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MARTYN
KRGELS
BASS
MANUAL

Book 5: Chords
FREE ELECTRONIC PDF VERSION 1.1 - 2009

NOT FOR SALE


This is a COMPLIMENTARY Internet e-book made available for 01 January 2009
First draft completed 2007 Revised and Updated 2008
Copyright by Martyn Krgel 2007 onwards
This publication will be updated quarterly by the author and presented on the Internet
All Rights Reserved
The moral right of the author has been asserted
This PDF file was created as an additional educational aid for students of the bass guitar. The content, structure, format, analysis, design,
artwork, photographs, methodology and model, remain the property of Martyn Krgel.

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PREFACE
This work is dedicated to teachers and students of the bass and
particularly to and for the development of new aspiring bassists.
This bass manual series consisting of seven books was
designed as an additional study aid for students of the bass guitar
and to show aspiring bassists just exactly how music theory is
applied on the instrument and to promptly set the new bassist who
cannot yet read music on the right track.
It is not the type of instruction book that suggests a specified
method to be followed and as a result students are urged to
develop their own course of action in working through these books.
The assistance of a teacher or mentor will be invaluable and I urge
aspiring musicians to always seek out a good mentor in music. I
am also confident that a good mentor will immediately grasp the
intention of my presentation and put the objectives of this
presentation into practice, for the benefit of the student.
If anyone has any questions or comments, please feel free to
contact me.
And good luck with the music.
Martyn Krgel

Special thanks to Edwin Schroeder musician extraordinaire who introduced


and taught me the art of music and especially the greater art of
improvisational music.
Also a special thanks to my family and friends for their support.
INVITATION TO ADVERTISERS
The Martyn Krgels Bass Manual Series will be updated on a
quarterly basis by the author and presented on his web site.
Anyone involved in the music industry can therefore utilize this
medium to promote their business.
Potential advertisers can contact the author directly if they wish to
place advertisements of their products and/or services in the next
edition of the Martyn Krgels Bass Manual Series for a costeffective way to advertise and market their products and/or
services.
For more details contact Martyn and request a price list.

CONTACT DETAILS
Martyn Krgel
web site: www.freebassmanual.com
e-mail: martyn@freebassmanual.com

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Chord Formulas Harmony Playing Chords on the Bass


Comments on Improvisation Comments on Fingerings

Pg. 5

Chapter 1

MAJOR CHORDS

Chord Formulas Chord Diagrams Chord Photographs

Pg. 12

Chapter 2

MINOR CHORDS

Chord Formulas Chord Diagrams Chord Photographs

Pg. 28

Chapter 3

DOMINANT SEVENTH
CHORDS

Chord Formulas Chord Diagrams Chord Photographs

Pg. 42

Chapter 4

AUGMENTED &
DIMINISHED CHORDS

Chord Formulas Chord Diagrams Chord Photograph

Pg. 57

Chapter 5

CHORD PROGRESSIONS

III VI II V I * III VI IV VII I * III VI II VII I


III VI IV V I
12-Bar Blues Ascending and Descending Fourths and Fifths

Pg. 63

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INTRODUCTION
Chord Formulas
In book 1 the student was advised to learn the numeric value of the major scale and it is also this numeric value
of a scale that assists us in constructing or building chords. In book 2 we also observed that the numerical
value attributed to any other scale will be determined relative to the numeric value of the major scale just to
recap:
The numeric values used in any other scale will always be determined relative to the numeric value of the major
scale of the same root note (starting point). Comparing the numeric value of the A major scale to the numeric
value of the A natural minor scale for example, you will notice that the third degree in the natural minor scale
has the numeric value b3 (flat three or flattened third) because in the A natural minor scale the note C is a
th
th
natural note and in the A major scale the note is a C#. The same occurs at the 6 and 7 degrees of the natural
minor scale. Observe the numeric values in the following examples of scales that we have covered thus far:
A - MAJOR Scale

