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TSL 3133 Action Research I

TOPIC 2

TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH APPROACHES

SYNOPSIS
Topic 2 provides an overview of the types of educational research available to
practitioners and describes the methodology and methods that these
approaches use to develop new knowledge through educational research.
According to the literature surrounding educational research there are four
primary models that researchers use: basic research, applied research, action
research, and evaluation research. These types of educational research serve
different purpose in the educational literature and will be described in this
module to explain their processes and underlying objectives. These types of
educational research will be discussed in detail during this module.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you will be able to:

define the types of educational research available to practitioners


distinguish the purpose, application and value of research in educational
practice
identify the various approaches that are located in the quantitative and
qualitative research paradigms
Evaluate the purpose, strength and weakness of educational research
paradigms

FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH

BASIC

APPLIED

Quantative research

ACTION RESEARCH

Qualitative research

EVALUATION

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Preview Discussion (10 min)
1. As a teacher, what can I do to become better at my teaching? Write down all
the methods that teachers can use to engage in professional development?

2. Write down the aspects of your professional practice are you currently
interested in developing?

3. Write down all the reasons that teachers conduct research.

4. What challenges do you anticipate with educational research?

5. Read the following quote by Lawrence Stenhouse (1975: 142-143):


curriculum research and development ought to belong to the teacher. And it is
not enough that teachers work should be studied: they need to study it
themselves.
Why do you think Stenhouse advocated teachers should conduct research?

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Exercise 1
Work with a partner, read about ONE TYPE of educational research and present that
type to another group in class. Next, take notes while the other group explains the
purpose, strength and weakness of the educational approach.
Research type

Purpose of the

Strength of the

Weakness of the

approach

approach

approach

Basic

Applied

Action research

Evaluation
research

Basic research
Pure research, basic research, or fundamental research is research carried out to
increase understanding of fundamental principles. It is not intended to yield
immediate commercial benefits; pure research can be thought of as arising out of
curiosity. However, in the long term it is the basis for many commercial products and
applied research Pure research is mainly carried out by universities (Wikipedia
2012).
Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the human world. It focuses
on refuting or supporting theories that explain how this world operates, what makes
things happen, why social relations are a certain way, and why society changes.
Pure research is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about

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the world. It can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory; however, explanatory
research is the most common (Wikipedia 2012).
Pure research generates new ideas, principles and theories, which may not be
immediately utilized; though are the foundations of modern progress and
development in different fields. Today's computers could not exist without the pure
research in mathematics conducted over a century ago, for which there was no
known practical application at that time. Pure research rarely helps practitioners
directly with their everyday concerns. Nevertheless, it stimulates new ways of
thinking about deviance that have the potential to revolutionize and dramatically
improve how practitioners deal with a problem.
A new idea or fundamental knowledge is not generated only by pure research, but
pure research can build new knowledge. In any case, pure research is essential for
nourishing the expansion of knowledge. Researchers at the centre of the scientific
community conduct most of what is pure research.
Pure research, yielding no immediate commercial benefit, in many countries tends to
rely on government or charitable funding and is frequently overseen by a national
scientific organisation (Wikipedia 2012).
Basic (aka fundamental or pure ) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or
interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge ,
not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the
discoveries that result from basic research. For example, basic science
investigations probe for answers to questions such as:

How did the universe begin?

What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?

How do slime molds reproduce?

What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?

Basic research lays down the foundation for the applied science that follows. If basic
work is done first, then applied spin-offs often eventually result from this research. As
Dr. George Smoot of LBNL says, "People cannot foresee the future well enough to

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predict what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did applied research,
we would still be making better spears."
Applied Research
Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather
than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the
applied scientist is to improve the human condition.
For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:

improve agricultural crop production


treat or cure a specific disease
improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation

Some scientists feel that the time has come for a shift in emphasis away from purely
basic research and toward applied science. This trend, they feel, is necessitated by
the problems resulting from global overpopulation, pollution, and the overuse of the
earth's natural resources.
Applied research expands on basic research findings to uncover practical ways in
which new knowledge can be advanced to benefit individuals and society. Here,
researchers might use a genetic map to develop gene therapies to treat human
diseases or develop new programs to enhance community capital and stability in
rural communities.

