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nformation technology and mis

Introduction:
Information technology (IT) and management information systems (MIS) are interchangeable terms
(Kearns, 1997). They are a set of interrelated computerized components that work together to
collect, retrieve, process, store, and distribute information for the purpose facilitating planning,
control, coordination, analysis and decision-making in organizations (Laudon &Laudon, 1998). In the
foodservice industry IT is commonly used for order processing, marketing, accounting, and site
selection of new restaurant units. Whether a small independent or part of a large chain, many
restaurants use established point of sale systems and accounting packages to process financial
data. The Study is running with fully computerised and IS philosophy based so that the company is
controlled in IT infrastructure and IS strategy will be described here for the future benefit of the
company. By adopting frameworks necessary in characterising comprehensiveness, focus and
formulation, firms may be able to increase rationality, while inducing increased participation and
enhanced consistency. Improving the planning cycles of IS and SDLC (System Development Life
Cycle) activities have also been proven instrumental in enhancing planning effectiveness. In some
cases, such difference manifests itself through policies to save all enterprise information indefinitely,
or to delete all data after brief periods of time. Traditional approaches to information management
are often designed to mitigate risk; firms respond to regulatory and compliance requirements.
Information compliance investments, for example, should be cost-managed, as providing compliance
in excess generally adds little value and can be an inhibitor. The information to answer such
questions often exists within an organization's IT systems, and requires minimal effort to answer
once the key questions are identified by the senior executive team and business leaders. Answering
key questions often requires minimal information and investment. Using an experimental approach
similar to statistical sampling can provide the answers to key business questions quickly and
dynamically.

Aims And Purpose Of The Study:


Many firms are focusing on using integrated databases and end-user computing which some experts
believe threatens the role of the 'information provider' in organisations. However, providers of data
have contributions to make associated with decision making which are beyond just interpreting or
supplying information. Some common decision-making-linked roles include facilitating a common
database for group decisions; supplying effort and expertise in gathering information; and providing
audit trails of data associated with certain decisions. Firms interested in maximising the contributions
of 'information providers' are advised to clarify and incorporate providers' roles into the development
of significant information systems within firms
The explosion of data is most apparent in the realm of unstructured data. As businesses strive to
automate processes and extend the IT environment to the point of service, an ever increasing

amount of data is being retained electronically. Lowering the overall cost of ownership associated
with storing and retrieving a growing volume of structured data assets is a challenge, and requires
data and content servers that enable innovation while delivering rock-solid reliability. Flexible storage
options and the know-how to put it all together round out a solution that helps you leverage
information lots of information.

Deploy powerful servers that scale to meet your growing needs.

Reduce the time spent searching for information.

Escalating information volumes put your infrastructure to the test. Delivering high
performance while lowering costs requires.

IBM solutions-simple, flexible and optimized-will help you find the right content and get it to the right
people and business processes at the right time, so you can improve efficiencies, increase
responsiveness, and gain greater insights into your customers, the market and your business.

Leverage and analyze information on demand to optimize all transactions - in the call centre
or in the field, when helping customers or when taking orders.

Overcome the complex architectural and usability issues associated with traditional data
warehouse and business intelligence approaches.

Leverage information for competitive advantage and get more value out of your information

Understanding computer hardware


When you talk about computer hardware, you have to talk about the specifications. On a given
desktop systems describe the speed and capability of that particular computer. If you are about to
buy a computer, you should at least understand enough about each heading below to make an
informed comparison between two different machines with different configurations.
CPU - central processing unit
At the core is the processor. Speed is measured in Mhz. One other parameter of the CPU to
investigate is the L1 cache, commonly from 256 kilobytes and up.
RAM - random access memory
This determines how many files you can open at once; also ram is a form of computer data storage.
So if ram is high computer performance should be better.
Hard disk capacity
Hard disk is measured in MB (megabyte) or GB (gigabyte). With the advent of so many massstorage devices (zip drive, CD-R, super drive, etc...) and networks where files and applications can
be archived, huge disks (many GB) are very handy, but hardly necessary for most users. No matter

what size your hard drive, you should keep it clean by weeding out outdated, redundant, and useless
information (files and folders).
Cache memory
Check the upgradeability of your cache memory to fine tune your computer. The cache memory is a
special type of RAM which the processor uses to store data in while it is working. The level 1 cache
(or L1) is physically located on the CPU chip (and hence cannot be upgraded, unless you upgrade
the CPU), whereas the level 2 cache (L2) is located on the motherboard, and can be upgraded
separately.
Video card/VSA card
The amount of RAM and quality (and number) of microprocessors on the video card determine
things like how big a monitor you can use, how large a window you can display video on, and the
speed with which large complex graphic images display. Some of the newer video cards have 4 MB,
8 MB or more. Sometimes it is possible to upgrade a video card by adding a graphics accelerator
card rather than replacing the video card with another newer version.
Sound card
The MIDI standard is used to convey music from computer to computer, (or keyboard to computer
etc...) and most good soundcards will play at least 32 MIDI voices. The other aspect of a soundcard
is how well it plays digital sound files (like from a CD). Most of them do this extremely well also. If
you are interested in music or sound, you want to investigate the software that comes bundled with
your soundcard (or whatever software you have purchased to work with your soundcard).
Traditionally, the sound card also has a port on it to plug in your joystick(s) if you play games on the
computer.
Removable storage
Choices range from 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drives, 100MB zip drives, 120MB super drives, 650MB CDR, and on up to 1.5GB removable hard drive cartridges and higher now. Of course there are
thousands of other choices including tape, optical drives, and surely many more available.
Remember to price the storage media per Megabyte when buying. I personally like the CD-R idea
since more people have CD-ROMs to read the recorded data.
A programmable machine, two principal characteristics of a computer are:

It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.

