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AS Level Geography

Exam Board OCR AS Level Geography H083


In the AS course you will study how the physical environment can be
managed. We will look closely at how the environment is affected by
rivers, coastal forces and hot/cold weather conditions. We will also
study the managing of change in human environments, including rural,
urban, energy issues and the growth of tourism.
Topics that will be studied are
Managing
Physical
Environments

River Environments
Coastal Environments
Hot Arid / Semi Arid Environments

Managing
change in
human
environments

Managing Urban Change


Managing Rural Change
The Growth of Tourism

Core book list


OCR AS Level Geography Heinemann ISBN No = 9780435357535

OCR AS Level Geography Philip Allan ISBN No = 9780340947951

Reading list
Geography in Focus Causeway Press ISBN No 978-1873929919
Geography An Integrated Approach Nelson Thornes ISBN No =
978-1408504079

Revision Guides
OCR Revise Geography Heinemann ISBN No = 978-0435357702
OCR Geography Managing Physical Environments Philip
Allan ISBN No = 978-1444171792

OCR Geography Managing Change in Human


Environments Philip Allan ISBN No = 978-1444171822

Useful Websites:
https://vle.whs.bucks.sch.uk/course/view.php?id=1365
Lots of animations and video clips
www.bbc.co.uk Useful for researching current and past
news on Geographical topics.
http://www.ocr.org.uk/qualifications/as-a-level-gcegeography-h083-h483/ Exam information and past
papers and mark schemes.
www.s-cool.co.uk A range of topics covered. Useful for
revision of key concepts and processes

Checklists
River Environments
1. The factors and processes responsible for distinctive fluvial landforms
Physical
Climate evaporation, temperature, precipitation type and volume
Relief slope, altitude and base level
Rock type geology, structure, beds, porosity and tilt of rocks
Vegetation type and percentage of cover
Human
Water supply abstraction
Channel work dams, weirs, embankments, straightening, widening,
deepening, dredging, flood prevention and meander management
Drainage soils, from industries and roads, etc
Agriculture crops, deforestation, irrigation and drainage
Urbanisation impervious surfaces and channel controls
Transport canalisation, bridges and weirs
Time
Feature development, climatic changes and tectonic changes
Processes
Erosion hydraulic, attrition, corraison solution
Transport traction, saltation, suspension, solution, floatation
Deposition heaviest is dropped first
Landforms
Erosion waterfalls, potholes, valleys, meanders, caves, rapids
Deposition deltas, levees, oxbows, meanders
2. Ways in which river basins can be multi-use resources
Residential
Settlements are located on or near rivers because of the flat land and
development
water supply, e.g. 90% of Egypts population live by the Nile
Power source
Hydroelectric power, e.g. the Aswan dam on the Nile
Industrial
Fishing, tourism and heavy industry that requires flat land and a water
development
supply
Minerals
Sediments, oil, gas, gravel, e.g. gas in the Nile delta
Services
Tourism, recreation, waste tourism (cruises)

Agriculture

Fish farming and arable farming (fertile silts), e.g. cash and
subsistence farming in Egypt depend upon irrigation from Nile
Transport
Ports, bulk cargo ports, cheap bulk transport
Conservation
Nature reserves
3. Issues that can arise from the development of river basins
Flooding
Pressure to develop on flood plains can make them increasingly
vulnerable to flooding. Some areas are naturally vulnerable as flat and
low lying e.g. Mississippi delta area
Flood
To protect property, land, the transport infrastructure and conserve the
prevention
local environment (historic and biotic). It can have negative impacts in
other areas so you need to weigh up costs versus benefits
Methods
Hard and soft engineering, planning restrictions, planned retreat, do
nothing
Location
Flood plains, channels, catchment, channel and valley sides
Types
Afforestation, banning building, embankments, diversion channels,
dams, storage lakes, channel straightening, widening and deepening
4. Management challenges associated with the development of the river landscape
Planning
Balancing environmental and socio-economic needs including costs
(short term and long term); technology, political will, time, scale,
knowledge of the issues and the wider impact
Rivers often flow from one country or district to another and may cross
different administrative boundaries. Many different types of planning
authorities may have an interest in any one river
Rivers are difficult to manage as they change course, are fluid and are
influenced by the climate

