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RISK MANAGEMENT

HOMEWORK No.3
30/3/2015
STUDENT NAME: Jacob Hatch
16166529

DUE DATE:
STUDENT No.

1) What is the difference between “safety assurance” and “safety assessment”? 
How are they related to each other? [1 mark]
Answer: Safety assessment simply refers to the act of identifying
hazards and their associated risks for a particular
plant/process/company, whereas safety assurance refers to the act
of making sure that all possible measures are taken to keep the
plant safe and be running with all risks ALARP. They are related in
the sense that you need to perform safety assessments for safety
assurance to be carried out fully.
2) Which life cycle phase tends to have to most hazards? Why? Justify your 
answer. [2 marks]
Answer: The life cycle phase that is generally considered to have the
most hazards is the commissioning phase [1]. This is generally
because when a constructed plant is trying to get up and running,
there are a very high number of simultaneous activities occurring,
all of which are typically in a rush to meet a deadline. On top of this,
any hazards not realized or addressed in the design and
construction phases will become apparent, and in the case where
different parts of the plant are being started by their respective
contractors, it is a lot to be happening at once [1]. Due to this
pressure to get started it is easy see where many hazards can arise
whilst in the commissioning phase.
3) In the Inherently Safer Design (ISD) principles, the “Elimination” principle 
can be said to be a subset of all the other principles. Explain why this may be so, 
providing justification and relevant sources. [5 marks]
Hint: Define the “Elimination” principle and then describe how it is related to 
each the other ISD principles.
Answer: The elimination principle of inherently safer design can be defined as simply
removing the source of the hazard entirely. All the other principles eliminate an aspect
of the hazard, but full elimination gets rid of the entire hazardous thing.
For example intensification, which is reducing the size of inventories and/or reducing 
the size of equipment/processes used [2] isn’t entirely removing the hazard, but is 
removing a significant portion of its risks. The next example is substitution, which is 
replacing a material with another that is safer and will still achieve the same goal [3]. 

This again, is similar to elimination as you are taking away a hazard, but instead of 
full removal you are just replacing with a smaller hazard.
The next principle is attenuation, which is using different operating conditions to 
make a hazardous material/process less hazardous [4]. This is like elimination in the 
sense that you are removing a portion of the risk, but not entirely like you would in 
elimination. After this, the next principle is limitation, which means to limit the size 
and severity of a potential accident [4]. Again this is not elimination, but is similar in 
that you are eliminating a portion of the risk. The last principle is simplification, 
which is just removing needlessly complex parts of a process [5]. Once again you are 
eliminating a part of the risk, but not eliminating it fully.
4) Which one do you think contributed more for industrial disasters to happen: 
the natural environment or humans involved in the plant? Is it easier to manage 
risk related to people or the natural environment? [2 marks]
Answer: Human factors contribute to 2/3 of accidents [6], and
therefore contribute more to industrial disasters than the
environment does. Whilst nature can be very powerful and
unpredictable at times, it is usually taken fully into account and
weather/tectonic etc. patterns are closely monitored, so generally in
this day and age the environment doesn’t cause too many industrial
accidents (i.e. environmental risks can be managed).
Human error however, is very hard to predict and control, and even
the most experienced and intelligent operators can still make
mistakes and act irrationally (i.e. human error is hard to manage).
While you can argue that this should be expected and systems
should be designed to allow for humans to make errors [6], is
remains true that humans lead to more industrial disasters than the
environment does.
References: 
Cameron, IT, Raman, R. Process Systems Risk Management [Internet]. San Diego: 
Elsevier Inc.; 2005. 496 p. Available from: 
http://catalogue.curtin.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?
tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&in
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Cameron, IT, Raman, R. Process Systems Risk Management [Internet]. San Diego: 
Elsevier Inc.; 2005. 476 p. Available from: 
http://catalogue.curtin.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?
tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&in
dx=1&recIds=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&recIdxs=0&elementId=0&render
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Cameron, IT, Raman, R. Process Systems Risk Management [Internet]. San Diego: 
Elsevier Inc.; 2005. 477 p. Available from: 
http://catalogue.curtin.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?
tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&in
dx=1&recIds=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&recIdxs=0&elementId=0&render
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Cameron, IT, Raman, R. Process Systems Risk Management [Internet]. San Diego: 
Elsevier Inc.; 2005. 478 p. Available from: 
http://catalogue.curtin.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?
tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&in
dx=1&recIds=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&recIdxs=0&elementId=0&render
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Cameron, IT, Raman, R. Process Systems Risk Management [Internet]. San Diego: 
Elsevier Inc.; 2005. 480 p. Available from: 
http://catalogue.curtin.edu.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?
tabs=detailsTab&ct=display&fn=search&doc=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&in
dx=1&recIds=CUR_ALMA51117973510001951&recIdxs=0&elementId=0&render

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Seligmann, B. Risk Management: Lecture 4 [Lecture Notes on Internet]. Perth: Curtin
University, Faculty of Science & Engineering; 2015. Available from: 
https://lms.curtin.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3422304-dt-content-rid19776444_1/courses/302269-CU-061-01-Sxx-x1/Lecture
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