sensor) e (Solenoid)

Figure 4: Electrical circuit of PLC


Task week 1

A simple drilling operation requires the drill press to turn on only if there is a part present
and the operator has one hand on each of the start switches. The precaution will ensure
that the operator’s hands are not in the drill. Switches 1& 2 and the part sensor must be
activated to make the drill motor operator.

1) Sequent Motion:

SA Limit
Start & Switch

A+ A-

2) Tabular Plan:

Step Condition Action

1 Start (SA & SB press) A+
2 AE A-

3) Step Displacement Diagram:

Figure 5: full electro-pneumatic with PLC control circuit & power circuit

The diagram above showed an electro-pneumatic with PLC control circuit & power
circuit. This circuit install in electro-pneumatic trainer according to the task given. For
build this diagram, we used two push button (SA & SB), 5/2 way DCV single solenoid
valve and one double acting cylinder. The circuit supply by 24V and 0V.
Figure 6: Actuator extend position

The diagram above showed, when the SA and SB was pressed, the solenoid Y1
was activated. Once the solenoid Y1 was activated the 5/2 way DCV single solenoid
valve will change the position and the actuator will extend. Besides that, RA also
activated which is creating memory. The actuator also reach the limit switch AE
(replace for sensor) and touch the limit switch AE.
Figure 7: change the position of valve

After touched AE, RB was activated. Once the internal relay RB was activated the
5/2 way DCV single solenoid valve will change the position because the solenoid was
deactivated and spring return make this position changes. RB also deletes memory
which deletes the RA memory.
Figure 8: actuator in fully retracting position

Finally, the actuator was fully retracting position. All the internal memory was
deleted. The circuit will star after press SA and SB.

In conclude, during this experiment, student was learning a lot about the basic and
early knowledge about the PLC. As we know, typical PLC part can be divided into parts,
these components are the CPU, Input / Output section, the power supply and
programming device.

Along this experiment also, we was learning about the method to build a ladder
diagram. Ladder diagram is uses standard symbols to represent the circuit components
and functions found in a control system. For this experiment, we were learning about
latching or self holding program. Latching program is used to hold an output device
maintain activated although the input contact has deactivated. Both of input and output
device has another device, which is setup parallel to their actual device. From the ladder
diagram of this experiment, we can see the latching technique at branch which has IRA
and IRB. IRA or Internal Relay A is function to create a memory, so it will hold the
output device. IRB or Internal Relay B is function to delete a memory which we hold at
the early as we can see at figure 1.2. Finally, we are success doing this experiment and
the cylinder also was move with smoothly.
Figure 9: Latching Program