Applied research in education is best characterised by the intention to link research


with action in a form that generates actionable knowledge. This intention is
evidenced in the processes of designing, carrying out, and validating the research
findings. It need not necessarily imply a preference for a particular type of knowledge
or the methodology associated with its production.

There are no characteristics inherent in some rather than other research paradigms
which renders their knowledge outcomes more actionable. In this respect my answer
to the question of "what is applied research" is post-paradigmatic. It is educational
practitioners or policy-makers who ultimately determine the extent to which
knowledge outcomes are actionable within their particular action contexts.

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Action research1
The aim of an action researcher is to bring about development in his or her practice
by analysing existing practice and identifying elements for change. The process is
founded on the gathering of evidence on which to make informed rather than intuitive
judgements and decisions. Perhaps the most important aspect of action research is
that the process enhances teachers professional development through the fostering
of their capability as professional knowledge makers, rather than simply as
professional knowledge users. In an age of centralisation and the proliferation of
national guidelines and strategies, action research can help teachers feel in control
of their own professional situation (Waters-Adams 2006).
What is action research about?
Action research is a practical approach to professional inquiry in any social situation
(classrooms, schools, clubs, hospitals). The examples in this component relate to
education and are therefore of particular relevance to teachers or lecturers engaged
in their daily contact with children or students. But professional practice need not be
teaching: it may be management or administration in a school or college, or it may
be in an unrelated area, such as medicine or the social services. The context for
professional inquiry might change, but the principles and processes involved in
action research are the same, regardless of the nature of the practice (WatersAdams 2006).
Indeed, action research did not arise in education (see Lewin 1948), but was applied
to the development of teaching as its potential was identified. Of particular influence
was the work of Lawrence Stenhouse, who famously advocated that curriculum
research and development ought to belong to the teacher (Stenhouse, 1975 p. 142).
He was most adamant that it is not enough that teachers work should be studied:
they need to study it themselves (p.143).
As its name suggests, action research concerns actors those people carrying out
their professional actions from day to day - and its purpose is to understand and to
1

Originally prepared by Dr Stephen Waters-Adams, Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth, 2006.

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improve those actions. It is about trying to understand professional action from the
inside; as a result, it is research that is carried out by practitioners on their own
practice, not (as in other forms of research), done by someone on somebody elses
practice. Action research in education is grounded in the working lives of teachers,
as they experience them. Carr and Kemmis (1986) describe action research as
being about:

the improvement of practice;


the improvement of the understanding of practice;
the improvement of the situation in which the practice takes place.

Action research can thus be used to:


understand ones own practice;
understand how to make ones practice better;
understand how to accommodate outside change in ones practice;
understand how to change the outside in order to make ones practice better.
Evaluation Research
Weiss defines evaluation as the systematic assessment of the operation and/or the
outcomes of a program or policy, compared to a set of explicit or implicit standards,
as a means of contributing to the improvement of the program or policy (1998, p. 4).
In her previous book, Weiss (1972) defines evaluation research as an elastic word
that stretches to cover judgments of many kinds (p.1).
The focus of evaluation research is on evaluating an event and to make judgment
about its usefulness. This type of research is probably not truly quantitative due to
the elements of value judgment made by the researcher.
In terms of methodology, a consensus exists with respect to the fact that both
quantitative and qualitative methods have an important place in programme
evaluation (Clarke and Dawson, 1999). Impact evaluation uses the canonical
research procedures of social sciences. In addition, Clarke and Dawson mention that
the importance of systematic evaluative research as a phenomenon across the
Social Sciences has been evident in recent years.
Evaluation is inherently political: what happens when a new technology is introduced
is both affected by organizational and implementation processes, as well as affecting
them. Evaluation, too, is political in nature because it concerns needs, values, and
interests of different stakeholders. Evaluation can be used to influence system

