0 INTRODUCTION Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) consists of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) containing an application program and input and output interface module, which is directly, connected to the field I/O devices. The program controls the PLC so that when an input signal from an input device turn ON, the appropriate response normally involve turning ON an output signal to some sort of output devices. PLC is a specialized computer to control machines and processes. It uses a specialized computer to store instruction and execute specific functions that include on/off control, timing, counting and data handling. Programmable logic controllers offer several advantages over a conventional relay type of control. Relays have to be hardwiring to perform a specific function. When the system requirements change, the relay wiring also must be changed or modified. In extreme cases, such as in auto industry, complete control panels had to be replaced since it was not economically feasible to rewire the old panels witch each model changeover. The programmable controllers have eliminated much of the hardwiring associated with conventional relay control circuits. It is small and inexpensive compared to equivalent relay based process control systems. In addition to cost savings, PLCs provide many other benefits including: • • • • • • Increased Reliability More Flexibility Lower Cost Communication Capability Faster Response Time Easier Troubleshoot

Figure 1: PLC System Architecture The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program is written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program. In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. However, a PLC is designed to be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a PLC to control not only simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole house, including turning lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built security system, etc. A typical PLC divided into parts, as illustrated in Figure 2. These components are the central processing units (CPU), the input/output (I/O) section, the power supply and the programming device.

Figure 2: Parts of PLC

The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing industry. Programmable controllers were initially adopted by the automotive industry where software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels when production models changed. Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic for manufacturing automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The process for updating such facilities for the yearly model change-over was very time consuming and expensive, as electricians needed to individually rewire each and every relay. In 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors) issued a request for proposal for an electronic proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford, Massachusetts. The first PLC, designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates' eighty-fourth project, was the result. Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to developing, manufacturing, selling, and servicing this new product: Modicon, which stood for Modular Digital Controller. One of the people who worked on that project was Dick Morley, who is considered to be the "father" of the PLC. The Modicon brand was sold in 1977 to Gould Electronics, and later acquired by German Company AEG and then by French Schneider Electric, the current owner. One of the very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicon's headquarters in North Andover, Massachusetts. It was presented to Modicon by GM, when the unit was retired after nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Modicon used the 84 moniker at the end of its product range until the 984 made its appearance. The automotive industry is still one of the largest users of PLCs. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. A PLC can run an automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They are designed and to withstand most harsh environments a PLC will encounter.

OBJECTIVES: 1) To understand PLC’s terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and types of PLC memory devices. 2) To learn the program instruction that perform logical operations and ladder logic programs, 3) To understand and program the control of outputs using the timer instruction control bits. 4) To apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to control systems 5) To install hardware components used in PLC systems.


SCOPE In the end of this experiment we found that: • • • Student able to draw a basic electro-pneumatic circuit with PLC, install and test run it to move an actuator. Student able to design, construct, and troubleshoot of this PLC circuits. Student able to identify and operate a few types of electro pneumatic components including relay and its contactors.


SAFETY PRECAUTION 1. Never disconnect electro pneumatic lines or disassemble electro pneumatic equipment when the pneumatic system power motor is running. 2. Make sure I/O and extension connector are installed correctly. 3. Use the PLC in an environment that meets the general specification contained in this manual. 4. Make sure all external load connected to output does NOT exceed the rating of output module. 5. Install a safety circuit external to the PLC that keeps the entire system safe even when there are problems with the external power supply or PLC module. Otherwise, serious trouble could result from erroneous output or erroneous operation. 6. Never manually actuate switches, solenoids, relays, or valves on pneumatic systems under pressure unless you are competent and qualified to perform these actions. 7. All personnel taking part in and observing operation of power equipment must remain alert, keep clear of moving parts, and be thoroughly familiar with the safety precautions applicable to that equipment. At no time should skylarking be allowed in the vicinity of operating power equipment. 8. Never use electrical or electronic equipment known to be in poor condition. 9. Use the right voltage. Most pneumatic devices are powered by air and controlled with an electronic control valve. 10. Check and secure all of the mountings, fittings, piping, tubing, connectors and connections before connecting any electro pneumatic components or systems to a power supply.