Coastal Environments
1. The factors and processes responsible for distinctive coastal landscapes and landforms
Physical
Climate wind speed and direction, precipitation
Relief slope, altitude, sea level, water depth, direction of coast
Rock type geology, structure: faults, beds, porosity, tilt of rocks
Vegetation type and percent cover
Human
Material supply gravel abstraction
Coastal management coastal defences, planning, flood prevention
Tourism and recreation, e.g. trampling
Urbanisation
Transport ports, bridges, airports
Time
Features develop
Climatic change
Tectonic changes
Processes
Marine erosion, transport, deposition (on-shore versus long-shore)
Other weathering, mass movement, river, wind, human activity
Landforms
Erosion cliffs, caves, arches, stacks, bays, platforms
Deposition spits, bars, beaches, salt marshes, dunes, cusps
2. Ways in which coasts can be protected from the effects of natural processes
Coastal
To protect property, land, the transport infrastructure, to aid tourism
protection
and conserve the local environment (historic and biotic). It can have
negative impacts in other areas so you need to weigh up costs versus
benefits
Methods
Hard and soft engineering, planning restrictions, planned retreat, do
nothing
Where
Beaches, cliff foot, cliff face, cliff top
Types
Beach replenishment, rock armour, groynes, sea walls, revetments,
tetrapods, gabions, rip-rap, grading cliffs, planting vegetation,
drainage, piling
3. Ways in which coastal areas can be used as multi-use resources
Residential
Settlements are located near the coast because of the flat land, e.g.

development
Thames Gateway, Canvey Island
Power source
Thermal, nuclear and tidal, e.g. oil fired power station at Tilbury
Industrial
Fishing, tourism and heavy industry that requires flat land and a water
development
supply
Minerals
Sediments, oils and gas, e.g. sand and gravel from the river bed
Services
Tourism, recreation, waste, e.g. Londons waste
Agriculture
Fish farming and grazing on salt marshes, e.g. Kent
Transport
Ports, bulk cargo ports, e.g. ferry and container, Tilbury
Conservation
Nature reserves, e.g. Maplin sands
Other
Army ranges, e.g. Shoeburyness
4. Management challenges associated with the development of coastal areas
Planning
Balancing environmental and socio-economic needs including costs
(short term and long term); technology, political will, time, scale,
knowledge of the issues and the wider impact
Coastal areas are overseen by a range of types of planning authorities
e.g. local authorities, charities e.g. National Trust, National Park
Authorities, private land owners e.g. Duchy of Cornwall, conservation
bodies e.g. the RSPB and other groups such as the military or
industrial and mining companies.

Hot Arid and Semi Arid Environments


1. Processes and factors that give hot arid and semi-arid environments their distinctive
characteristics
Weathering
Exfoliation, granular disintegration, block disintegration, wet/dry,
pressure release, hot/cold, vegetation, solution, acid action, salt
crystalisation
Erosion
Wind action (deflation hollows, yardangs, zeugens) flash-floods (or
historical wadi, gullies, pediment) and exotic rivers (canyon)
Transport
Mass movement (creep, slides), flash-floods, wind
Deposition
Wind (ripples, ridges, barchan dune, seif dune), flash-floods (salt pan,
sabkha, playa)
Factors
Climate arid, windy, extreme temperatures, sudden storms
Relief and landforms e.g. dunes
Drought resistant ecosystem
Traditional way of life oasis versus nomadic
Resource development minerals, tourism
2. Why hot arid and semi-arid environments are considered to be fragile
Climate
Extreme with sudden events, e.g. sand storm
Water
Delicate nature of supply (surface and sub-surface)
Energy
Low-energy environment (low inputs dry but high sun energy)
Nutrients
Low nutrient stores, vulnerable flows fierce competition
Species
Limited range limited gene pool and food chains
Population
Traditionally low and self-sufficient
3. Issues associated with the development of hot arid and semi-arid environments
Opportunities
Settlement military bases, resorts, e.g. Las Vegas
Power production wind, solar
Industry tourism, hi-tech, e.g. USA
Mining oil, gas, ores
Agriculture grazing, irrigated farming
Transport railway, e.g. Southern Australia
Issues
Conflicts between activities
Need to protect and conserve fragile environment
Indigenous cultures often nomadic. Desire to protect cultures.
Unclear international boundaries e.g. so called neutral territories
Cost of offsetting conditions
4. Management challenges to ensure sustainability of hot arid and semi-arid environments

