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Topic: Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)

Section A: Multiple Choice Questions


1

D.
The term nucleons is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
For an electrically neutral particle such as P, the number of protons is equal to
the number of electrons.
For a negatively charged particle such as Q-, the numerical value of the charge
translated into the number of electrons gained.
For a positively charged particle such as R2+, the numerical value of the
charge translated into the number of electrons lost.
Particle
P
QR2+
S3-

Neutrons
16.0
18.0
17.0
16.0

Protons
33 16 = 17
35 18 = 17
34 17 = 17
31 16 = 15

Electrons
17
17 + 1 = 18
17 2 = 15
15 + 3 = 18

D.
Positively charged particles will be deflected toward negative terminal and
negatively charged particles will be deflected towards positive terminal hence
option B and C are eliminated. Angle of deflection

Charge
Mass

From the diagram, it is observed that particle X is deflected twice as much as


particle Y. Hence the mass/electronic charge (m/e) ratio of Y must be twice of
that of particle X.
Particle
4
He+
2 +
H
1 +
H

Mass
4.0
2.0
1.0

Electronic Charge
+1
+1
+1

m/e ratio
4 / +1 = +4
2 / +1 = +2
1 / +1 = +1

The m/e ratios of the particles given in option A and D are calculated in the
table above. It can be observed that the m/e ratio of 2H+ is twice of that of 1H+
while the m/e ratio of 4He+ is 4 times of that of 1H+ hence eliminating option A.
3

A.
The larger the numerical value of the m/e ratio of the particle in an electric
field, the lesser the deflection of the particle.
Particle
24
2
12 Mg

Mass
24.0

Electronic Charge
+2

m/e ratio
24 / +2 = +12

27
3
13 Al

27.0

+3

27 / +3 = +9

16
2
8O

16.0

16 / 2 = 8

31 3
15 P

31.0

31 / 3 = 10.3

Please note that the sign of the m/e ratio indicates the deflection of the particle
to which terminal i.e. the negative m/e ratio will be deflected towards the
positive terminal and vice versa.

Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

The m/e ratios of the particles are calculated in the table above. It can be
2
observed that the numeral value of the m/e ratio of 24
is the largest and
12 Mg
hence it is the least deflected.
4

A.
A Group III element will have the general valence electronic configuration of
ns2np1.
For the removal of the first three electrons, a general (steady) increase in
ionisation energy is observed because the electrons are being removed from
ion of increasing positive charge. As the electrons are removed, the outermost
electrons are held more tightly by the constant nuclear charge; hence the
ionization process becomes increasingly difficult.
The removal of the 4th electron which is from the inner principal quantum shell
disrupts the stable octet configuration. Hence it is energetically more difficult to
remove which is indicated by a big jump in ionisation energy after the removal
of the 3rd electron.

A.
Valence electronic configuration of successive elements:
Group V: ns2np3
Group VI: ns2np4
Group VII: ns2np5
Group 0: ns2np6
Group I: (n+1)s1
Since elements from Group V to Group 0 are in the same period, the shielding
effect remains almost constant. On the other hand, nuclear charge increases
from Group V to Group 0 hence effective nuclear charge increases and it
becomes increasingly difficult to remove the electron. Consequently the first
ionisation energy generally increases from Group V to Group 0. However due
to inter-electronic repulsion present in the doubly filled p orbital for the element
in Group VI, a slight drop in ionisation energy is observed.
As for the first ionisation energy for the successive element in Group I, it will be
much lower because
(i)

(ii)

the increased in shielding effect provided by the additional filled


quantum principal shell outweighs the increased in nuclear charge.
OR
the removal of the first electron is from a higher principal quantum
number orbital which is further away from the nucleus. Hence being
less closely held, much lower energy is needed to remove the
electron.

