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-1CONTENTS

2.
Present Simple
5.
Present Continuous
7.
Past Simple
9.
Past Continuous
10. Present Perfect Simple
12. Present Perfect Continuous
13. Future Simple
14. 'Going to'
15. Gerunds and Infinitives
17. Modal verbs: can, could, should, must
18. Passive voice
22. Reported Speech / Reporting verbs
24. Complex sentences
First and second conditional;
Time clauses: as soon as, when, while, before, after;
Defining and non defining relative clauses;
Verbs: cause, make, let, enable, allow, stop, prevent (from);
In order to, by means of;
Due to, owing to, because of, as a result;
15.
Questions
16.
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
17.
Prepositions
18.
Constructions:
have to vs. Must
can vs. be able to
to be possible
be capable of
succeed in
manage to
have / get something done
-2PRESENT SIMPLE
To be
affirmative
I
I am.
he/she/it
He is.
you/we/they You are.

affirmative
I/you/we/
they

I have got. /
I have.

negative
I am not.
He is not.
You are not.
To have
negative
I have not got. /
I do not have.

question
Am I?
Is he?
Are you?

question
Have I got? /
Do I have?

he/she/it

He has got. /
He has.

He has not got. / Has he got? / Does


He does not have. he have?

Other verbs
affirmative
negative
I/you/we/
they
he/she/it

question

I play.

I do not play.

Do I play?

He plays.

He does not play.

Does he play?

Exceptions in Spelling
Exception
The verbs can, may, might, must remain the same
in all forms. So don't add -s.
Verbs ending in o or a sibilant (ch, sh, s, x) add es
instead of s.
A finaly after a consonant becomes ie before s.
(but: don't modify after a vowel)

Example
he can, she may,
it must
do - he does,
wash - she washes
worry - he worries
(but: play - he plays

-3Short Forms
affirmative

negative

I am English. = I'm English.

I am not English. = I'm not English.


We are not English. = We're not /
We are English.= We're English.
We aren't English.
He is not English. = He's not /
He is English. = He's English.
He isn't English.
I have not got a dog. = I've not got
I have got a dog. = I've got a dog.
a dog. / I haven't got a dog.
He has not got a dog. = He's not
He has got a dog. = He's got a dog.
got a dog. / He hasn't got a dog.
I do not play tennis. = I don't play
tennis.
He does not play tennis = He
doesn't play tennis.
Use
Use
action in the present taking place once,
never or several times
actions in the present taking place one after
another
facts (something is generally known to be
true)
action set by a timetable or schedule
verbs of possession, senses, emotions and

Example
Colin always plays soccer
on Tuesdays.
She takes her bag and
leaves.
The sun sets in the west.
The train leaves at 9 pm.
I love her.

mental activity
-4Typical Signal Words
always
every
often
normally
usually
sometimes
seldom
never

-5PRESENT CONTINOUS
Form
affirmative
I
he, she, it
you, we,
they

I am playing.
He is playing.
You are
playing.

negative
I am not playing.
He is not playing.

question
Am I playing?
Is he playing?

You are not playing. Are you playing?

Exceptions in Spelling
Exeption
Silent e is dropped before ing (but:ee is not
changed)
final consonant after short, stressed vowel is
doubled
final consonant l after vowel is always
doubled (in British English)
Ie becomes y before ing

Example

come - coming (but:


agree - agreeing)
sit - sitting
travel - travelling
lie - lying

Short Forms
positiv

negativ

I am playing. - I'm playing. I am not playing. - I'm not playing.


He is playing. He is not playing. - He's not playing. / He
He's playing.
isn't playing.
We are playing. We are not playing. - We're not
We'replaying.
playing. /We aren't playing.

-6Use
Use
actions taking place at the moment of
speaking (now)
arrangements for the near future
actions taking place only for a limited
period of time
actions taking place around now (but not
at the moment of speaking)
development, changing situations

Example
He is playing football.
I'm going to the theatre
tonight.
Jim is helping in his
brother's firm this week.
I'm studying for my exams.
The population of China is
rising very fast.

Typical Signal Words


at the moment
now / just now / right now
Listen!
Look!

-7PAST SIMPLE
Form of Simple Past
Positive
no
differences

I spoke.