C#

F#

G#

Numeric Value

A - MINOR Scale

Numeric Value

b3

b6

b7

A - MAJOR Scale

C#

F#

G#

Numeric Value

A - HARMONIC
Scale

G#

Numeric Value

b3

b6

A - MAJOR Scale

C#

F#

G#

Numeric Value

A - MELODIC
Scale

F#

G#

Numeric Value

b3

Every chord has a NUMERIC FORMULA and it is this formula that we learn to understand and recognize as
oppose to memorizing a countless amount of individual chord voicings, as they would appear on the instrument.
This method of using the numeric value of a scale and the numeric formula of a chord will enable you to easily
construct any chord and even enable you to construct chords that you have never played before because it is in
the name of a chord that you will find the chord formula that you will learn to recognize as you work through this
book. Our objective in our study of chords is therefore not to memorize a large number of individual chord
voicings (like a parrot) but to understand how chords are assembled build constructed. Intervals are also an
important facet in building chords since chords are groupings of intervals so make sure that you are familiar with
the intervals thats done in great detail in the first 4 books of this series.
We have four main types of triads (the principal chords consisting of three notes) namely the: MAJOR MINOR
AUGMENTED and DIMINISHED chord triads and it is then these four types of chord triads that serve as the
foundation on which every other possible chord is built. Lets now build these four types of chords so that you
can observe their characteristics and also see this principal of the numeric value thats attributed to a scale and
the chord formulas:

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The formula for a MAJOR chord is: 1 3 5


The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case a major chord formula) will give the chord its name. Lets now take the C major
scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the major chord formula build the C major chord.
1=C
3=E
5=G
So the C MAJOR chord will be made up of the notes C E G
You can also think of it as a root note with an added major third & perfect fifth interval.
The formula for a MINOR chord is: 1 b3 5
The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case a minor chord formula) will give the chord its name. Lets now take the C major
scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the minor chord formula build the C minor chord.
1=C
b3 = Eb
5=G
So the C MINOR chord will be made up of the notes C Eb G
You can also think of it as a root note with an added minor third & perfect fifth interval.
The formula for an AUGMENTED chord is: 1 3 #5
The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case an augmented chord formula) will give the chord its name. Lets now take the C
major scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the augmented chord formula build the C augmented
chord.
1=C
3=E
#5 = G#
So the C AUGMENTED chord will be made up of the notes C E G#
You can also think of it as a root note with an added major third & augmented fifth interval.
The formula for a DIMINISHED chord is: 1 b3 b5
The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case a diminished chord formula) will give the chord its name. Lets now take the C
major scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the diminished chord formula build the C diminished
chord.
1=C
b3 = Eb
b5 = Gb
So the C DIMINISHED chord will be made up of the notes C Eb Gb
You can also think of it as a root note with an added minor third & diminished fifth interval.
Another important category is the seventh or dominant seventh chord category. The dominant seventh chord is
built upon a major chord triad foundation together with a minor seventh interval.
The formula for a seventh chord is: 1 3 5 b7 (Also called dominant seventh)
The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case a seventh chord formula) is used to give the chord its name. Lets again take the
C major scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the seventh chord formula build the C seventh chord.
1=C
3=E
5=G
b7 = Bb
So the C SEVENTH chord will be made up of the notes C E G Bb
th
You can also think of it as a root note with an added major third perfect fifth & minor 7 interval.
And then finally lets build a major seventh chord (belonging to the major chord category) so that you can
observe what happens when we build upon a triad and in this instance a major triad and also observe the
difference between a major seventh and a dominant seventh chord.

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The formula for a major seventh chord is: 1 3 5 7 (Belonging to the major chord category)
The numerical value 1 will always be the root note of the chord and this note in conjunction with the type
of formula (in this case a major seventh chord formula) is used to give the chord its name. Lets again
take the C major scale:
C D E F G A B and because weve been given the major seventh chord formula build the C major
seventh chord.
1=C
3=E
5=G
7=B
So the C MAJOR SEVENTH chord will be made up of the notes C E G B
th
You can also think of it as a root note with an added major third perfect fifth & major 7 interval.

Harmony
A very simple definition would be to say that a piece of music consists of a melody (which is a succession of
various single notes various pitches of different rhythmic values) and it is around a selection of these melody
notes that chords are then constructed. This building of chords around a melody is commonly referred to as
harmonization or harmony and this term also denotes to the fact that we are now dealing with more than a
single individual note, but the two (as in intervals) or three or more notes belonging to a chord. It is not every
note of the melody in a piece of music that is harmonized (even though you could do that) but in practice you will
most often find that it is one or two chords thats allocated to a single bar or measure of music that compliments
the melody notes of that particular bar. You could look at the melody as the skeleton of a piece of music and
the chords then, the flesh.
The chain of chords built by using a selection of the melody notes in a piece of music then forms the chord
progression and you should see this progression as a movement of chords or see the individual chords as being
in motion or moving from one chord to the other and not merely perceive harmony as just the construction of a
single static chord. But of course, understanding the makeup of a single static chord will be our first objective in
this study of chords and harmony. In chapter 5 of this book some chord progressions in all the keys are given
so that you can observe the movement of scale tone chords within a particular key and you will also observe
that roman numerals are commonly used to identify the seven scale tone chords of a key. It will be worth your
while to work diligently through this section to familiarize yourself with this movement of chords in a particular
key and to also learn the scale tone chords of keys well.