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design, development, and implementation. While results of post-hoc or summative
assessments may influence future development, formative evaluation, which
precedes or is concurrent with the processes of systems design, development, and
implementation, can be a helpful way to incorporate people, social, organizational,
ethical, legal, and economic considerations into all phases of a project.
Weiss (1998, pp. 20-28) identifies several purposes for evaluating programs and
policies. They include the following:
1. Determining how clients are faring
2. Providing legitimacy for decisions
3. Fulfilling grant requirements
4. Making midcourse corrections in programs
5. Making decisions to continue or culminate programs
6. Testing new ideas
7. Choosing the best alternatives
8. Recording program history
9. Providing feedback to staff
10. Highlighting goals
Process evaluation focuses on what the program actually does (Weiss, 1998, p. 9).
Process indicators are somewhat similar to performance measures, but they focus
more on the activities and procedures of the organization than on the products of
those activities.
Any evaluation method that involves the measurement of quantitative/ numerical
variables probably qualifies as a quantitative method, and many of the methods
already examined fall into this broad category. Among the strengths of quantitative
methods are the evaluator can reach conclusions with a known degree of confidence
about the extent and distribution of that the phenomenon; they are amenable to an
array of statistical techniques; and they are generally assumed to yield relatively
objective data (Weiss, 1998, pp. 83-84).
Experimental methods usually, hut not always, deal with quantitative data and are
considered to be the best method for certain kinds of evaluation studies. Indeed, the

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classic design for evaluations has been the experiment. It is the design of choice in
many circumstances because it guards against the threats to validity (Weiss, 1998,
p. 215). The experiment is especially useful when it is desirable to rule out rival
explanations for outcomes. In other words, if a true experimental design is used
properly, the evaluator should be able to assume that any net effects of a program
are due to the program and not to other external factors.
As is true for basic research, qualitative methods are becoming increasingly popular.
In fact, the most striking development in evaluation in recent years is the coming of
age of qualitative methods. Where once they were viewed as aberrant and probably
the refuge of those who had never studied statistics, now they are recognized as
valuable additions to the evaluation repertoire (Weiss, 1998, p. 252).
Weiss (1998) reminds us that the evaluator should also give careful thought to the
best time to conduct the evaluation, the types of questions to ask, whether one or a
series of studies will be necessary, and any ethical issues that might be generated
by the study.
Inconsistent data collection techniques, biases of the observer, the data collection
setting, instrumentation, behaviour of human subjects, and sampling can affect the
validity and/or reliability of measures. The use of multiple measures can help to
increase the validity and reliability of the data. They are also worth using because no
single technique is up to measuring a complex concept, multiple measures tend to
complement one another, and separate measures can be combined to create one or
more composite measures (Weiss, 1998).
The basic tasks of data analysis for an evaluative study are to answer the questions
that must be answered in order to determine the success of the program or service,
and the quality of the resources. The aim of analysis is to convert a mass of raw
data into a coherent account. Whether the data are quantitative or qualitative, the
task is to sort, arrange, and process them and make sense of their configuration.
The intent is to produce a reading that accurately represents the raw data and
blends them into a meaningful account of events (Weiss, 1998, p. 271). Those
questions should, of course, be closely related to the nature of what is being
evaluated and the goals and objectives of the program or service. In addition, the

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nature of the data analysis will be significantly affected by the methods and
techniques used to conduct the evaluation.
Most data analyses, whether quantitative or qualitative in nature, will employ some of
the following strategies: describing, counting, factoring, clustering, comparing, finding
commonalities, examining deviant cases, finding co-variation, ruling out rival
explanations, modeling, and telling the story. Evaluators conducting quantitative data
analyses will need to be familiar with techniques for summarizing and describing the
data; and if they are engaged in testing relationships or hypotheses and/or
generalizing findings to other situations, they will need to utilize inferential statistics
(Weiss, 1998).
As part of the planning, the evaluator should have considered how and to whom the
findings will be communicated and how the results will be applied. A good report will
be characterized by clarity, effective format and graphics, timeliness, candour about
strengths and weaknesses of the study, and generalizability (Weiss, 1998), as well
as by adequacy of sources and documentation, appropriateness of data analysis and
interpretation, and basis for conclusions.

Summary of various types of educational research


Quantitative research designs research involving formal, objective information
about the world, with mathematical quantification; it can be used to describe test
relationships and to examine cause and effect relationships.
Experimental research objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the
purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and
causality among selected variables.
Quasi-experimental
A quasi-experiment is an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an
intervention on its target population. Quasi-experimental research designs share
many similarities with the traditional experimental design or randomized controlled
trial, but they specifically lack the element of random assignment to treatment or

