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Topic: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (Suggested Solutions)

Section A: Multiple Choice Questions


1. D
CH4 (g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
C2H6(g) + 7/2O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l)
The gas absorbed by KOH is CO2.
CO2(g) + 2OH-(aq) CO32-(aq) + H2O(l)
Volume of CO2 produced by CH4 = 10 cm3
Volume of CO2 produced by C2H6 = 20 cm3
Total volume = 10 + 20 = 30 cm3
2. D
Molar ration of M:O
= 0.02 : (2x0.025)
=2:5
3. C
4KClO3 3KClO4 + KCl
Amount of KClO4 produced = x 0.1 = 0.0750 mol
4. B
CxHy + (x+y/4)O2 xCO2 + y/2H2O
1 volume of CxHy produces x volumes of CO2 and y/2 volumes of H2O vapour.
Therefore, from the data, x=3 and y/2 = 2.
5. D
Aqueous NaOH absorbs CO2 and the remaining gas is N2.
Amount of urea = 0.120/60 = 2.00 x 10-3 mol
Volume of N2 = 2 x (2.00 x 10-3) x 24000 = 96.0 cm3
6. B
1 mol of H- gives 1 mol of H2. The salt with the greatest amount of H- will therefore
give the highest amount of H2.
7. D
2H2 + O2 2H2O
O2 is the limiting reagent. Therefore, max decrease in volume = 10 + 20 = 30 cm3
8. D
Let x be the number of C atoms per molecule of X. Therefore, 1 mole of X will
produce x moles of CO2 when completely burnt in O2.
Amount of X used = 0.112/22.4 = 5.00 x 10-3 mol
Amount of CO2 produced = 0.88/ (12.0 + 2(16.0)) = 2.00 x 10-2 mol
(5.00 x10-4)x = 2.00 x 10-2
x=4
9. A
Amount of H+ = amount of OH- = 0.1 x 24/1000 = 0.0024 mol (in 20 cm3)
Amount of Cl- = 0.1 x 48/1000 = 0.0048 mol (in 20 cm3)
Ratio of H+ : Cl- = 0.0024 : 0.0048 = 1 : 2

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

10. A
H+ + OH- H2O
Amount of H+ = amount of OH- = conc x volume = 1.0 x 10-2 x 25/1000
=2.50 x 10-4 mol
2 H+ are required to remove 1 Ca2+
Amount of Ca2+ = amount of H+ = 1.25 x 10-4 mol
[Ca2+] = 1.25 x 10-4/ (50/1000) = 2.50 x 10-3 mol dm-3
11. A
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
CH4 + 3/2O2 CO + 2H2O
Volume of O2 required for first equation = (y x 0.99) x 2 dm3
Volume of O2 required for second equation = (y x 0.01) x 3/2 dm3
Hence total volume of O2 required = [(y x 0.99) x 2] + [(y x 0.01) x 3/2]
= 2y 0.01y/2 dm3
13. D
2AgNO3 + BaCl2 2AgCl + Ba(NO3)2
Amount of BaCl2 = conc x vol = 0.20 x 20/1000 = 4 x 10-3 mol
Amount of AgNO3 = 2 x 4 x 10-3
Volume of AgNO3 = 8 x 10-3/ 0.10 = 0.08 dm3 = 80 cm3

14. C
mass of CaBr2 in 100 tonnes of solution = (52/100 x 100) tonnes
Mr of CaBr2 = 40 + 2(80) = 200
mass of bromine =

2(80) 52

100
200 100

160
52
200

tonnes

15. B
In B: H2 2H+ + 2eAmount of e- = 2 x amt of H2 = 2 x = 1 mol
16. D
mole ratio Hg : lipoyl group = 1:1
amount of Hg = amount of lipoyl group = (5.0 x 1.0 x 10-8) mol = 5.0 x 10-8
mass of Hg = n Ar = (5.0 x 10-8 x 200) g = 1.0 x 10-5 g
17. C
CxHy + (x+y/4)O2 xCO2 + y/2H2O
10 cm3 (70-20) cm3 30 cm3
1 vol
5 vol
3 vol
x = 3; x + y/4 = 5 y = 8
18. D
CxHy + (x+y/4)O2 xCO2 + y/2 H2O
Amount of CO2 = 0.352/44.0 = 0.00800 mol
Amount of H2O = 0.072/18.0 = 0.00400 mol
y=x
E.F. CxHx

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

19. C
Taking X = OH, the reaction becomes:
Zn(C2H5)2 + 2H-OH Zn(OH)2 + 2C2H6
20. A
It contains the same number of atoms as 1 mol of hydrogen atoms.
One mole of any substance contains the same number (Avocadros constant
6.02 x 1023) of particles (atoms, molecules, ions).
21. C
CS2(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2SO2(g)
20 cm3 60 cm3
20 cm3
40 cm3
Volume of unreacted O2 = 100 60 = 40 cm3
Final volume of gas = (40 +20 +40) = 100 cm3
Both CO2 and SO2 (acidic gases) are absorbed by aq alkali.
% dissolved in alkali =