IMPORTANT NOTE: MODULATION OR PLAYING THROUGH CHANGES


The melody and the harmonization (the building of chords around a melody) in a piece of music are not
necessarily confined to a single individual key and when in a piece of music the melody or chords travel
over more than one key this is called modulation. In Jazz for example, modulation is rather the rule
than the exception, where the melody in conjunction with the chords that are built around the melody
(forming the progression) serves as a platform on which the musicians can then improvise and often
this will happen over several keys in a single tune and then this progression of chords over several
different keys will be repeated. They simply refer to this as Playing Through Changes.
So, you need to have a good understanding of the chords in this book so that when you see a piece of
music, you are able to identify the chords in that piece of music and play along with the tune utilizing
your knowledge of chords as a guideline for what it is you need to play. The ability to recognize a chord
and what a chord is made up of, will then be your guide of what to play in a piece of music.
All of this stresses yet again the importance of learning all the major keys and the application of the
major keys on your instrument and in this instance, a thorough knowledge of the major keys will also
help you to recognize and identify the modulation in a piece of music and allow you to play through
these changes and also give you the ability to distinguish to which key any particular chord belongs
because of your knowledge of the scale tone chords in the major keys.

Playing Chords on the Bass


The ability to play chords fluently on the bass is technically demanding but far from impossible. More important
though, is the basic understanding of how chords are constructed. Chapters 1 to 4 in this book with the chord
diagram and photograph of the fingering of the chord should therefore only be used as a reference guide the

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objective is not to memorize all the various chord voicings but to see the principle of how chords are constructed
by learning the formulas of chords and the numerical values of scales.
Once youve mastered the major scale patterns discussed in book 1 of this series the technical aspect of playing
chords on the bass should be fairly unproblematic. The ease with which you play the chords may even serve as
an indication of how well you know and can play the major scale patterns. There will be some chord voicings
that are more difficult than others and a couple that is indeed impossible to play in unison on the bass and can
therefore only be played arpeggiated (notes of the chord played individually in succession) and a bassist must
certainly be able to play arpeggios but the focal point is the basic understanding of how chords are constructed
and to only then find a way to play that chord on your bass.
In the introduction of book 1 the following remark was made with regards to learning and playing the major scale
patterns:
- Just bear in mind that the ability to play a pattern up and down fluently is not the music just yet (but it
will be the first objective in terms of technique and learning your instrument). When we think of music
and the function of these patterns, it is best explained when we observe the improvisational musician
like a Jazz bassist who would create melodies, riffs, licks and musical themes spontaneously within
these patterns by playing an assortment of different note selections and rhythmic variations around
these patterns that has already been committed to memory You should adopt the above approach of improvising when playing and practicing around chords and chord
progressions on the bass too. For example: Lets say you have to play around a G Major Seventh chord. Now
because you have so many options available of playing the chord you should improvise and learn to play as
many options as possible. Here are a few suggestions:
Play a voicing in unison of all the notes of the chord and then play around the same chord.
Play the chord arpeggiated. (Arpeggios can and should be linked over the fingerboard to form
something like an arpeggio scale).
Play several different triad voicings of the chord.
Play just the root note.
Play a syncopated rhythmic arpeggiated version of the chord.
Play different intervals of the chord in unison or separate the notes.
Play and find voicings of the chord all over the bass and not only in one position.

Comping is the term used to describe the background rhythmic accompaniment when you play rhythm. You
should also ask other musicians like a guitarist to play or record a couple of chord progressions that you can
comp along with so that you can practice and apply some of the options mentioned above.