Option B is wrong: Let P, Q, R, S, T be the five elements from Group V. As


they are listed in the order of increasing atomic mass, the arrangement of the
elements in a group would be:
P
Q
R
S
T

Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Hence the first ionisation energy would decrease from P > Q > R > S > T as
going down the group the increased in shielding effect provided by the
additional filled quantum principal shell outweighs the increased in nuclear
charge.
Option C is wrong: A general (steady) increase in ionisation energy should be
observed in the successive ionisation energies for a Group V element because
electrons are being removed from ion of increasing positive charge. As the
electrons are removed, the outermost electrons are held more tightly by the
constant nuclear charge; hence the ionization process becomes increasingly
difficult.
Option D is wrong: Element with an atomic number of 5 will have the electronic
configuration of 1s22s22p1 hence the removal of the second electron from 2s
orbital which is closer to the nucleus would require greater ionisation energy
than the removal of the fist electron from the 2p orbital.
6

A.
The electronic configurations of the 4 options are as follows:
Na: 1s22s22p63s1
Mg: 1s22s22p63s2
Al: 1s22s22p63s23p1
Ar: 1s22s22p63s23p6
The removal of the first and second electrons for Mg, Al and Ar are all from the
same principal quantum shell whereas for Na, the first electron is from the 3 rd
principal quantum shell and the second electron is from the 2nd principal
quantum shell.
Comparatively, greater amount of energy would be required to remove the
second electron from Na than the rest as the stable octet configuration of the
inner principal quantum shell is disrupted. Hence the ratio of the second
ionization energy to the first ionization energy would be the highest for Na.

B.
From Figure 1, it is deduced that element X is from Group III due to a large
difference in ionization energy of the 3rd and 4th electron, indicating that 4th
electron is from the inner principal quantum shell.
Since Figure 2 shows the first ionisation energy of eight consecutive elements
(including X) of Period 3 and element X is from Group III, it must be the 3rd
point plotted on the graph of Figure 2.

B.
A common misconception is to write the electronic configuration of ion by filling
the orbitals starting from the lowest energy level with the total number of
electrons of the ions.
The correct method is
1st Step
Write the electronic configuration of the electrically neutral atom
2nd Step
Remove the electrons lost by atom to form ion from the orbitals with the
highest energy (i.e. you remove electrons from 4s then 3d)
Please be aware that when 4s and 3d orbitals are empty, 4s orbital is at a

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

lower energy level hence 4s orbitals are filled up before 3d orbitals. However
once they are occupied, the 4s orbital is at a higher energy level hence
electrons are generally removed from 4s orbital before 3d orbitals.
Option A: V atom has 23 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d3.
Option B: Cu atom has 29 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s13d10
Electronic configuration of Cu atom is not 1s22s22p63s23p6
4s23d9 because electronic configuration with fully filled 3d
subshell is unusually stable due to symmetrical charge
distribution around the metal centre.
Option C: Mn atom has 25 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d5
Mn2+ ion has 25 2 = 23 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
Option D: Cr atom has 24 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s13d5
Electronic configuration of Cr atom is not 1s22s22p63s23p6
4s23d4 because electronic configuration with half-filled 3d
subshell is unusually stable due to symmetrical charge
distribution around the metal centre.
Cr+ ion has 24 1 = 23 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
Only Cu atom has unpaired electron in the 4s orbital.
9

10

11

D.
Option A: Cr atom has 24 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d4.
Cr3+ ion has 24 3 = 21 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d3
3 unpaired electrons.
Option B: Ni atom has 28 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d8.
Ni2+ ion has 28 2 = 26 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d8.
2 unpaired electrons.
Option C: Ca atom has 20 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s2.
Ca2+ ion has 20 2 = 18 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6.
0 unpaired electrons.
Option D: Co atom has 27 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d7.
Co3+ ion has 27 3 = 24 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 3d6.
4 unpaired electrons.
D.
The oxidation of Ni in [NiO2]2- is +2.
Let the oxidation of Ni in [NiO2]2- be x.
x + 2(2) = 2
x = +2
Ni atom has 28 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d8.
Ni2+ ion has 28 2 = 26 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d8.
C.
Option A: C- ion has 7 electrons: 1s22s22p3.
On losing an electron, C atom has 7-1= 6 electrons: 1s22s22p2.
2 unpaired electrons in p orbitals.
Option B: F atom has 9 electrons: 1s22s22p5.
On losing an electron, F+ ion has 9-1= 8 electrons: 1s22s22p4.
2 unpaired electrons in p orbitals.
Option C: N- ion has 8 electrons: 1s22s22p4.
On losing an electron, N atom has 8-1= 7 electrons: 1s22s22p3.
3 unpaired electrons in p orbitals.
Option D: O+ atom has 7 electrons: 1s22s22p3.
On losing an electron, O2+ ion has 7-1= 6 electrons: 1s22s22p2.
2 unpaired electrons in p orbitals.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

