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H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

1 With reference to prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, which of the following


statement is not true?
A
B
C
D

They both have extrachromosomal DNA.


They both have non-coding regions.
They both have regulatory sequences.
They are both associated with histones.

2 Within a cell, the amount of polypeptide made using a given mRNA molecule
depends partly on
A
B
C
D

the degree of DNA methylation


the rate of which the mRNA is degraded
the presence of transcription factors
the types of ribosomes present in the cytoplasm

3 The diagram below shows how acetylation of histones promotes loose chromatin
structure. Recent evidence has shown that chemical modification of histones play
a direct role in regulation of gene expression.
Which of the following best explains how acetylation regulates gene expression?

histone deacetylase

histone acetylase
histone tail

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

A Helicase action is enhanced by acetylation.


B Acetylation of histones neutralizes their negative charges and encourages
binding to DNA polymerase.
C When nucleosomes are highly acetylated, chromatin becomes less compact
and DNA is more accessible for transcription.
D RNA polymerase works better by binding with acetyl groups.
4 Which of the following is an example of a possible step in the post-transcriptional
control of gene expression?
A The addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases of DNA.
B The binding of transcription factors to a promoter.
C The removal of introns and splicing together of exons.
D Gene amplification during a stage in development.
5 The globin gene family in humans consists of the , and genes. These genes
code for the globin chains that make up haemoglobin and are expressed at
different levels during different developmental stages. The graph shows the
expression of the various globin chains during the prenatal (fetal) and postnatal
(after birth) periods.

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

Which of the following cannot account for the differences in the levels of
expression of globin chains?
A Methyl groups are added to regulatory sequences of -globin genes during
the postnatal period, allowing for some proteins to bind.
B Alternative splicing has occurred to form the mature mRNA of the -globin and
Birth
-globin genes, resulting in differences
in the rate of expression of globin
chains during the prenatal period.
C A growth factor triggers the expression of a transcription factor that increases
the rate of -globin gene expression during the postnatal period.
D The shortening of poly(A) tail in the mRNA of globin genes reduces its
stability, resulting in a decrease in the rate of expression of -globin chains
during the postnatal period.
6 Which of the following experimental procedures is most likely to hasten mRNA
100in a eukaryotic cell?
degradation
A
B
C
D

enzymatic shortening of the poly(A) tail


methylation
ofChains
C nucleotides
% of Globin
removal of the 5' cap
removal of one or more exons
50
Prenatal

Postnatal

7 A geneticist introduces a transgene into yeast cells and isolates five independent
cell lines in which the transgene has integrated into the yeast genome. In four of
the lines, the transgene is expressed strongly, but in the fifth there is no
expression 0 at all. Which is a likely explanation for the lack of transgene
expression in0the 2fifth 4cell 6line?8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
A A transgene integrated into a heterochromatic region of the genome.
Age (months)
B A transgene integrated into a euchromatic
region of the genome
C The transgene was mutated during the process of integration into the host cell
genome
D A transgene integrated into a region of the genome characterized by high
histone acetylation
8 Which of the following about eukaryotic control elements are correct?
1 attachment of RNA polymerase to promoter requires interaction with activator
proteins
2 attachment of activator proteins to enhancers increases the basal activity of
the promoter
3 attachment of activator proteins to silencers suppresses the basal activity of
the promoter
4 enhancers and silencers are DNA sequences usually found upstream of
structural genes and can regulate gene expression
A 2 and 4

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

B 3 and 4
C 1, 2 and 4
D 1, 3 and 4
9 The percentage of the human genome that is transcribed is larger than that
predicted based on the range of proteins made by the cell. Which of the following
accounts for the difference?
A Alternative splicing can result in more than one kind of protein produced from
one gene.
B Some genes are transcribed to produce RNA that is not meant to serve as a
template for protein synthesis.
C The enhancers present in the human genome are also transcribed to bring
about an increase in the transcription of protein-coding genes.
D The telomeric regions are also transcribed to give telomerase, which helps to
maintain the telomere length.

10 The following events occur in the extension of telomeres.


1
2
3
4

Further extension of 3 end of telomere


Translocation of telomerase to end of telomere
Reverse transcription to extend the 3 end of the telomere
Complementary base-pairing of RNA template with single-stranded end
of telomere
DNA polymerase catalyses formation of complementary strand to form
double stranded DNA.

In which order do these events take place?


A
B
C
D

3
3
4
4

2
4
2
3

4
2
3
2

5
1
5
1

1
5
1
5

11 Which of the following methods of regulating gene expression is common to both


prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
A Binding of proteins to control elements
B DNA methylation
C Histone acetylation
D Post-transcriptional modification of RNA

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

12 Which of the following about cancerous cells is false?


A
B
C
D

They are able to divide for a certain number of times and then stop dividing.
They are able to divide further when in contact with neighbouring cells.
They are not able to differentiate properly.
They are not able to exhibit anchorage dependence.

13 Which of the following statements about cancer is / are true?

A
B
C
D

Cancer is a result of increased cell division which promotes the mutation of a protooncogene.

Individuals who inherit one inactive copy of tumour suppressor gene are more likely
to develop cancer than individuals with two non-mutant copies.

Mutagenic activation of a single oncogene is sufficient to convert a normal cell into


a cancer cell.

2 only
1 and 3
2 and 3
All of the above

Fig. 1 below shows the various parts of a gene.

Regulatory sequence 1Regulatory sequence 2


Promoter
E1

Poly(A) addition
Termination
signal
sequence

I1

E2

I2

E3

I3

E4

E = exon, I = intron
Fig. 1

a) Describe the role of regulatory sequence 1 in causing the gene to be expressed. [4]
1) Specific transcription factors activators bind to the enhancers ;
2) This recruits a DNA-bending protein which causes the DNA to bend to bring the
activator close to the promoter;
3) Mediator proteins will bind to the bound activators, recruiting RNA polymerase and
general transcription factors to the promoter;
4) forming the transcription initiation complex on the promoter;
5) transcription of gene at a high rate; @ 1 mark
b) Explain what could happen to gene expression if a short sequence of DNA was inserted
into or near the
(i)
Promoter [2]
1. RNA polymerase may not be able to bind to the disrupted promoter
2. due to sequence not complementary to binding site of RNA polymerase / TATA box
binding protein);

H2 Biology COPEG Extra Lesson

ACJC

3. and so gene becomes transcriptionally inactive / silenced ;


(ii)

Poly(A) addition signal [2]

With the poly(A) addition signal disrupted, the mRNA formed does not have a poly(A) tail;
This decreases the stability of the mRNA/decreases its half-life/causes mRNA to be
degraded ;
Hence gene is less expressed ; @ 1 mark

(c) Describe the role of tumour suppressor genes in normal cells. [2]
Tumour suppressor genes code for proteins which
1. are involved in DNA repair/fixing damaged or broken DNA
2. cause (mutated) cells to undergo apoptosis.
3. control the adhesion of cells to each other or to an extracellular matrix.
4. are components of cell-signalling pathways that inhibit the cell cycle.
@ mk
(d) Predict whether a mutation in the tumour suppressor gene will be a dominant or recessive
mutation. Give reasons for your answer. [2]
1. Recessive mutation.
2. Loss of function mutation, which means that the normal, non-mutated gene can still function
and used for synthesis of tumour suppressor protein;
3. Both genes must be mutated for tumour suppressor protein to be non-functional;
@ 1mk
(e) Describe one other way in which a cells ability to proliferate can become uncontrolled.[4]