Page |9

Comments on Improvisation
[IMPORTANT NOTICE: The new aspiring musician should just take a moment
and think about and conceptualize the notion of IMPROVISATION in the context
of music with the goal of applying it when learning, practicing and playing].
A few things to think about and apply when incorporating improvisation when playing
or practicing chords and open to your own interpretation
Accents

Phrasing

Arpeggios

Relaxation

Note Repetition

Tempo

Speed

Note Selection

Taking Risks

Volume

Beat

Melody

Trills

Listening

Finger
Articulation

Coordination

Legato

Intervals

Timing

Single String

Amplitude

Pizzicato

Modes

Syncopation

Chords

Rhythms

Articulation

Question &
Answer

Emotion

Blues

Tremolo

Phantom Notes

Concentration

Jazz

Silence

Dynamics

Triplets

Open Strings

Length of Note

Space

Ornaments

Harmonics

Bebop

Triads

Discipline

Scatting

Tapping

Visualizations

Sliding

Music

Comments on Fingerings
In book 1 of this series the concept of Finger Articulation was introduced to you for you to find a natural and
logical way to play the major and/or any other scale with your hand that presses against the fingerboard.
Because chords are constructed within the scales you will often use the same fingerings that you use in playing
the scale, to play the chord. For example: If you take the first major scale pattern that we did in book 1 and
apply the Finger Articulation method, you should more or less end up using the following fingerings when
playing that pattern:

7 Index

8 Middle
5 Index
2 Index

9 Pinkie
6 Ring
3 Ring 4 Pinkie
1 Pinkie

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If we now take the first major chord voicing in chapter 1 of this book:

You will see that the logical fingerings for this major chord will be 1Pinkie 3Ring 5Index and in this
particular case it is the exact same fingerings that are used in the scale that are used for the individual notes of
the chord. The same logic should be used in finding the most suitable fingerings for any other chord. You will
stumble upon really difficult chord voicings but it is the principal here that will help you to find the most suitable
fingerings.

Just to recap and refresh your memory, here is the Finger Articulation method again:
To immediately grasp the correct fingerings of the major scale patterns or any pattern for that matter, it is best
understood when we subdivide these patterns into the following three sub-patterns.

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Then we forget about this notion of correct fingerings and substitute it with the idea of Finger Articulation.
This is the ability to play any pattern with all of the four fingers or a combination of the fingers that presses
against the fingerboard. This is how you commence practicing it:
1. Start by playing the above sub-patterns with only one finger, but all four fingers individually:
Index
Middle
Ring
Pinkie
2. Then play the above sub-patterns with combinations of two fingers:
Index Middle
Index Ring
Index Pinkie
Middle Ring
Middle Pinkie
Ring Pinkie
3. Then play combinations of three fingers:
Index Middle Ring
Index Middle Pinkie [Observe how sub-pattern 1 and 2 naturally falls into this combination]
Index Ring Pinkie [Observe how sub-pattern 3 naturally falls into this combination]
Middle Ring Pinkie
4. And then finally play the combination of all four fingers and then apply this method of finger articulation
when you learn to play the patterns that chords fit into.
[The crux of the above method that I call finger articulation was introduced to me through an exceptional book called
Advancing Guitarist by Mick Goodrick published by Hal Leonard, who recommended this method for learning and exploring
single string playing].

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Chapter 1
MAJOR CHORDS
The diagrams and the (turned around) photographs illustrate your viewpoint when youre holding the
bass.

Symbol

* Major * maj * M *

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

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Symbol
Position 1

sus

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-4-5

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-6

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

6add9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-6-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-6-9

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1-5-6-9

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-6-9

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1-5-6-9

Symbol
Position 1

add9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

M7 * Major7 * maj7
*

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-7

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

M9 * Major9 * maj9
*

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-7-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-7-9

1-5-7-9

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Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-7-9

1-5-7-9

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Symbol
Position 1

M11 * Major11 *
maj11 *

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-7-9-11

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-7-11

1-5-7-11

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Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-7-11

1-5-7-11

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Symbol
Position 1

M13 * Major13 *
maj13 *

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-7-9-1113

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-7-13

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-7-13

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1-5-7-13

Symbol
Position 1

M7#11 * Major7#11
* maj7#11 * #

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-7-#11

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-7- #11

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1-5-7- #11

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-7- #11

P a g e | 26

1-5-7- #11

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Chord Formulas
Symbol

Chord Formula

* Major * maj * M

1-3-5

sus

1-3-4-5

1-3-5-6

6add9

1-3-5-6-9

add9

1-3-5-9

M7 * Major7 * maj7 *

1-3-5-7

M9 * Major9 * maj9 *

1-3-5-7-9

M11 * Major11 * maj11 *

1-3-5-7-9-11

M13 * Major13 * maj13 *

1-3-5-7-9-11-13

M7#11 * Major7#11 * maj7#11 * #

1-3-5-7-#11

(In relation to the Major Scale)

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Chapter 2
MINOR CHORDS
The diagrams and the (turned around) photographs illustrate your viewpoint when youre holding the
bass.