12

C.
S atom has 16 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p4.
On gaining two electrons, S2- ion has 16+2= 18 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6.
Particle
31 2
S
35 2
S

Neutrons
31 16 = 15
35 16 = 19

Protons
16
16

Electrons
16+2 = 18
16+2 = 18

The larger the numerical value of the m/e ratio of the particle in an electric field,
the lesser the deflection of the particle.
Particle
Mass
Electronic Charge
m/e ratio
31 2
31.0
-2
31 / -2 = -15.5
S
35 2
35.0
-2
35 / -2 = -17.5
S
Under the same magnetic field, the 35S2 ion will be deflected less than the 31S2
since the numerical value of the m/e ratio is larger.
13

A.
Cu atom has 29 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1.
Cu+ ion has 28 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d10.

14

C.
Option A: C+ ion has 5 electrons: 1s22s22p1; N- ion has 8 electrons: 1s22s22p4.
C+ ion has 1 unpaired electron & N- has 2 unpaired electrons.
Option B: O- ion has 9 electrons: 1s22s22p5; S2+ ion has 14 electrons:
1s22s22p63s23p2.
O- ion has 1 unpaired electron & S2+ ion has 2 unpaired electrons.
Option C: Cr atom has 24 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1; Fe3+ ion has 26-3
= 23 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
Cr atom has 6 unpaired electrons & Fe3+ ion has 5 unpaired electrons.
Option D: Mn4+ ion has 25-4=21 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p63d3; Co atom has
27 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p6 4s23d7.
Mn4+ ion has 3 unpaired electrons & Co atom has 3 unpaired electrons.

15

C.
[ H = 11 H; D = 21 H; T = 3H; C =
Particle
CO32H2DO+
OHTCO3-

16

12
6 C;

O = 168 O ]

Neutrons
30
9
8
32

Protons
30
11
9
31

Electrons
32
10
10
32

C.
Option 1
O- ion has 8 + 1 = 9 electrons: 1s22s22p5.
Option 2
N atom has 7 electrons: 1s22s22p3.
Option 3
P atom has 15 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p3.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

17

A.
Option 1
p orbitals of different quantum number all have the same shape.

p orbitals of different quantum number only differ in terms of size.


Option 2
With the same principal quantum shell, a p orbital reside further away from the
nucleus than a s orbital, hence it will have higher energy than a s orbital.
Option 3
All orbitals contain a maximum number of 2 electrons.
18

D.
P atom has 15 electrons: 1s22s22p63s23p3.
Option 1
The outer most subshell is a p orbital which has a dumb-bell shape hence the
description is incorrect.
Option 2
The outermost subshell is the 3p orbital with principal quantum number n = 3.
Option 3
The outermost subshell is half filled: 3p3.

19

B.
Isoelectronic refers to having same number of electrons.
Option 1
Gaseous particle Y and gaseous particle Z are isoelectronic i.e. have the same
number of electrons. Since Y has n protons and Z has (n-1) protons, the
proton/electron (p/e) ratio is higher in Y than Z. Consequently Y would have a
smaller radius than Z.
Option 2
Since the proton/electron (p/e) ratio is higher in Y than Z, the electron would be
more tightly held in Y than Z hence Y would have higher first ionisation energy
than Z.
Option 3
Since the proton/electron (p/e) ratio is higher in Y than Z, the ability of Y to
attract electron to itself would be higher than Z. Hence Y should be more
electronegative than Z.

20

D.
Isotopes refer to atoms of the same element which contain the same number of
protons and electrons but different number of neutrons.
Option 1
16
O, 17O and 18O are isotopes so they will have the same number of electrons
which translate into the same electronic configuration.
Option 2

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Since 16O, 17O and 18O are isotopes, the proton/electron (p/e) ratio is the same
for all the isotopes hence they will have the same first ionisation energy.
Option 3
16
O, 17O and 18O are isotopes so they will have the same number of protons.
21