Physical

Human

Climate harsh and extreme (dust storms)


Relief shifting sands, steep slopes
Vegetation thin and tough
Drainage lack of water
Ecosystem hostile or low productivity
Soils extreme alkaline (salts)
High-cost environment (water, cost of keeping cool)
Remote and land transport difficult
Pollution threats, e.g. oil
Waste disposal
Existing indigenous populations
Need for conservation

Managing Change in Urban Environments


1. Factors influencing the characteristics of urban areas
Physical
Climate, relief, drainage, rock type
Economic
Transport routes (sectors Hoyt)
Ability to out bid for sites (Burgess)
Size of site available
Mutual attraction/repulsion (Harris and Ullman)
Social
Historical inertia, conservation, reputation
Mutual attraction/repulsion
Land ownership estate development
Religious factors
Political
Planning controls land-use zoning
Need for centrality or safety
Characteristics
Shape, form, layout, density, building types
Population features e.g. number, age, ethnicity, socio-economic
Land uses industrial, housing, recreational, commercial, retail
2. The social and economic issues associated with urban change
Population
Migration, birth rate, ethnic mix, age structure
Mobility
Private and public transport
Income
Increased or decreased inequalities in wealth or income
Political
Planning initiatives and their impacts, local tax, land-use zoning
Employment
Structure industrial versus service employment, changing
technology, unemployment
Public services
Cost and viability type, location, post code lottery
3. The environmental issues associated with urban change
Pollution
Air, water, noise, visual, solids
Water
Scarcity (transfer schemes, use of aquifers, reservoir building)
Traffic
Congestion, pollution, land use (roads, car parks, garages, etc.)
Land
Pressure on marginal land and ecosystems (parks, conservation,
green belts)
Micro-climate
Heat island, wind channelling, higher rainfall, smog
Dereliction
Visual pollution, safety, health
4. Management challenges to ensure sustainability
Physical
Climate creation of urban micro-climate
Relief building on unsuitable sites e.g. steep slope
Drainage lack of, water shortage
Vegetation loss of habitats
Pollution air, water, land, noise, visual

Economic

Social

Settlement housing quality and quantity, cost


Power shortage, reliability, cost
Industry lack of jobs or low pay, exploitation
Services lack of sufficient schools, clinics etc
Transport congestion, poor public transport
Wealth inequality and deprivation
Ethnic tensions
High cost of social support
Inner-city decay
Slums and shanties
Crime and security

Managing Change in Rural Environments


1. Factors influencing the characteristics of rural land use
Physical
Climate, relief, drainage, soil type, rock type
Economic
Transport routes
Accessibility to large urban area
Ability to out bid for sites
Size of site available
Mutual attraction/repulsion
Social
Historical inertia, conservation, reputation
Mutual attraction/repulsion
Land ownership estate development e.g. National Trust
Religious factors
Political
Planning controls National Parks, SSSIs, Nature reserves
Controls on farming e.g. CAP, set-a-side
Development schemes e.g. release of green belt
Government uses e.g. military ranges
Characteristics
Land use crops, pasture, woods, reservoirs, moorland, recreation
Population number, age/sex, socio-economic, ethnicity, migration
Activities farming, mining, industry, parks, conservation, water
2. The social and economic issues associated with rural change
Population
In and out migration, birth rate, ethnic mix, age structure ageing
Mobility
Increased private and cost and availability of public transport
Income
Increased or decreased, income/wealth inequalities
Political
Impact of planning initiatives/controls, conservation areas etc
Employment
Decline of agricultural and services, changing technology
Public services
Growth or decline, type, location loss of rural culture
3. The environmental issues associated with rural change
Pollution
Air, water (eutrophication), noise, visual, solids
Water
Scarcity (transfer schemes, use of aquifers, reservoir building)
Traffic
Congestion, pollution, land use (roads, car parks, garages etc.)
Habitat
Direct and indirect, species diversity
destruction
Disease
Accident e.g. Foot and Mouth or planned
introduction
New species
Accidentally or planned
introduction
Dereliction
Visual pollution, safety, health
4. Management challenges to ensure sustainability
Physical
Relief building on unsuitable sites e.g. steep slope
Drainage water shortage, pollution
Vegetation loss of habitats
Pollution air, water, land, noise, visual