Sensor (limit switch)

Double acting cylinder

5/2 way DCV single solenoids with spring return

Power supply

Output component (coil)

Solenoid (Y1)

Figure 3: pneumatic circuit task 1 1. First, electro-pneumatic circuit was created according to the task given and was installed into the electro-pneumatic trainer by double acting cylinder, 5/2 way DCV single solenoids and internal relay. 2. Second, the input of push button 1(SA) and push button 1(SB) was connecting to 24V and the output SA & SB was connecting to normally close contact RB. The output of RB was connecting to output component coil (internal relay RA).

3. Third, the input component contact RA was connecting to output of push button SA and SB as OR gate style. 4. Fourth, the input of sensor (AE) was connecting to 24V and the output was connecting to contact RA and output of RA was connecting to output component coil (RB) 5. Fifth, the input component contact RB was connecting to output of sensor (AE) as OR gate style. 6. Then, the input of relay contactor RA was connecting to 24V and the output was connecting to normally close contact (RB). After that the output of normally close contact (RB) was connecting to solenoid (Y1). 7. After that the circuit was operated and do same troubleshoot if got any problem with the circuit.

PLC Input card

PLC output card

Input component (Switch & sensor)

S e n s o r

Output component (Solenoid)

Figure 4: Electrical circuit of PLC


Task week 1 A simple drilling operation requires the drill press to turn on only if there is a part present and the operator has one hand on each of the start switches. The precaution will ensure that the operator’s hands are not in the drill. Switches 1& 2 and the part sensor must be activated to make the drill motor operator. 1) Sequent Motion: Start
SA & SB Limit Switch AE



2) Tabular Plan: Step 1 2 Condition Start (SA & SB press) AE Action A+ A-

3) Step Displacement Diagram:

Figure 5: full electro-pneumatic with PLC control circuit & power circuit The diagram above showed an electro-pneumatic with PLC control circuit & power circuit. This circuit install in electro-pneumatic trainer according to the task given. For build this diagram, we used two push button (SA & SB), 5/2 way DCV single solenoid valve and one double acting cylinder. The circuit supply by 24V and 0V.

Figure 6: Actuator extend position The diagram above showed, when the SA and SB was pressed, the solenoid Y1 was activated. Once the solenoid Y1 was activated the 5/2 way DCV single solenoid valve will change the position and the actuator will extend. Besides that, RA also activated which is creating memory. The actuator also reach the limit switch AE (replace for sensor) and touch the limit switch AE.

Figure 7: change the position of valve After touched AE, RB was activated. Once the internal relay RB was activated the 5/2 way DCV single solenoid valve will change the position because the solenoid was deactivated and spring return make this position changes. RB also deletes memory which deletes the RA memory.

Figure 8: actuator in fully retracting position Finally, the actuator was fully retracting position. All the internal memory was deleted. The circuit will star after press SA and SB.

7. CONCLUSSIONS In conclude, during this experiment, student was learning a lot about the basic and early knowledge about the PLC. As we know, typical PLC part can be divided into parts, these components are the CPU, Input / Output section, the power supply and programming device. Along this experiment also, we was learning about the method to build a ladder diagram. Ladder diagram is uses standard symbols to represent the circuit components and functions found in a control system. For this experiment, we were learning about latching or self holding program. Latching program is used to hold an output device maintain activated although the input contact has deactivated. Both of input and output device has another device, which is setup parallel to their actual device. From the ladder diagram of this experiment, we can see the latching technique at branch which has IRA and IRB. IRA or Internal Relay A is function to create a memory, so it will hold the output device. IRB or Internal Relay B is function to delete a memory which we hold at the early as we can see at figure 1.2. Finally, we are success doing this experiment and the cylinder also was move with smoothly.


Figure 9: Latching Program

1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_logic_controller 2. www.logicdesign.com/inside/plc.html 3. en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introductory_PLC_Programming 4. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_line_communication 5. www.electronicspal.com/plc 6. www.plcdev.com/glossary/1 7. www.portlandonline.com/index.cfm?&a=fdjch 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electro-pneumatic_action 9. http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/157904 10. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5437306.html? query=valve+double+solenoid&stemming=on 11. http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AnGhbPJAQhAOcr5dOp5hNH4jz KIX;_ylv=3?qid=20081004002957AAwO5VD http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel

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