B.
Option 1
N3- ion has 7 + 3 =10 electrons: 1s22s22p6.
Mg atom has 12 electrons with electronic configuration of electrons:
1s22s22p63s2 hence Mg2+ ion has 12 2 =10 electrons: 1s22s22p6.
F- ion has 9 + 1 = 10 electrons: 1s22s22p6.
From the electronic configurations, all 3 ions do not contain any unpaired
electrons in their valence shells.
Option 2
Ion
Mass
Electronic Charge
m/e ratio
N314.0
3
14 / 3 = 4.7
Mg2+
24.3
+2
24.3 / +2 = +12.2
F19.0
1
1 9/ 1 = 19
Please note that the sign of the m/e ratio indicate the deflection of the particle
to which terminal i.e. the negative m/e ratio will be deflected towards the
positive terminal and vice versa.
The m/e ratios of the particles are calculated in the table above. It can be
observed that the numeral value of the m/e ratio of F- ion is the largest and
hence it is the least deflected.
Option 3
All 3 ions are isoelectronic but nuclear charge increases from N3- to F- to Mg2+.
As p/e ratio increases from N3- to F- to Mg2+, the ionic radius would decreases
in the order of N3-, F- , Mg2+.

22

C.
Option 1
Nuclear charge does increases down the group in a Periodic table but it does
not explain the decrease in first I.E. down a group in a Periodic Table.
Option 2
Going down the group, the number of filled inner principal quantum shells
increases hence the valence electron becomes progressively further from the
nucleus. Consequently the first I.E. decrease down a group in a Periodic Table.
Option 3
Going down the group, the number of filled inner principal quantum shells
increases hence the valence electron becomes progressively further from the
nucleus, which results decrease in first ionisation energy down a group in a
Periodic Table.

23

A.
Option 1
E belongs to Group V because there is a large difference in ionization energy of
the 5th & 6th electron, indicates that 6th electron is from the inner quantum shell.
Option 2
E having 5 valence electrons can form a chloride with the following dot and
cross diagram.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

E
Cl

Cl

Cl

1 lone pair and 3 bonding pairs, hence the shape is trigonal pyramidal.
Option 3
A Group V element has the general electronic configuration of ns2np3 so it will
have half filled p-orbital.
24

A.
Option 1
Rb atom has 37 electrons. Rb+ ion has 37 1 = 36 electrons.
Option 2
Sr atom has 38 electrons. Sr2+ ion has 38 2 = 36 electrons. On losing 2
electrons, Sr has one less electron shell. The nucleus attracts the valence
electrons more strongly towards itself and hence, Sr2+ ion is much smaller than
X2- ion even though it has same number of electrons. X2- ion is negatively
charged. The repulsion between identical charges causes the ionic size to be
larger than the Sr atom.
Option 3
X- ion has higher p/e ratio, therefore the valence electrons experience stronger
nuclear attraction than X2- ion.

Section B: Structured Questions


1 (a)

(i)

Isotopes are atoms of the same element thus having the same
number of protons but with different number of neutrons.
Comments:
- Atoms with the same atomic / proton number but with different
nucleon / mass number are a description of isotopes rather than
the definition of isotopes.

(ii)
Isotope
14
N
15
N
(b)

protons
7
7

neutrons
7
8

electrons
7
7

(i)

The same number of electrons.

(ii)

1s2 2s2 2p6.

(iii)

Nuclear charge of the fluoride ion is greater than in ion of nitrogen


while the screening effect is the same for both ions. Hence, more
energy is required to overcome the stronger attraction between
the outermost electron and the nucleus of fluoride ion.
Comments:
- Nuclear charge is dependent on number of protons in nucleus.
A common error during explanation is students tend to use the term
nitrogen and ion of nitrogen or fluorine and fluoride quite freely. It

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

is important to note that nitrogen would represent N atom while ion of


nitrogen would represent N3- ion which are two very different particles.
Same goes for fluorine: F atom and fluoride: F- ion.
2 (a)

Q belongs to Group VII. There is a large difference in ionization energy


of the 7th and 8th electron, indicating that 8th electron is from the inner
quantum shell.
Comments:
- The group number of the element should be written in Roman numerals
rather than Arabic numerals.
- The +/- sign must be placed in front.
A common misconception is to reason that the 8th ionisation energy is high
hence element Q is from Group VII. It is important to realise that without the
comparison with the 7th ionisation energy, it does not show that the eighth
electron requires much higher energy than the previous electron. As a result
it does not indicate that the eighth electron is from an inner quantum shell.

(b)

(i)

P: -2
Q: -1
S: +1
Comments:
- Since P, Q, R and S are a sequence of consecutive elements and
Q belongs to Group VII, P must be from Group VI (6 valence
electrons), R from Group 0 (8 valence electrons) and S from Group
I (1 valence electron). Hence P, Q, R are in the same period while
S is from the next period as illustrated below.