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control. Instead, quasi-experimental designs typically allow the researcher to control
the assignment to the treatment condition, but using some criterion other than
random assignment (e.g., an eligibility cutoff score).[1] In some cases, the researcher
may have no control over assignment to treatment condition.
Quasi-experiments are subject to concerns regarding internal validity, because the
treatment and control groups may not be comparable at baseline. With random
assignment, study participants have the same chance of being assigned to the
intervention group or the comparison group. As a result, the treatment group will be
statistically identical to the control group, on both observed and unobserved
characteristics, at baseline (provided that the study has adequate sample size). Any
change in characteristics post-intervention is due, therefore, to the intervention
alone. With quasi-experimental studies, it may not be possible to convincingly
demonstrate a causal link between the treatment condition and observed outcomes.
This is particularly true if there are confounding variables that cannot be controlled or
accounted for.[2]
Survey
Survey Research (Sociology) is a means of analysis involving a respondent and
questionnaire to obtain qualitative and/ or quantitative information in a sociological
study. The respondent is a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a
survey questionnaire. A questionnaire is a document containing questions and other
types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. There are two
major types of questions that appear on surveys: open-ended questions and closeended questions. [1]
Correlational research the systematic investigation of relationships among two or
more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect.

Qualitative research research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or


impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and
symbols; it may involve content ANALYSIS.

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Ethnography research the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of
the members of the culture; it involves the systematic collection, description, and
analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour.

Case study research


Historically, case studies have been utilized in a wide range of disciplines including
law, medicine, history, government policy, education and other hermeneutic
(interpretive) traditions such as anthropology, psychology, political science, social
work and management (Burns, 2000). Educational researchers have recognized
case study research as a valid means of exploring a particular aspect of teacher or
student behaviour, pedagogical practice, social justice issues, or curriculum
application (Luck, Jackson, & Usher, 2006). Case study research usually
investigates a person, group or policy and involves an examination of a research
question in a real life context.
In Stakes (1995: 4) suggests that one of the most important elements of undertaking
case study research is to maximize what we can understand about that case. We do
not study a case primarily to understand other cases. Our first obligation is to
understand this one case. Thus, case study researchers resist the tendency to draw
conclusions but instead, allow the case to unfold naturally without preconceptions
with respect to the investigation. Stake (1995) also points out that case study
knowledge is different from other research knowledge in four key ways:
1. Case study knowledge is more concrete; it resonates with our own
experience because it is more vivid, concrete and sensory than
abstract.
2. Case study research is more contextual. Our experiences are rooted in
context as is knowledge in case studies. This knowledge is
distinguishable from the knowledge derived from other research
designs.
3. Case study researchers are much more focused on process than
outcomes or products. How do things happen? What is the natural
history of the activity under study?
4. The researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and
analysis. Data are mediated through the human instrument.
Traditionally, case studies use thick description to provide a full, rich, literal
exploration of the incident under investigation (Burns, 2000; Merriam, 1988).
However, thick description does not necessarily mean that the educational

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researcher sets about describing every observation and nuance at the research
event, rather it is designed to enhance reflection, understanding and perceptions of
the actors involved in order to further the readers knowledge of that case (Merriam,
1998; Stake, 1995). That is to say, the actors views and actions are a source of data
in case studies that allows his or her unique voice and ownership of the environment
to come through to the reader (Elliot & Lukes, 2008).
http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~palmquis/courses/historical.htm
Historical research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or
recent past.
The process of learning and understanding the background and growth of a chosen
field of study or profession can offer insight into organizational culture, current
trends, and future possibilities. The historical method of research applies to all fields
of study because it encompasses their: origins, growth, theories, personalities, crisis,
etc. Both quantitative and qualitative variables can be used in the collection of
historical information. Once the decision is made to conduct historical research,
there are steps that should be followed to achieve a reliable result. Charles Busha
and Stephen Harter detail six steps for conducting historical research (91):
1. the recognition of a historical problem or the identification of a need for certain
historical knowledge.
2. the gathering of as much relevant information about the problem or topic as
possible.
3. if appropriate, the forming of hypothesis that tentatively explain relationships
between historical factors.
4. The rigorous collection and organization of evidence, and the verification of
the authenticity and veracity of information and its sources.
5. The selection, organization, and analysis of the most pertinent collected
evidence, and the drawing of conclusions; and
6. the recording of conclusions in a meaningful narrative.
There are a variety of places to obtain historical information. Primary Sources are the
most sought after in historical research. Primary resources are first hand accounts
of information. Finding and assessing primary historical data is an exercise in