20 40
100 =
100

60 %

22. A
Relative atomic mass is the ratio of the mass of one atom of the element to
1/12 of the mass of an atom of 12C isotope, expressed on the 12C scale.
23. D
CH2O + O2 CO2 + H2O
Amount of CO2 = amount of CH2O
=

1.80 1000
1.80 1000

= 60.0
12.0 2(1.0) 16.0
30.0

mass of CO2 = n Mr = [60 x (12 + (2x16))] = (60.0 x 44) = 2640 g = 2.64 kg


24. D
CnH2n+2 + ((3n+1)/2)O2 nCO2 + (n+1)H2O
Residual gas, V = CO2 and unreacted O2 at r.t.p.
For 10 cm3 of CH4
CO2 = 10 cm3
O2 unreacted = 70-20 = 50 cm3
V = 60 cm3
Only option D starts with 60 cm3.
25. B
CxHyNz + O2 xCO2 + y/2H2O + z/2N2
10 cm3 of CxHyNz, when burnt in O2, gives 10x cm3 of CO2 and 10z/2 = 5z cm3
of N2
Hence, x = 2 and z = 1

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

Section B: Structured Questions


26.
Barium oxide: BaO + H2SO4 BaSO4 + H2O
Barium peroxide: BaO2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + H2O2
(a)

Barium sulfate
Amount = 1.63/ 233.1 = 0.00699 mol
2MnO4- 5H2O2
Amount of MnO4- = (24.5/1000) x 0.02 = 0.000490 mol
Amount of H2O2 = 0.00049 x 2.5 = 0.00123 mol
Amount of H2O2 = amt of BaO2 = 0.00123 mol
Mass of BaSO4 = 0.001225 x 169.0 = 0.207 g
Amount of BaSO4 fr BaO = 0.00699 0.001225 = 0.00577 mol
Mass of BaO = 0.00577 x 153.0 = 0.883 g

(b)

(c)

27.
(a) Na2CO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) 2 NaCl (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O (l)
(b) Amount of HCl in 50 cm3 = 0.05 x 0.1 = 0.00500 mol
Amount of pure Na2CO3 = 0.005 x = 0.00250 mol
Mass of pure Na2CO3 = 0.0025 x 106 = 0.265 g
Percentage purity of Na2CO3 = (0.265 / 1.20) x 100 = 22.1%.
28.
(a) Molar mass of compound A = 17.6 0.200
= 88.0 g mol-1
(b)
Element
C
H
% mass
54.5
13.6
RAM
12.0
1.0
% mass/ RAM
4.54
13.6
Ratio
2
6
Empirical formula is C2H6N.
(c)
Let the molecular formula be (C2H6N)n.
n = 88.0 (2 12.0 + 6 1.0 + 14.0)
= 2 (whole number)
Molecular formula is C4H12N2

N
31.8
14.0
2.27
1

29.
(a) 8H+ + MnO4- + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 5 Fe3+ + 4H2O

(b)

14.30
x 0.0250
1000
3.58 x 10 -4 mol

Amount of MnO4

Amount of Fe2 (in 1 dm3 of solution)

5 x 3.575 x 10-4 x

1000
25

0.0715 mol
(c)

Mass of FeSO 4 (in 1 dm 3 of solution) 0.715 x (55.8 32.1 4 16.0)


10.9 g

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

30.
(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
31.
(a)

Or
(b)
(c)
(d)

Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl CaCl2 + 2H2O


Amount of HCl used = 26.50 10-3 0.100
= 2.65 10-3 mol
Amount of Ca(OH)2 in 25.0 cm3 = 2.65 10-3 1/2
= 1.325 10-3
= 1.33 10-3 mol
Concentration of Ca(OH)2 = (1.33 10-3) (25.0 10-3)
= 0.0532 mol dm-3
Percentage purity of sample = [(0.0532 200 10-3 74.1) 3.0] 100 %
=26.3%

M1V1 = M2V2
1.0 x 25 = M x 250
M = 0.100 mol dm-3
Amount of FeSO4 in 25.0 cm3 = 25/1000 x 1.00 = 0.0250 mol
Conc of diluted FeSO4 = 0.025 / (250/1000) = 0.100 moldm-3

10
x 0.100 = 0.00100 mol
1000
10
x 0.0250 = 0.000250 mol
1000
MnO4- : Fe2+
0.000250 : 0.00100
1 : 4
Fe2+ oxidizes to Fe3+ by losing 1 mol of e (ie Fe2+ Fe3+ + e).
Hence, for 4 mols of Fe2+, 4 mols of electron will be gained by 1 mol of MnO4-.
So, final oxidation no. of Mn = +7 - 4 = +3

25.00
0.4 0.0100
1000
0.0100
moles (I2) =
5.00 10 3
2
5.00 10 3
moles (Cr2O72-) =
1.67 10 3
3

32. (a) moles (S2O32-) =

(b)
(c)

moles (Na3CrO4) = moles (CrO43-) = 3 x 1.67 x 10-3 = 5.00 x 10-3

(d)

mass of Na3CrO4 = (5.00 x 10-3) (185) = 0.925g


% by mass of Na3CrO4 =

33.