(ii)

3 (a)
(b)

Consequently to be isoelectronic with R, P must gain two electrons


hence having a charge of -2 while Q must gain one electron hence
having a charge of -1 and S must lose one electron hence having a
charge of +1.

P2- > Q- > S+


Comments:
- A common incorrect answer given by students is P > Q > S. It
should be noted that the symbols P, Q and S represent atoms and
not ions.
- Assuming P has n number of protons, Q will have (n+1) number of
protons, R will have (n+2) number of protons and S will have (n+3)
number of protons. Since the ions of P, Q and S are isoelectronic,
the proton/electron (p/e) ratio will increase from P2- to Q- to S+. The
higher the p/e ratio, the more tightly held are the electrons, hence
ionic radius decreases from P2- to Q- to S+.
z

1s2 2s2 2p5.

Comments:
Can also accept either px or py orbital
- No marks awarded if all three orbitals drawn.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Ionisation energy/ kJmol1

No. of electrons

Comments:
Please take note that your graph should illustrate the following:
- A general (steady) increase in ionisation energy due to electrons being
removed from ion of increasing positive charge. As the electrons are removed,
the outermost electrons are held more tightly by the constant nuclear charge,
hence the ionization process becomes more difficult.
- A slight jump in ionisation energy after the removal of the 1st electron. This is
because the removal of the 1st electron is energetically easier due to the interelectronic repulsion from the doubly filled 3p orbital.
- A slight jump in ionisation energy after the removal of the 4th electron. The
removal of the 5th electron which is from the 3s orbital is more difficult to
remove because it is of a lower energy as the 3s orbital is closer to the
nucleus than the 3p orbital.
- A big jump in ionisation energy after the removal of the 6th electron. The
removal of the 7th electron which is from the inner principal quantum shell
disrupts the stable octet configuration. Hence it is energetically more difficult
to remove.
5

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Comments:
- The electronic configuration of chlorine is 1s22s22p63s23p5. Please take note that
your graph should illustrate the following:
- A general (steady) increase in ionisation energy due to electrons being removed
from ion of increasing positive charge. As the electrons are removed, the
outermost electrons are held more tightly by the constant nuclear charge, hence
the ionization process becomes increasingly difficult.
- A slight jump in ionisation energy after the removal of the 5th electron. The
removal of the 6th electron which is from the 3s orbital is more difficult to remove
because it is of a lower energy as the 3s orbital is closer to the nucleus than the
3p orbital.
- A big jump in ionisation energy after the removal of the 7th electron. The removal
of the 8th electron which is from the inner principal quantum shell disrupts the
stable octet configuration. Hence it is energetically more difficult to remove.
6 (a)

Total number of electrons removed is 24.


Number of electrons corresponds to number of protons in an atom;
hence atomic number of element X is 24. Therefore, X is 52
Cr.
24
Comments:
- The phrase successive ionisation energies indicates that all the
electrons of the atom are removed.

(b)

1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5.

(c)

The successive I.E. of X generally increases.


Nuclear charge remains unchanged / no. of protons remains the same
when electrons are removed. Stronger electrostatic forces of attraction
between nucleus and valence electrons / resulting positive ions hold
the valence electrons more tightly.
OR
Electrons are being removed from ion of increasing positive charge. As
the electrons are removed, the remaining electrons are held more
tightly by the constant nuclear charge.
Hence more energy is required to remove the remaining electrons
Comments:
- As the question asked for general trend, therefore it is not required to
explain the slight jumps in the successive I.E. of X.

7 (a)
(b)

1s22s22p63s23p4.

Comments:
- As the question is only concern with shape and size of the orbital, the
axes need not be drawn.
- It must be obvious that the s orbital increases in size as the principal

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

(a)

quantum number increases.


As only two p orbitals are required to be drawn to illustrate shape and
size, the question wants to see the comparison in terms of size between
2p and 3p orbital. A common error for student is to draw the px, py and pz
orbital of the same quantum shell.