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detective work. It involves logic, intuition, persistence, and common
sense(Tuchman, Gaye in Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, 252). Some examples
of primary documents are: personal diaries, eyewitness accounts of events, and oral
histories. Secondary sources of information are records or accounts prepared by
someone other than the person, or persons, who participated in or observed an
event. Secondary resources can be very useful in giving a researcher a grasp on a
subject and may provided extensive bibliographic information for delving further into
a research topic.
In any type of historical research, there are issues to consider. Harter and Busha list
three principles to consider when conducting historical research (99-100):
1. Consider the slant or biases of the information you are working with and the
ones possessed by the historians themselves.
2. This is particularly true of qualitative research.
Quantitative facts may also be biased in the types of statistical data collected or in
how that information was interpreted by the researcher.
2. There are many factors that can contribute to historical episodes.
3. Evidence should not be examined from a singular point of view.
The resources that follow this brief introduction to the historical method in
research provide resources for further in-depth explanations about this research
method in various fields of study, and abstracts of studies conducted using this
method.
Tutorial Exercises (Need to create the exercises in particular for part b)
Procedure to use the learning experience approach
1. Have the pupils choose an experience that they would like to write about. For
groups, this should be a shared experience such as a field trip or an activity that
the whole class had participated in. For individual pupils, it could be anything that
the pupil feels is important or interesting, such as a family activity, a story about
their pet or favourite toy, or even a television show or movie that they enjoyed.
The language experience approach can also be used to create fictional stories.

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2. Discuss the experience with the pupils. This helps them to clarify what they want
to write about, organize their thoughts, and come up with specific, descriptive
vocabulary.
3. Write the story down as the pupils dictate it. For groups, have pupils take turns
dictating sentences describing their experience. Record what they say on large
chart paper, repeating the words as they are written. For individual pupils, this can
be done on a single sheet of paper, or it can be made into a book. The writing
should be done in neat, large print rather than cursive, to make it easier for the
pupils to read.
Try to stick to the pupils' own words exactly as they are spoken with a minimum of
correction for grammar or sentence structure. It is important for pupils to see their
own words in print, because they have a personal connection to the words.
4. Read the text aloud. Point to each word as you read it aloud. After reading the text
to the pupils, have them reread it aloud. With a group, call on individual pupils to
read sentences, or have them read chorally as a group while pointing to each
word. Pupils can illustrate their individual texts and read them aloud to the class.
Since the words that the pupils dictate are familiar and are used in a meaningful
context, pupils will be able to read more difficult vocabulary than they might
ordinarily be able to if they simply saw it printed in a book.
References
Busha, Charles and Stephen P. Harter. Research Methods in Librarianship:
techniques and Interpretations. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1980.
Denzin, Norman K. and Yvonna S. Lincoln (editors). Strategies of Qualitative
Inquiry. Sage
Clarke, A. & Dawson, R. 1999. Handbook of Evaluation Research, An Introduction to
Principles, Methods and Practice, SAGE Publications.
Weiss, C.H. 1972. Evaluation Research: Methods of Assessing Program
Effectiveness. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Weiss, C. H. 1998. Evaluation: Methods for Studying Programs and Policies (2nd
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dr Stephen Waters-Adams S Waters-Adams, Faculty of Education, University of
Plymouth, 2006
Altricher, H., Posch, P. & Somekh, B. (1993) Teachers Investigate their Work: An
Introduction to the Methods of Action Research, London, Routledge.

