Electronic News Gathering

Course Description The College of the Bahamas

A production course in how to use the hand-held video camera/recorder for Electronic News Gathering (E.N.G.). Also, how to edit video tape, especially for use in broadcast journalism. Brief overview and history of electronic journalism and some issues of controversy.

To develop in the student the skills, techniques and art of capturing visual news through sight sound and motion. It is a "hands-on" course teaching the use of the hand held camera and the editing equipment used to create the short inserts used in normal studio news programs.

At the end of the semester the students should know; A) the difference and similarities between print and broadcast journalism B) Electronic News Gathering (E.N.G.); know it's definition and contribution to the televised news program C) know how to use remote equipment, especially the Camcorder D) know the technique of one-camera shooting, in-camera-editing E) know the techniques of video tape editing (video & audio), especially for use in television news.

I - General overview of broadcast news
A) the early days: radio & filmed news B) the impact of video tape, cable, satellites

I I - Controversies & problems in broadcast news
A) how corporate ownership affects news B) what kind of content "fits" visual news - "if it moves, shoot it" - the bias of the visual media C) is it news or entertainment ? D) censorship problems in the news Does it exist? Who are the "Gatekeepers"? 1. Government controls (direct/indirect) 2. Publisher bias 3. Self-bias (the reporter and the other gatekeepers) 4. The law and censorship 1 Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991

Electronic News Gathering
Course Description The College of the Bahamas

I I I Electronic News Gathering -- The Equipment
A) The camera: it's functions, parts; optical theory 1. 2. 3. 4. Setting up White & black balance Registration Camera features: a. - automatic versus manual controls b. - built in filters c. - the viewfinder

B) The zoom lens 1. 2. 3. 4. zoom lens and it's comparison to other kinds; characteristics F-stops and lighting focusing (automatic or manual) the zoom control

C) The tape recorder (video & audio) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. two piece units (camera & tape deck) one piece units (Camcorder) video controls audio controls built in microphone

I V - Going on the Shoot
A) Pre-planning -- before you go out you shoot.... The checklist (mental or written out) 1. 2. 3. 4. full equipment tests, how & what to do battery charging, testing remote lighting kit blank tape -- logging, identification, handling

2 Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991

Electronic News Gathering
Course Description The College of the Bahamas B) The video portion 1. 2. 3. 4. on site checklist (balancing, filters, etc.) test recordings shooting for the tape editor (in camera editing, cut-a-ways, shot variation kinds of shots (establishing, cover, re-asks, close-ups medium shots, long shots, head & shoulder shots, etc.)

C) The audio portion 1. 2. 3. 4. microphone selection & use, pick-up patterns, placement the sound bite wild sound the use of the two audio channels

V Editing the Tape -- the equipment and methods
A)The editing station 1. monitors or receivers, their set-up, adjustment and use 2. source VCR, controls, adjustment and use 3. record VCR, controls, adjustment and use 4. the editing control unit, it's operation B) Editing techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. the assemble mode the insert mode "in" and "outs" preview and review modes manual/automatic edit and abort modes logging and timing editing audio

V I Putting it all together
A) B) C) D) the the the the broadcast news reporter news producer remote team studio team 3 Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991

Electronic News Gathering
Course Description The College of the Bahamas


- Com 150 (for majors) Permission of Department/Instructor

A) A written final exam or B) A News Video Portfolio (videotape) to be turned in at the end of the semester containing what the student thinks is the best of this work. This video should contain examples of course video news principles and camera/editing techniques. Tapes will be limited to 10 minutes in length.