Economic

Social

Sustainability

Settlement housing quality and quantity, cost


Power shortage, reliability, cost
Industry lack of jobs or low pay, migrant labour
Services lack of sufficient schools, shops, clinics etc.
Transport cost, poor public transport
Wealth inequality and deprivation
Cultural change
Age profile dependency ratio, birth rates, social services
Migration depopulation
In terms of culture, employment, population, environment, viability
Idea of green technology, integrated management, key settlements

The Growth of Tourism


1. Factors in the changing of global pattern of tourism
Increased leisure time/paid holidays
Cheaper faster types of transport especially air
Active marketing by resorts and travel firms
Increased incomes more spare
Increased psychological need to escape
Rise in lifestyle expectations
Increased education about other areas and their cultures
Spread of English language
Increased media coverage
LEDCs see it as a means to develop
2. Changes in the location and type of tourism
By Location
Increased travel to remoter areas or niche markets
Increased internal as well as international travel
Longer distances travelled and multi-centre holidays more popular
By type
Purpose has increased in range e.g. active (sport) versus passive
(sun)
Duration has increased in range e.g. day trips versus longer trips
Direction has increased in variety e.g. local, international, peak and
off season trips
Destination has increased in variety e.g. enclave, nomadism and
resorts
Impact e.g. ecotourism versus purpose built resort
3. Social, economic and environmental impacts and issues associated with the growth of tourism
Physical
Encourages conservation e.g. National Parks
Encourages control of pollution, dereliction etc
Encourages coastal and river protection
Search for and development of new resources e.g. water
Economic
Creation of employment - easy to enter industry
Increased investment in infrastructure - roads, power etc
Increased demand for local farm produce (move to cash farming)
Demand for craft industries, shops, services etc
Earns foreign currency - balance of payments
Can lead or focus development due to multiplier effect
Social
Improved education to meet needs of tourists
Improved health services
Traditional cultures preserved
Restrictive cultures made more liberal
Introduces new ideas and expectations
4. Management challenges to ensure sustainability
Physical
Construction destroys natural beauty/habitats
Pollution - water, air, noise, litter, sewage

Economic

Social

Destruction of wildlife (disruption of breeding and taken as souvenirs


Water problems - loss of surface and groundwater
Resource depletion e.g. building materials, fuel
Soil erosion e.g. trampling
Increased imports (cost) of food etc
Rise in prices e.g. food, land etc
Agriculture shifts to commercial so loss of stable food crops
Most profits leave area
Low paid seasonal part-time and menial jobs
Cost - takes money away from other areas/issues
Huge drain on power and water supplies
Urban coastal sprawl
Cost of infrastructure e.g. roads, airport
Moral corruption vice, crime
Increased inequalities them and us
Loss of traditional culture, language, values
Cultural colonialism

Year 11 to 12 Bridging work


Stepping up from GCSE to A Level study can be both a rewarding and
exciting time. However, it is also likely to present you with huge
challenges in terms of your subject knowledge and independent learning
skills.
To help prepare you for this transition the Geography Department would
like you to undertake a summer research activity, to be handed in on the
first day of the new course in September.
We will start with a unit of work on River Environments. As this is a topic
you have already covered at GCSE we feel confident that you will be up to
the following challenge!

The River Tees Case Study


Write your own detailed case study of the location and key features of the
River Tees (England).
You must include:
1. A detailed description of the rivers location (including maps).
2. A description of the different river landforms that can be found along its
course e.g. meanders.
3. A photograph of High Force waterfall with labels to describe the
characteristics of the rocks and the processes that have led to its
formation.
4. A detailed explanation of how High Force waterfall and gorge were
formed.
5. A description of the human uses of the Tees valley.
This task is an opportunity to show that you are both a good independent
learner and a committed Geographer. We look forward to seeing what you
are really capable of when working without the support of your GCSE
teacher.

Developing as an independent learner


To further support the development of your independent learning skills we
would also like you to get into the habit of watching/reading/listening to
the news on a regular basis. In particular the Guardian Newspaper website
has a section dedicated to news stories about the environment, which
often have strong links with the six topics we will be studying at AS Level
(Rivers, Coasts, Hot Arid and Semi-Arid Environments, Urban Change,
Rural Change and Tourism)
www.guardian.co.uk/environment