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Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986) Becoming Critical: education, knowledge and action
research. Lewes, Falmer.
Cohen, L ; Manion, L & Morrison, K (2000) Research Methods in Education (5th
edition), London, RoutledgeFalmer
Corey, S. (1953) Action Research to Improve School Practices. New York, Columbia
University, Teachers College Press.
Ebbutt, D. (1985) Educational Action research: some general concerns and specific
quibbles, in: Burgess, R. (ed.) Issues in Educational Research: qualitative methods.
Lewes, Falmer.
Elliott, J. (1981) Action research: a framework for self-evaluation in schools. TIQL
working paper no.1., Cambridge, Cambridge Institute of Education.
Elliott, J. (1991) Action Research for Educational Change, Buckingham, Open
University Press.
Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge. Brighton, Harvester.
Gibson, R. (1985) Critical times for action research. Cambridge Journal of Education,
15 (1): 59-64.
Hamilton, D. (1981) Generalization in the Educational Sciences: problems and
purposes. In: Popkewitz, T.S. and Tabachnik, B.R. (eds.) The Study of Schooling:
field based methodologies in educational research and evaluation, New York,
Praeger.
Hollingsworth, S. (ed.) (1997) International Action Research: a casebook for
educational reform. London, Falmer.
Hollingsworth, S., Noffke, S.E., Walker, M. & Winter, R. (1997) Epilogue: What have
we learned from these case on action research and educational reform? in:
Hollingsworth, S. (ed.) International Action Research: a casebook for educational
reform, London, Falmer.
Hopkins, D. (1993) A Teachers Guide to Classroom Research, 2nd edition, Milton
Keynes, Open University Press.
Hustler, D., Cassidy, A. & Cuff, E. (eds.) (1986) Action Research in Classrooms and
Schools, London, Allen and Unwin.
Jennings, L. & Graham, A. (1996) Postmodern perspectives and action research:
reflecting on the possibilities. Educational Action Research, 4 (2): 267-278.
Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1982) The Action Research Planner. Victoria, Deakin
University Press.

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Koshy, V. (2005) Action research for improving practice. A practical guide. London:
Paul Chapman Publishing.
Lewin, K. (1948) Resolving Social Conflicts. New York, Harper.
Lewis, I. (1987) Encouraging reflexive teacher research. British Journal of Sociology
of Education, 8 (1): 95-105.
Lyotard, J.F. (1984) The Postmodern Condition: a report on knowledge. Manchester,
Manchester University Press.
McKernan (1991) Curriculum Action research: a handbook of methods and
resources for the reflective practitioner. London, Kogan Page.
McNiff, J. (1988) Action Research: Principles and Practice, Basingstoke, Macmillan.
Schn, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action.
New York, Basic Books.
Somekh, B. (1988) The role of action research in collaborative inquiry and school
improvement. Paper to CARN conference, Cambridge, 25-27 March.
Stenhouse, L. (1975) An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development.
London, Heinemann.
Taba, H. (1962) Curriculum Development: theory and practice. New York, Harcourt,
Brace and World.
Wallace, M. (1987) A historial review of action research: some implications for the
education of teachers in their managerial role. Journal of Education for Teaching, 13
(2): 97-115
Whitehead, J. (1985) An Analysis of an Individuals Educational Development: the
basis for personally oriented action research, in: Shipman, M. (ed.) Educational
Research: principles, policies and practices, Lewes, Falmer.
Whitehead, J. (1989) Creating a living educational theory from questions of the kind
How do I improve my practice? Cambridge Journal of Education, 19 (1): 41-52
Whitehead, J. & Lomax, P. (1987) Action research and the politics of educational
knowledge. British Educational Research Journal, 13 (2): 175-190.
Winter, R. (1987) Action Research and the Nature of Social Inquiry. Aldershot,
Gower.
Winter, R. (1989) Learning from Experience: principles and practice in action
research. Lewes, Falmer.
Woods, P. (1996) Researching the Art of Teaching: ethnography for educational use.
London, Routledge.

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Zeichner, K.M. (1993) Action research: personal renewal and social reconstruction.
Educational Action Research, 1 (2): 199-219.
Websites
Teacher TV United Kingdom:
https://www.education.gov.uk/schools/toolsandinitiatives/teacherstv/
Evaluation research article downloaded from the world wide web Sept 28, 2012:
http://adhi301126117.wordpress.com/.

http://www.open.ac.uk/cobe/docs/AR-Guide-final.pdf
This site presents training material for Open University Associate Lecturers. It deals
with key theoretical and practical aspects of action research and would be
particularly useful for tutors in FE or HE who were thinking of undertaking research
into their own practice. There are examples of past projects, highlighting procedural
stages and outcomes.
http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/
Jack Whitehead's website at Bath University. Contains much information regarding
the process of action research, along with a selection of extracts from theses that
have used action research as their methodology.

http://www.did.stu.mmu.ac.uk/carn/
The Collaborative Action Research Network site at Manchester Metropolitan
University. A vast amount of information about action research in
education. Follows the developmental work in the Ford Teaching Project (1976),
pioneered by Lawrence Stenhouse. Also has conference proceedings, publications,
newsletters and links to other sites.