Electronic configuration of F is1s22s22p5.


z

1s

2px

2s

2py

2pz

Comments:
- It is important that all axes must be labelled. This is especially so for
the drawing of the 2p orbitals otherwise it would be impossible to
differentiate the three p orbitals.
- It must be obvious that the 2s orbital is greater in size than the 1s
orbital.
- Valence shell orbitals include 2s and 2p orbitals only.
(b)

(i)

Element X is in Group I. There is a large difference in ionisation


energy of the 1st and 2nd electron which indicates that the 2nd
electron is from an inner quantum shell.
Comments:
- The group number of the element should be written in Roman
numerals rather than Arabic numerals.
- A common misconception is to reason that the 2nd ionisation
energy is high hence element X is from Group I. It is important to
realise that without the comparison with the 1st ionisation energy,
it does not show that the second electron requires much higher
energy than the previous electron. As a result it does not indicate
that the second electron is from an inner quantum shell.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

(ii)

Comments:
- The axis must be labelled.
- Clear distinction in energy level between the different principal
quantum shells.
- All orbitals must be clearly labelled.
- All the 2p orbitals must be of the same energy.
- All the 3p orbitals must be of the same energy.
9

(a)

1s22s22p63s23p63d6.
Comments:
Fe atom has 26 electrons while Fe2+ ion has 24 electrons.
- A common misconception is to write the electronic configuration of Fe2+
ion by filling the orbitals starting from the lowest energy level with 24
electrons hence giving the answer as 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4.
-

The correct method is


1st Step
Write the electronic configuration of Fe atom i.e. 1s22s22p63s23p6
4s23d6.
2nd Step
Remove the 2 electrons lost by Fe atom to form Fe2+ ion from the
orbitals with the highest energy which is the 4s orbital which gives the
answer 1s22s22p63s23p63d6.
Please be aware that when 4s and 3d orbitals are empty, 4s orbital is at
a lower energy level hence 4s orbitals are filled up before 3d orbitals.
However once they are occupied, the 4s orbital is at a higher energy
level hence electrons are generally removed from 4s orbital before 3d
orbitals.

(b)

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Comments:
- The axis must be labelled.
- Clear distinction in energy level between the different principal quantum
shells.
- All orbitals must be clearly labelled.
- All the 2p orbitals must be of the same energy.
- All the 3p orbitals must be of the same energy.
- All the 3d orbitals must be of the same energy.
- Except for the arrangement of the 6 electrons occupying the 3d orbitals
given in the answer above, no other arrangement is acceptable.

10 (a)

Comments:
- As 208Pb2+ is positively charged, it should be deflected towards the
negative terminal.
- Beam and angle must be clearly labelled.
(b)

32
16

S 2 will be deflected to a greater extent because it has a higher

electron charge / mass (e/m) ratio.


Hence angle of deflection of

32
16

S 2

2
32 8 52
2
208

Comments:
32 2
S is negatively charged, it should be deflected towards the
- As 16
positive terminal.
- Each beam and angle must be clearly labelled.

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11

(a) The technetium atom, 99Tc contains 43 protons, 43 electrons and 56 neutrons.
43
The relative charge, relative mass and location of each sub-atomic particle is
as follows:
Sub-atomic Particle Relative Charge
Relative Mass
Location
Proton
+1
1
Nucleus
Neutron
0
1
Nucleus
Electron
-1
1/1840
Orbital
Comments:
- It is not acceptable to say that for electron, the relative mass of the charge
is 0 or its location is in electron shell.
(b) (i)

55

Hence angle of deflection of 99


2 4 1.11
43Tc
99
1
Comments:
- The angle of deflection is dependent on mass / electronic charge
(m/e) ratio of the ion.

55
2

- Since the m/e ratio of 99


, 99
43Tc is higher than 25 Mn
43Tc should
logically be deflected lesser than 4. This should be a good
reference when students check their answer.

- As 99
43Tc is positively charged, it should be deflected towards the
negative terminal.
(ii)

22

Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

Comments:
- A common misconception is to write the electronic configuration of
Mn2+ ion by filling the orbitals starting from the lowest energy level
with
23
electrons
hence
giving
the
answer
as
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3.
- The correct method is
1st Step
Write the electronic configuration of Mn atom i.e. 1s22s22p63s23p6
4s23d5.
2nd Step
Remove the 2 electrons lost by Mn atom to form Mn2+ ion from the
orbitals with the highest energy which is the 4s orbital which gives
the answer 1s22s22p63s23p63d5.
-

(c)

(i)

For the drawing of the energy diagram, the following must be


illustrated:
1. The axis must be labelled.
2. Clear distinction of difference in energy level between principal
quantum shells.
3. All orbitals must be clearly labelled.
4. All the 2p orbitals must be of the same energy.
5. All the 3p orbitals must be of the same energy.
6. All the 3d orbitals must be of the same energy.
7. Except for the arrangement of the 5 electrons occupying the 3d
orbitals given in the answer above, no other arrangement is
acceptable.