Negative
I did not speak.

Question
Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form . For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed


Exceptions in spelling when adding ed
Example
after a final e only add d
final consonant after a short, stressed
vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is
doubled
Final y after a consonant becomes i

love loved
admit admitted
travel travelled
hurry hurried

Use of Simple Past


action in the past taking place once, never or several times
Example: He visited his parents every weekend.
actions in the past taking place one after the other
Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.
action in the past taking place in the middle of another action
Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
if sentences type II (If I talked, )
Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.
-8Signal Words of Simple Past
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, )

-9PAST CONTINUOUS
Form
Positive
I / he / she / it
you / we / they

I was speaking.
You were speaking.

Negative
I was not speaking.
You were not speaking.

Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing
Final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed)

Question
Was I speaking?
Were you speaking?

Example
Come coming
(but: agree-agreeing)

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is


Sit sitting
doubled
L as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in
Travel travelling
British English)
Final ie becomes y
Lie lying
Use of Past Progressive
puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past

Example: He was playing football.


two actions happening at the same time (in the past)
Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes.
action going on at a certain time in the past
Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
Signal Words of Past Progressive
when, while, as long as

-10PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


Form of Present Perfect
Positive

Negative

Question

I/you/we/they I have spoken. I have not spoken.


he/she/it
He has spoken. He has not spoken.

Have I spoken?
Has he spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the participle form. For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed


Exceptions in spelling when adding ed
Example
after a final e only add d
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
Final y after a consonant becomes i

love loved
admit admitted
travel travelled
hurry hurried

Use of Present Perfect


puts emphasis on the result
Example: She has written five letters.
action that is still going on
Example: School has not started yet.
action that stopped recently
Example: She has cooked dinner.
finished action that has an influence on the present
Example: I have lost my key.
action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment
of speaking
Example: I have never been to Australia.

-11Signal Words of Present Perfect


already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

-12PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Form of Present Perfect Progressive
Positive

Negative

Question

I / you / we /
they

I have been speaking.

I have not been speaking.

Have I been speaking?

he / she / it

He has been speaking.

He has not been speaking.

Has he been
speaking?

Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing
Final e is dropped(but ee is not changed)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final

Example

come coming
(but: agree agreeing)
Sit sitting

consonant is doubled
L as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
TraveL travelling
(in British English)
Final ie becomes y
Lie Lying
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
action that recently stopped or is still going on
Example: I have been living here since 2001.
finished action that influenced the present
Example: I have been working all afternoon.
Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

-13FUTURE SIMPLE
Form of Future
positive
no
differences

negative

I will speak. I will not speak.

question
Will I speak?

Use of will Future


a spontaneous decision
example: Wait, I will help you.
an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future
example: He will probably come back tomorrow.
a promise
example: I will not watch TV tonight.
an action in the future that cannot be influenced
example: It will rain tomorrow.
conditional clauses type I
example: If I arrive late, I will call you.
Signal Words
in a year, next, tomorrow
Vermutung: I think, probably, perhaps

-14'GOING TO'
Form of going to Future
positive
I
I am going to speak.
you/we/
You are going to speak.
they
he/ she / it He is going to speak.

negative
I am not going to speak.
You are not going to speak.
He is not going to speak.

question
Am I going to speak?
Are you going to
speak?
Is he going to speak?

Use of going to Future


an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared.
example: I am going to study harder next year.
a conclusion regarding the immediate future.
example: The sky is absolutely dark. It is going to rain.
Signal Words
in one year, next week, tomorrow

-15GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

GERUND

Form
ing form of the verb
Exceptions in Spelling
See Present Progressive Exceptions
Use
Certain words are followed by an ing-Form.
Use and Word Lists

Example

as the subject of a clause


after certain adjectives

Cycling is good for your health.


Hes afraid of going by plane.

after certain prepositions

Before going to bed he turned off the


lights.

after certain verbs

I enjoy cooking.

after certain verbs with prepositions

after certain nouns

I am looking forward to seeing you


again.
We had problems finding our way back
home.

Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form


Use and Word Lists
Example
same meaning
same meaning but
different use
different meaning

I started to read. / I started reading.

infinitive or present
participle

I saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up


the stairs.

She forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.


He stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.
-16-

Infinitive

Use
Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without to.
Use and Word Lists
as the subject of a clause
after certain expressions (withoutto)
after certain verbs (withoutto)
after certain verbs (withto)
after certain verbs with interrogatives
(infinitive constructions)
after certain verbs with objects
(without to)
after certain verbs with objects
(withto)

Example
To know you is to love you.
Why not go to the cinema?
I can swim.
He wants to swim.
They dont know how to swim.
He made her swim.
They wanted him to swim.

after certain adjectives and their


comparisons

Its easier to swim downstream.

after nouns deriving from the verbs


mentioned above

We made a promise to swim.


(derived from the verb to
promise)

-17MODAL VERBS: CAN, COULD, SHOULD, MUST...


They express an ability, permission, wish etc. to do something. (I may, can,
must swim.) Many modal verbs cannot be used in all of the English tenses.
That's why we need to know the substitutes to these modal verbs.
Modal Verb

Substitute

must

to have to

must not

not to be allowed to

can
may
need
need not
shall /
should/
ought to

to be able to
to be allowed to
to have to
not to have to
to be supposed to /
to be expected to /
to be to

Example
I must swim. = I have to swim.
I must not swim. = I am not allowed to
swim.
I can swim. = I am able to swim.
I may swim. = I am allowed to swim.
I need to swim. = I have to swim.
I need not swim. = I don't have to swim.
I shall / should / ought to swim. = I am
supposed to swim. / I am expected to
swim. / I am to swim.

-18PASSIVE VOICE
Use of Passive
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not
known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not
know, however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the
following example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame
anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column)
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive
sentence
the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is
dropped)

-19Examples of Passive
Subject
Verb

Tense
Simple
Present
Simple Past

Active
Passive
Active

Rita
A letter
Rita

Object

writes

a letter.

is written

by Rita.

wrote

a letter.

Passive

A letter

was written

by Rita.

Rita

has written

a letter.

Active

Present
Perfect

Passive

A letter
Rita

Active
Future I
Passive

A letter
Rita

Active
Hilfsverben
Passive

A letter

Active

Present
Progressive

Passive

Rita

Passive

Passive

Passive

Passive

Passive

can write

a letter.

can be written

by Rita.

was writing

a letter.

was being written

by Rita.

had written

a letter.

A letter

had been written

by Rita.

Rita

will have written

a letter.

Rita
A letter
Rita

A letter will have been written by Rita.


Rita
A letter

Active
Conditional II

by Rita.

by Rita.

Active

Conditional I

will be written

is being written

A letter

Active

Future II

a letter.

a letter.

Active

Past Perfect

will write

is writing

Active

Past
Progressive

has been written by Rita.

Rita
A letter

would write

a letter.

would be written

by Rita.

would have written

a letter.

would have been


written

by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects


Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one
of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object.
Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the
focus on.
Subject

Verb

Object 1

Object 2

Active:

Rita

wrote

a letter

to me.

Passive:

A letter

was
written

to me

by Rita.

Passive:

was
written

a letter

by Rita.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant.
Thats why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive


Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes
the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object
(transitive verb) can form a personal passive.
Example: They build houses. Houses are built.
Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal
passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the
passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you
need an impersonal construction therefore this passive is calledImpersonal
Passive.
Example: he says it is said
-21Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages
(e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs
of perception (e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men. It is said that women
live longer than men.
Although Impersonal Passive is possible here,Personal Passive is more
common.
Example: They say that women live longer than men. Women are said to live
longer than men.
The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the
sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the
sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary
verbs and that are dropped).
Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect
object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

-22REPORTED SPEECH / REPORTING VERBS


If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speakers
exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you
need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The
structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a
statement, question or request.
Statements
When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
pronouns
present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses (backshift)
Type

Example

direct speech
reported speech
(no backshift)
reported speech
(backshift)

I speak English.
He says that he speaks English.
He said that he spoke English.
Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:


pronouns
present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
place and time expressions
tenses (backshift)

-23Also note that you have to:


transform the question into an indirect question
use the interrogative or if / whether
Type
with
interrogative
without

direct speech
reported
speech
direct speech

Example
Why dont you speak English?
He asked me why I didnt speak
English.
Do you speak English?