0.925
100% 50.0%
1.85

a)
C
m/Ar
40.91/12.0
ratio
3.409
simplest ratio
1.00 = 3
EF = C3H4O3
b) Let MF = (C3H4O3 )n
88n = 176, hence n = 2;
MF = C6H8O6

H
4.55/1
4.55
1.34 = 4

O
54.54/16
3.409
1.00 = 3

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

c) Mass of vit C = 19.1/100 x 1.28 = 0.244 g


Amount of vit.C = 0.244/176 = 1.39 x 10-3 mol
Conc of vit C = 1.39 x 10-3/0.25 = 5.56 x 10-3 mol dm-3
34.
Change in volume

C4Hy(g) + (4+ y/4)O2(g) 4CO2(g) + y/2 H2O(g)


-10
-(4+ y/4)10
40
(y/2)10 =5y

5y + 40 -10-(4+ y/4)10 = 10
y=8
35.
[Mx . 25] /[My.20] = 5/1
[Mx.25]/[My.V] = 3/1
Ans = 33.3 cm3
36.
(a)
(b)

(c)
(d)

Mx/My = 4
V = [25 x 4]/3 = 33.3

5SO32- + 2 MnO4- + 6H+ 2Mn2+ + 3H2O + 5SO42Amount of MnO4- = 0.02 x 0.03 = 6.00 x 10-4 mol
Amount of Na2SO3 = 5/2 x 6 x 10-4= 1.50 x 10-3 mol
Mass of in 1 kg of meat = 1.5 x 10-3 x 126 = 1.89 x 10-1g
Mass of in 106 g meat = 1.89 x 10-1 x 103 g = 189 g i.e. 189 p.p.m.
1 mol SO32- 1 mol SO2 2 mol HCl
Amount of HCl = 2 x 1.5 x 10-3 = 3.00 x 10-3 mol
Vol. of HCl needed = (3 x 10-3) 0.1 = 3.00 x 10-2 dm3 or 30.0 cm3

37.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

4190
= 182.2 = 182 mol
23
Mass of H2 = 182.2 x 2 = 364 g
Volume of air displaced = 4190 cm3
there should be 182 moles of air.
Mass of air displaced = 182.2 x 29 = 5283.8 g
= 5280 g
Upthrust = mass of air displaced = mass of H2 + load
Load = 5283.8 364.4 = 4919.4 g = 4.92 kg

Amount of H2 gas =

38. (a) (i) (CH2O)n + nO2(g) nCO2(g) + nH2O(l)

(b)

(ii) Mr of carbohydrate = 30 n
1200
40
Amount of carbohydrate =
=
mol
30n
n
40
Amount of O2 =
x n = 40.0 mol
n
(iii) Assuming that there are 365 days per year.
Amount of O2 required = 40 x (70x365) = 1.02 x 106 mol
25
(i) C8H18(l) +
O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 9H2O(l)
2
(ii) Mass of octane = density x volume = 0.7 x (6 x 103) = 4200g
mass
4200
Amount of octane =
=
= 36.8 mol
Mr
114
25
(iii) Amount of O2 required =
x 36.84 = 461 mol
2

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)

(c)

To run 100 km, 460.5 mol of O2 are required


using 1.022 x 106 mol of O2,
1.022 106
Distance travelled =
x 100 = 2.22 x 105 km
460.5

39. (a) (i) CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO4 + CO2


1
(ii) CaSO3 + O2 CaSO4
2
(b)
(i) CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO3 + CO2
Amount of SO2 = amount of CaCO3 =
mass of SO2 = (

3 10

3 105 ) 106
100.1

) 10
x 64.1) = 1.92 x 1011 g = 1.92 x 105 tonnes
100.1
5

1
O2 CaSO4
2
CaCO3 CaSO3 CaSO4
Amount of CaSO4 = amount of CaCO3
3 105 ) 106 x 136.2) = 4.08 x 1011 g = 4.08 x 105 tonnes
mass of CaSO4 = (
100.1
(c)
90 % of SO2 removed from waste gases;
10 % of SO2 is released into atmosphere
10
mass of SO2 = (
1.92 105 ) 1.92 x 104 g
100

(ii)

CaSO3 +

Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry_2014


(Suggested Solutions)