It can execute a pre-recorded list of instructions (a program).

Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits
-- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.
A computer network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network
allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. The

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed "Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network" (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defence. It was the first computer
network in the world in late 1960s and early 1970s.
Computers can be generally classified by size and power; as follows, though there is considerable
overlap:
Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the
microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying
information, and a storage device for saving data.
Workstation: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a
more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.
Minicomputer: A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users
simultaneously.
Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of
users simultaneously.
Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per
second.
Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between
computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to
each other with the ability to exchange data.

Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small
geographic area.

Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic
area.

Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and
WAN.

Difference & Analysis Between IS And IT


In a general sense, the term Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and
activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization's
manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computerbased information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data
records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the
organization.
Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA),
is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based

information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the
use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect process, transmit, and
securely retrieve information.
The new information technology (IT) infrastructure: The new IT infrastructure links desktop
workstations, network computers, LANs, and server computers in an enterprise network so that
information can flow freely between different parts of the organization. The enterprise network may
also be linked to kiosks, point-of-sale (POS) terminals, PDAs and information appliances, digital
cellular telephones and PCS, and mobile computing devices as well as to the Internet using public
infrastructures. Customers, suppliers, and business partners may also be linked to the organization
through this new IT infrastructure.
Understand Computer-Aided tools
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), in the field of Software Engineering is the scientific
application of a set of tools and methods to software which is meant to result in high-quality, defectfree, and maintainable software products. It also refers to methods for the development of
information systems together with automated tools that can be used in the software development
process.
The term "Computer-aided software engineering" (CASE) can refer to the software used for the
automated development of systems software, i.e., computer code. The CASE functions include
analysis, design, and programming. CASE tools automate methods for designing, documenting, and
producing structured computer code in the desired programming language.
This is the model for an extra net.
IS (information system) design for a mobile phone company:
As I have to design one company's IS design I choice the phone company. In this IS design
everything is shown as far I know. This mobile company will be connected intranet system to every
department. We know that intranet system will work with the internal system. With the intranet
system every department will be very helpful as if they need any information they can easily get via
the computer. Also they need the pc to every department. It is also connected to the internet to
communicate. Using the internet they also benefitted to get the information. They need to build up a
website where they can put all the information. So customer relationship will be build via the internet.
Also customer can know the product and offer via internet.
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a) What information would you require to make such decisions?
Strategic planning deals with the determination of the objectives, resources, and policies of the
organization. In this case, management has their planning and control of their restaurant business.
The system provides up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks out
percentages showing sales of each item versus total sales. This helps management plan menus
according to customers' tastes. The system also compares the weekly sales totals versus food
costs, allowing planning for tighter cost controls.

Managerial Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and
directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective
action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are
achieved in desired manner.
Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking
corrective action. Thus, control comprises these three main activities.
In this case, this system helps management plan menus according to customers' tastes. The system
also compares the weekly sales totals versus food costs, allowing planning for tighter cost controls.
In addition, whenever an order is voided, the reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in
management decisions, especially if the voids consistently related to food or service.
Operational control serves to regulate the day-to-day output relative to schedules, specifications,
and costs.
The most difficult task of management concerns monitoring the behaviour of individuals, comparing
performance to some standard and providing rewards or punishment as indicated. Sometimes this
control over people relates entirely to their output. For example, a manager might not be concerned
with the behaviour of a salesman as long as sales were as high as expected. In other instances,
close supervision of the salesman might be appropriate if achieving customer satisfaction were one
of the sales organization's main objectives.
In this case study, acceptance of the system by the users is exceptionally high since the waiters and
waitresses were involved in the selection and design process. All potential users were asked to give
their impressions and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen. This is
their Operational control part.
After studying this case I find that up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks
out percentages showing sales of each item versus total sales. Whenever an order is voided, the
reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions, especially if the
voids consistently related to food or service. And all potential users were asked to give their
impressions and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen.
b) What would make the system a more complete MIS rather than just doing transaction process?
This business can be more MIS if management provide and use more information related to the
business. This system helps management to taka decision. Its out of stoke' process shows that
which items is doing more business and which is doing less. Then they can decide which product
they need to emphasize more. End of month they can analyse the data of four week.
Other features such as order void system check listing, item sales, total sales, customer opinions
etc. can make this system more complete MIS rather than transaction process.
c) Explain the probable effects that making the system more formal would have on the customers
and the management