Z belongs to Group VI. There is a sharp increase in ionisation


energy between the 6th and 7th IE. This shows that 7th electron is
being removed from the next inner quantum shell.
Comments:
- The group number of the element should be written in Roman
numerals rather than Arabic numerals.
- A common misconception is to reason that the 7th ionisation energy
is high hence Z is from Group VI. It is important to realise that
without the comparison with the 6th ionisation energy, it does not
show that the seventh electron requires much higher energy than
the previous electron. As a result it does not indicate that the
seventh electron is from an inner quantum shell.

(ii)

X is Silicon and its electronic configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p2.


Comments:
- X belongs to Group IV as
1. From the diagram, there is a large jump in ionisation energy
between the 4th and 5th electron which indicate that the 5th
electron is from the inner quantum shell.

2. Only Group IV element exists as a macromolecule and is a


semi-conductor.
As it is mentioned that X is from period 3 of the periodic table, X
must be silicon.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

(iii)

(iv)

1st I.E of Y is lower than nitrogen.


Y has one more electron shells. There is weaker nuclear attraction
on the valence electrons in Y as they are now further away from the
nucleus.
Comments:
- Y must be phosphorus as it belongs to Group V in period 3 because
there is a large jump in ionisation energy between the 5th and 6th
electron which indicate that the 6th electron is from the inner
principal quantum shell.
Nitrogen is in Period 2 and does not have low-lying energetically
accessible d orbitals and can accommodate only 8 electrons.
Comments:
- Nitrogen cannot expand beyond its octet structure.

12 (a) Group VI.


Comments:
- A has the highest third IE which means that 3rd electron is removed from
the inner quantum shell. Therefore A has 2 valence electrons; is in
Group II.
(b) Sulfur.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Comments:
- E is in Period 3 and in Group VI. Therefore the element must be sulfur.
(c)

2 >> 1

+
E-

Source
A+

_
Comments:
- The angle of deflection is dependent on mass / electronic charge (m/e)
ratio of the ion.
- E- has a higher mass than A+. Both are singly charged.
- Since the m/e ratio of E- is higher than A+, E- should be deflected lesser
than A+.
- As A+ is positively charged, it should be deflected towards the negative
terminal.
- As E- is negatively charged, it should be deflected towards the positive
terminal.
13

(a) (i)

Isotopes are atoms of the same elements and have the same
number of protons but different number of neutrons.

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014

(ii)

Isotopic mass is the mass of a particular isotope of an element.


Comments:
- Isotopic mass is dependent on the number of isotopes and the
percentage abundance of isotopes of an element.

(b) (i)

14 P;14 Q 3 ;15 R .
7
6
8

Comments:
- If the particle has more electrons than protons, the particle becomes
negatively charged. If the particle has more protons than electrons,
the particle becomes positively charged.
(ii)

Unusual isotopes: P and R


Comments:
- P is actually carbon whose usual isotope is carbon-12 and not
carbon-14 and R is actually oxygen whose usual isotope is oxygen16 and not oxygen-15.

(c)

(i)

The polarity of plate A is - since positively charged 1H and 4 He


nuclides are attracted towards it.

(ii)

The deflection is dependent on the charge/mass (z/m) ratio. 1H has


z/m ratio of 1/1=1 while 4 He has a z/m ratio of 2/4 = .
Charge 1
Since Angle of deflection
, H is deflected twice as much
Mass
as 4 He .

(iii)

The deflection is dependent on the charge/mass (z/m) ratio.


The z/m ratio of 2 H =1/2 = z/m ratio of 4 He .
Angle of deflection of 2 H = Angle of deflection of 4 He = 2o.
The z/m ratio of 3 He =2/3 = 2/3 x z/m ratio of 1H .
8
Angle of deflection of 3 He = 2/3 x Angle of deflection of 1H = ( )o
3

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Atomic Structure (Suggested Solutions)_2014