Project # 1 -Shoot & edit a 1-minute news segment with "voice over" audio only...10 % Project # 2 -Shoot & Edit a 2-minute news segment with "voice over" and location sound...10 % Project # 3 -Shoot and edit a 5-minute news show with at least 3 news "bites". Show requires an on-camera news anchor, opening & closing graphics. Segments must use V/O, location sound & wild sound and at least one of them must a "stand-up"...15 % Hands on test # 1 - Camcorder: Student demonstrates privately to instructor a professional knowledge of the unit and its accessories and resolves problems set up by instructor...15 % Hands on test # 2 - The editing system: Student demonstrates professional knowledge of editing (audio & video) and resolves problems set up by the instructor...15 % Quiz # 1 -Written quiz based mostly on text, especially vocabulary and videotape editing concepts ... 5 % Quiz # 2 -Written quiz based on text/vocabulary ... 5 % Final tape -Students edits the best of their three projects into a 8-10 minute "demonstration" (demo) tape (that the student can take and use for employment/resume possibilities). The tape may contain 2-3 minutes of new footage shot specifically for this tape. Tape should clearly show such talents as good camera work (framing, composition), news value, focus, lighting, "flow" & pacing: plus good editing practices (insert & assemble modes, clean edits, good audio & audio balance...20 % Professional grade -(absences, lateness, visual news sense, equipment appreciation (care, maintenance, security) ... 5 % TOTAL.......100 % VIDEO TAPES TO BE SCREENED FOR THE COURSE THE TV REVOLUTION- 60 mins VHS - ABC - THE KOPPEL REPORT THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NEWS - 60 mins VHS - PBS - ANNENBERG CPB PROJECT A DAY IN THE LIFE OF DAN RATHER - 30 mins VHS - PBS - POV INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING - 30mins VHS-PBS-ADAM SMITH'S MONEY WORLD IMAGE & REALITY IN AMERICA - 60 mins VHS PBS-BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND LEADING QUESTIONS-THE POLLSTERS - 60mins VHS-PBS-BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND THE ILLUSION OF NEWS - 60mins VHS PBS - BILL MOYERS-THE PUBLIC MIND THE TRUTH ABOUT LIES - 60mins VHS - PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND 1989 DUPONT NEWS AWARDS - 90mins VHS - PBS 4 Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991

Electronic News Gathering
Course Description The College of the Bahamas NATIONAL PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER AWARDS (NPPA) 1981, NPPA 1982, NPPA 1983, NPPA 1984, NPPA 1985 - 60mins -OZARKS PUBLIC TV THE WORLD IS WATCHING - 90mins VHS - CBC TV EDWARD R. MORROW - 120mins - VHS - PBS American Masters SUPPLEMENTARY READING: Shook, Frederick - The Process of Electronic News Gathering - ISBN 0-89582-082-X Morton Publishers Anderson, Gary - Video Editing & Production: A Professional Guide - ISBN 0-86729-114-1 Knowledge Industries, 1984 Bensinger, Charles, - The Video Guide, 3rd edition - ISBN 0672-22051-2, Sams Publisher, 1982 - Video As a Second Language: How To Make A Video Documentary - ISBN 0-915146-06-1 VTR Publishers, 1979 Millerson, Gerald, - Video Camera Techniques - ISBN 0-240-51225-1, Focal Press, 1983 Wood, William - Electronic Journalism - ISBN 0-231-02857-X, Columbia U. Press Feinberg, Milton - Techniques of Photojournalism paper - ISBN 0-317-1070-1/201 3630, Books Demand UMI Eden, Clifton C. - Photojournalism: Principles & Practices, 2ed ed., ISBN 0-697-04333-9 Wm.C.Brown 1980 Hicks, Wilson - Words & Pictures: An Introduction to Photojournalism, - ISBN 0-685-32645-4 Ayer Co. Pub. Roy, Frank P. - Photojournalism: The Visual Approach (Illus) - ISBN 0-13-665548-3, PH. REQUIRED TEXTS : THE BROADCAST NEWS PROCESS (THIRD EDITION) - BY FREDERICK SHOOK/DAN LATIMORE, MORTON PUBLISHING - ISBN 0-89582-164-8 - Broadcast News, Reporting & Production - by White, Ted & Meppen - ISBN 0-02-427010-5, Macmillan Press, 1984

5 Taught by George Lessard in 1990 & 1991

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