Symbol
Position 1

m * Minor * min *

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 29
Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Msus

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-4-5

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 30

Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

m6

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-6

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

mb6

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b6

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

P a g e | 32

Symbol
Position 1

m6/9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-6-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-6-9

Symbol
Position 1

mb6/9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b6-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-b6-9

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Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-b3-b6-9

Symbol
Position 1

madd9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top-string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 34

Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

m7 * Minor7 *
min7 * m

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b7

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

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Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

m9 * Minor9 *
min9 * m

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b7-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-b7-9

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Symbol
Position 1

m11 * Minor11 *
min11 * m

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b79-11

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-b7-11

1-b3-9-11

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Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-b3-b7-11

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Symbol
Position 1

m13 * Minor13 *
min13 * m

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b79-11-13

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-b7-13

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-b3-b7-13

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Symbol
Position 1

mb13 * Minor flat


13 * minb13 * mb

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-b79-11-b13

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-b3-b7-b13

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-b3-b7-b13

P a g e | 40

Symbol

m/maj7 *
Minor/Major7 *
min/maj7

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-5-()7

P a g e | 41

Chord Formulas
Symbol

Chord Formula

m * Minor * min *

1-b3-5

Msus

1-b3-4-5

m6

1-b3-5-6

mb6

1-b3-5-b6

m6/9

1-b3-5-6-9

mb6/9

1-b3-5-b6-9

madd9

1-b3-5-9

m7 * Minor7 * min7 * m

1-b3-5-b7

m9 * Minor9 * min9 * m

1-b3-5-b7-9

m11 * Minor11 * min11 * m

1-b3-5-b7-9 -11

m13 * Minor13 * min13 * m

1-b3-5-b7-9 -11-13

mb13 * Minor flat 13 * minb13 * mb

1-b3-5-b7-9-11- b13

m/maj7 * Minor/Major7 * min/maj7

1-b3-5-()7

(In relation to the Major Scale)

P a g e | 42

Chapter 3
DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS
The diagrams and the (turned around) photographs illustrate your viewpoint when youre holding the
bass.

Symbol

7 * Seventh

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

P a g e | 43

Symbol
Position 1

9 * Ninth

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7-9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-b7-9

1-5-b7-9

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-b7-9

P a g e | 44

1-5-b7-9

Symbol
Position 1

11 * Eleventh

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7-9-11

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-b7-11

P a g e | 45

1-5-b7-11

1-b7-9-11

P a g e | 46
Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-b7-11

1-5-b7-11

P a g e | 47

1-b7-9-11

Formula

1-3-5-b7-9-1113

Symbol

13 * Thirteenth

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-b7-13

P a g e | 48

1-b7-9-13

1-b7-11-13

P a g e | 49
Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-b7-13

1-5-b7-13

1-b7-9-13

P a g e | 50

1-b7-11-13

Symbol
Position 1

7b5

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-b5-b7

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 51
Position 2

Symbol
Position 1

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

7b9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7-b9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-b7-b9

1-5-b7-b9

P a g e | 52

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-5-b7-b9

Symbol
Position 1

7#9

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7-#9

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-b7-#9

P a g e | 53

1-5-b7-#9

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-b7-#9

1-5-b7-#9

P a g e | 54

Symbol
Position 1

7#11

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-5-b7-9-#11

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

1-3-b7-#11

1-5-b7-#11

P a g e | 55

1-b7-9-#11

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

1-3-b7-#11

1-5-b7-#11

P a g e | 56

1-b7-9-#11

Chord Formulas
Symbol

Chord Formula

7 * Seventh

1-3-5-b7

9 * Ninth

1-3-5-b7-9

11 * Eleventh

1-3-5-b7-9-11

13 * Thirteenth

1-3-5-b7-9-11-13

7b5

1-3-b5-b7

7b9

1-3-5-b7-b9

7#9

1-3-5-b7-#9

7#11

1-3-5-b7-9 -#11

(In relation to the Major Scale)

P a g e | 57

Chapter 4
AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED CHORDS
The diagrams and the (turned around) photographs illustrate your viewpoint when youre holding the
bass.