Type
interrogative

Example
reported
speech

He asked me whether / if I spoke


English.
Requests

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:


pronouns
place and time expressions
Type

Example

direct speech
reported speech

Carol, speak English.


He told Carol to speak English.

Additional Information and Exeptions


Apart from the above mentioned basic rules, there are further aspects that you
should keep in mind, for example:
main clauses connected with and / but
tense of the introductory clause
reported speech for difficult tenses
exeptions for backshift
requests with must, should,ought to and lets
-24COMPLEX SENTENCES
a) FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONAL
1st conditional
The conditional I simple expresses an action that might take place.
Form
A: He would talk.
N: He would not talk.
Q: Would he talk?
Use
action that might take place
if clause type II (If I were you, I would go home.)
2nd conditional
The conditional II simple expresses an action that could have taken place in the past.

Form
A: He would have talked.
N: He would not have talked.
Q: Would he have talked?
Use
action that could have taken place in the past
if causes type III (If I had seen that, I would have helped.)

-25Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses.


They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without If) can
only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with If) is fulfilled. There are
three types of Conditional Sentences.
Conditional Sentence Type 1
It is possible and alsO very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
Form: if +Simple Present,will-Future
Example:If I find her address, Ill send her an invitation.
Conditional Sentence Type 2
It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
Form:if+Simple Past,Conditional I(= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
Conditional Sentence Type 3
It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the
past.
Form: if +Past Perfect,Conditional II(= would + have + Past Participle)
Example:If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Exceptions
Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other
tenses.

-26b) TIME CLAUSES: AS SOON AS, WHEN, WHILE, BEFORE, AFTER;


Verbs in time clauses and conditionals follow the same patterns as in other
clauses except:
In clauses with time words like when, after, until we often use the present
tense forms to talk about the future:
Ill come home when I finish work.
You must wait here until your father comes.
They are coming after they have had dinner.
in conditional clauses with if or unless we often use the present tense
forms to talk about the future:
We wont be able to go out if it is raining.
If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions.
I will come tomorrow unless I have to look after the children.
We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words:
Ill come home when I will finish work.
We wont be able to go out if it will rain. rains.
It will be nice to see Peter when he will get home gets home.
You must wait here until your father will come comes.
but we can use will if it means a promise or offer:
I will be very happy if you will come to my party.
We should finish the job early if George will help us.
"if" clauses and hypotheses
Some clauses with if are like hypotheses so we use past tense forms to talk
about the present and future.
We use the past tense forms to talk about the present in clauses with if:
for something that has not happened or is not happening:

He could get a new job if he


really tried.
If Jack was playing they

He cannot get a job because he has not


= tried.
=Jack is not playing so they will probably not

would probably win


If I had his address I could
write to him

win.
I do not have his address so I cannot write to
=
him.

We use the past tense forms to talk about the future in clauses with if:
for something that we believe or know will not happen:
We would go by train if it
wasnt so expensive
I would look after the
children for you at the
weekend if I was at home

We wont go by train because it is too


expensive.

I cant look after the children because I will


not be at home.

to make suggestions about what might happen:


If he came tomorrow we could borrow his car.
If we invited John, Mary would bring Angela.
When we are talking about something which did not happen in the past we
use the past perfect in the if clause and a modal verb in the main clause:

If you had seen him you


You did not see him so you could not speak
=
could have spoken to him
to him
You could have stayed with
You couldnt stay with us because you didnt
=
us if you had come to London
come to London.
We have spent all our money so we cant
If we hadnt spent all our money we
=
could take a holiday.
take a holiday
If I had got the job we would
I did not get the job so we are not living in
=
be living in Paris
Paris.
-28If the main clause is about the past we use a modal with have:
If you had seen him you
You did not see him so you could not speak
=
could have spoken to him.
to him.
You could have stayed with
You couldnt stay with us because you didnt
us if you had come to
=
come to London.
London.
If you had invited me I might
= You didnt invite me so I didnt come.
have come.

If the main clause is about the present we use a present tense form or a
modal without have:

If I had got the job we would


I did not get the job so we are not living in
=
be living in Paris now.
Paris now.
If you had done your
You did not do your homework so you do not
homework you would know =
know the answer.
the answer.