A waiter takes an order at a table, and then enters it online via one of the six terminals located in the
restaurant dining room. The order is routed to a printer in the appropriate preparation area: the cold
item printer if it is a salad, the hot-item printer if it is a hot sandwich or the bar printer if it is a drink. A
customer's meal check-listing (bill) the items ordered and the respective prices are automatically
generated.
When the kitchen runs out of a food item, the cooks send out an out of stock' message, whenever
an order is voided, the reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in management
decisions, especially if the voids consistently related to food or service.
All potential users were asked to give their impression and ideas about the various systems
available before one was chosen
Above mentioned functions make this system more formal on customer and the management.
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a) What security loopholes come to the fore in the situation described? How can these be plugged?
If we plunged in to this case we find that while assessing hardware and software requirements, it
was found that out of the 364 desktops at the corporate office; more than half did not have their
antivirus software updated with recent virus signature files. Three - fourths had not changed the
default e-mail password (it was the user name) and no one had installed OS patches. And one of its
local mail servers seemed to be an open relay! For a fleeting moment, system manager of SystemX
wondered about the situation at the seven branch offices across the country.
SystemX used the Net extensively in dealing with its branches, customers and suppliers. Information
like contract documents, marketing plans, Cheque and Draft numbers, bank account details and
collection details were regularly transmitted by e-mail. These loopholes come into our mind.
These loopholes can be plugged, if they update their antivirus which is virus signature files free.
Because they use e-mail, and Net extensively so they need strong security measure in order to
secure their system.
b) What is the importance of a security budget in the context of the given situation?
Security budget is one of the important parts of every business. In this context Security Budget is
very important. They need to provide security to their system. If manager recommends for appointing
a new security consultant then it may not be granted because of budget. Any how they need to
provider security.
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a) What systems propose that would serve the company's need?
The multibase company limited has so many manufacturing products. It is very difficult to control the
whole company's activities. On the other hand now it is the age of information technology so we
should use this technology to everywhere. I propose that we can use the CBIS means computer
base information system.

b) Complete overhaul of the systems or add functionalities of the existing systems? Justify the line of
action.
This company has a CBIS which are prepared the performance of every unit though weekly and
monthly reports. With this reports headquarters always analyze and make the decision such as
capacity expansion, procurement of new technology involving substantial investment, etc. This helps
the companies planning and control.
c) Justify the requirement of chief information officer (CIO) in the context given case let.
The cio of the company has thus propose to develop suitable computer base systems which might
be helpful in understanding the current status of various manufacturing units in terms of their overall
performance, the type of environment constraints that operate in the three business that exist for
enhancing capacity in these business areas.
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a) Is that digital systems are unreliable and carries enormous risks?
Yes. It is. No digital system can be guaranteed to be _PERFECT_ and hence may have any type of
problems. This is actually because human beings are not perfect in their design and work.
b) Explain three situations to minimize damages due to failure of digital system.
For case 1: There should be transaction logging mechanism so that it can roll back upon
administrator's command. A manual book-keeping can be used too for all types of transactions so
that in case of failure it can be used.
For case 2: There should be manual communications used when digital systems delay for some
reason.
For case 3: Enough communications with service users should take place before upgrade policy. In
all communication channels there should be advertisements and assumed timeline for the probable
disaster.
Decision Support Systems welcomes contributions on the concepts and operational basis for DSSs,
techniques for implementing and evaluating DSSs, DSS experiences, and related studies. In treating
DSS topics, manuscripts may delve into, draw-on, or expand such diverse areas as artificial
intelligence, cognitive science, computer supported cooperative work, data base management,
decision theory, economics, linguistics, management science, mathematical modelling, operations
management psychology, user interface management systems, and others. The common thread of
articles published in the journal will be their relevance to theoretical, technical DSS issues.
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are a class of electronic meeting systems, a collaboration
technology designed to support meetings and group work. GDSS are distinct from computer
supported cooperative work technologies as GDSS are more focused on task support, whereas
CSCW tools provide general communication support.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) were referred to as a Group Support System (GSS) or an
electronic meeting system since they shared similar foundations. However today's GDSS is
characterized by being adapted for a group of people who collaborate to support integrated systems
thinking for complex decision making. Participants use a common computer or network to enable
collaboration.
Who is the typical user of the system currently?
For the organization manager mainly takes the decision. Suppose to open a new account there
should be some criteria (credit score). It is also used in agriculture section. Dss is well-established
tradition within agriculture. Holsapple takes a different view. "Decision-support systems are so
pervasive in their use that people don't even think of them as DSS," he says. He points to the
spreadsheet as one of the most common ones used in business today. And, he says, most
executives use corporate planning tools with DSS capabilities in them.

Graphical User Interface Design Process For The Decision


Support System
In general, the GUI design process can be split into twelve steps (Galitz, 1997):
1. Know your user
2. Understand the business function
3. Use good screen design
4. Select the proper types of windows
5. Develop the system menus
6. Select the proper device-based controls
7. Choose the proper screen-based controls
8. Organize and layout the windows
9. Choose the proper screen colours
10. Create meaningful icons
11. Provide meaningful messages
12. Test, test, and retest

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