Symbol

Augmented * aug

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-#5

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

P a g e | 58

Symbol
Position 1

7#5

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-3-#5-b7

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 59
Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Symbol

Diminished * dim

Position 1

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-b5

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 60

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

P a g e | 61

Symbol

m7b5 * Minor 7
Flat 5 * b

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-b5-b7

Position 1

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Symbol
Position 1

Diminished 7th *
dim7

Formula
(In relation to the Major Scale)

1-b3-b5-bb7

Position 1 is calculated with the root note on the top string or the octave thereof (third string)

P a g e | 62

Position 2

Position 2 is calculated with the root note on the second string or the octave thereof (fourth string)

Chord Formulas
Symbol

Chord Formula

Augmented * aug

1-3-#5

7#5

1-3-#5-b7

Diminished * dim

1-b3-b5

m7b5 * Minor 7 Flat 5 * b

1-b3-b5-b7

Diminished 7th * dim7

1-b3-b5-bb7

(In relation to the Major Scale)

P a g e | 63

Chapter 5
CHORD PROGRESSIONS
Chord Progression III VI II V I
Major Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
C Major
G Major
D Major
A Major
E Major
B Major
F# Major
C# Major
F Major
Bb Major
Eb Major
Ab Major
Db Major
Gb Major
Cb Major

Natural Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

Harmonic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

VI
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

II
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

V
Seventh
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#

I
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

III
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

II
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

V
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

II
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

V
Major
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

P a g e | 64
Melodic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Diminished
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##

II
Minor
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

V
Major
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

B
E
A
D
G
C
F

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

Chord Progression III VI IV VII I


Major Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
C Major
G Major
D Major
A Major
E Major
B Major
F# Major
C# Major
F Major
Bb Major
Eb Major
Ab Major
Db Major
Gb Major
Cb Major

Natural Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

VI
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

IV
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

VII
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

I
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

III
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

IV
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

VII
Major
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

P a g e | 65
Harmonic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

Melodic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

IV
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

VII
Diminished 7th
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##
C##
G##

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

C#
F#
B
E
A
D
G

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Diminished
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##

IV
Major
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

VII
Diminished
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##
C##
G##

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

B
E
A
D
G
C
F

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

C#
F#
B
E
A
D
G

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

Chord Progression III VI II VII I


Major Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
C Major
G Major
D Major
A Major
E Major
B Major
F# Major
C# Major
F Major
Bb Major
Eb Major
Ab Major
Db Major
Gb Major
Cb Major

III
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

VI
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

II
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

VII
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

I
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

P a g e | 66
Natural Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

Harmonic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

Melodic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

II
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

VII
Major
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

II
Diminished
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

VII
Diminished 7th
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##
C##
G##

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

C#
F#
B
E
A
D
G

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Diminished
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##

II
Minor
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#

VII
Diminished
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##
C##
G##

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

B
E
A
D
G
C
F

E
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

C#
F#
B
E
A
D
G

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

P a g e | 67

Chord Progression III VI IV V I


Major Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
C Major
G Major
D Major
A Major
E Major
B Major
F# Major
C# Major
F Major
Bb Major
Eb Major
Ab Major
Db Major
Gb Major
Cb Major

Natural Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

Harmonic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

VI
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

IV
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

V
Seventh
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#

I
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

III
Major
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

IV
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

V
Minor
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Major
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#

IV
Minor
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

V
Major
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
Fb

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

P a g e | 68
Melodic Minor
Keys

Roman Numeral
Chord
A Minor
E Minor
B Minor
F# Minor
C# Minor
G# Minor
D# Minor
A# Minor
D Minor
G Minor
C Minor
F Minor
Bb Minor
Eb Minor
Ab Minor

III
Augmented
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

VI
Diminished
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
F##

IV
Major
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#

V
Major
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#

I
Minor
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

B
E
A
D
G
C
F

G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

Chord Progression I IV V
12-Bar Blues

Roman Numeral
Chord
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#

I
Seventh
C7
G7
D7
A7
E7
B7
F#7
C#7

IV
Seventh
F7
C7
G7
D7
A7
E7
B7
F#7

V
Seventh
G7
D7
A7
E7
B7
F#7
C#7
G#7

F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

F7
Bb7
Eb7
Ab7
Db7
Gb7
Cb7

Bb7
Eb7
Ab7
Db7
Gb7
Cb7
Fb7

C7
F7
Bb7
Eb7
Ab7
Db7
Gb7

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Chord Progression Ascending Fourths [Practice all chord types]


F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

Gb

Cb/B

Eb

Bb

Chord Progression Descending Fourths [Practice all chord types]


F

Cb/B

Gb

Db

Ab

P a g e | 70

Chord Progression Ascending Fifths [Practice all chord types]


F

F#

C#

G#

D#

A#

Chord Progression Descending Fifths [Practice all chord types]


F

A#

D#

G#

C#

F#