C)

DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting
another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more
fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

How to Form Relative Clauses


Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he
knows her. You could say:
A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?
That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you
put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing
you want to know who the girl is.
Do you know the girl
-29As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in
the additional information the girl is talking to Tom. Use the girl only in the
first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative
pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun who). So the final sentence is:
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?
Relative Pronouns
relative
pronoun

who

which
which
whose

use

example

I told you about the


subject or object pronoun for people woman who lives next
door.
Do you see the cat
subject or object pronoun for animals
which is lying on the
and things
roof?
He couldnt read which
referring to a whole sentence
surprised me.
Do you know the boy
possession for people animals and
whose mother is a
things
nurse?

whom

that

object pronoun for people, especially


in non-defining relative clauses (in
defining relative clauses we
colloquially prefer who)
subject or object pronoun for people,
animals and things in defining
relative clauses (who or which are
also possible)

I was invited by the


professor whom I met at
the conference.
I dont like the table that
stands in the kitchen.

-30Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?


Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms - who,
which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however,
distinguish them as follows:
If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject
pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.
the apple which is lying on the table
If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun),
the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in
defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.
the apple (which) George lay on the table
Relative Adverbs
A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition.
This often makes the sentence easier to understand.
This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
This is the shop where I bought my bike.
relative
adverb

meaning

use

example

when

in/on
which

refers to a time
expression

the day when we met him

where

in/at
which

refers to a place

the place where we met him

why

for which refers to a reason

the reason why we met him

-31Defining Relative Clauses


Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive
relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or
expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask
somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of
the five girls you mean.
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?
Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.
A seaman is someone who works on a ship.
Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a
relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.
Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or
non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but
do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.
Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other
and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is
non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.
Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?
Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with
that.
Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.
Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.
-32How to Shorten Relative Clauses?
Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced
with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.
I told you about the woman who lives next door. I told you about the woman
living next door.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Do you see the cat Lying on
the roof?
d) CAUSE, MAKE, LET, ENABLE, ALLOW, STOP, PREVENT (FROM)
Verbs of enablement and obligation, or causative verbs, often cause problems
for students. In English, they have some rather peculiar structures that may not
correspond to structures in your own language. Here are the basic rules, to
help you master these important verbs.
1. Verbs of obligation and permission:
allow, ask, authorise, instruct, invite, leave, oblige, permit, require, tell, want;
After these verbs, the second verb is in the infinitive with to.
Examples:

He told me to hurry.
They allowed us to leave the room.
The man instructed me to come down.
I want you to know I love you.
N.B. With all these verbs, the subordinate clause must be introduced by a
subject, which is also the object of the main clause:
for example, we cannot say:
** The man permitted to open the doors **
** I told not to do that **

-33All the verbs listed can be easily used in the passive except want.
Examples:
The singer was told to come down.
He was invited to give a concert.
She was forbidden to leave the room.
I was required to fill in a form.
They were asked to sit down.

2. Verbs of prevention:
Stop, prevent, hinder:
These verbs are followed by from and an -ing structure. The word from is
essential withhinder, optional with stop and prevent.
Examples:
He hindered us from starting in time.
He stopped me (from) falling in the hole.
They prevented me (from) going out.
Stop is not usually used in the passive, but hinder and prevent easily accept
passive structures:
Examples:
The hooligans were prevented from making trouble.
We were hindered by the bad weather.
Forbid
The verb forbid is followed by a full infinitive with to, just like verbs of
obligation above. It can also be used in the passive
I'm going to forbid the children to stay out after 9 o'clock.
They were forbidden to stay out after nine o'clock at night.

343. Causative verbs - verbs of direct authority:


let, make, have.
With these 3 verbs, the second verb form is the infinitive without to.
Examples:
I let him do it.
He made me sit down.
Have him tell you what he saw!
Of these three verbs, only one can be used in the passive make : Example,
I was made to take off my skates.
Dont confuse let and leave: when followed by an object and a subsidiary
clause, leavemeans abandon, quit.
We left him to get on with his work. (i.e. we went away)
does not mean the same as
We let him get on with his work (i.e. we allowed him to....)
Get.
With this verb, the second verb form is the full infinitive with to.
Examples:
I got the people to read the instructions very carefully.