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CHEMISTRY FORM 4

CHAPTER 8 : SALTS
8.1 SYNTHESISING SALTS

A salt +is a compound formed when the hydrogen


ion, H from an acid is replaced
by a metal ion or
+
an ammonium ion, NH4
Examples

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

2HNO3 + Zn Zn(NO3)2 + H2

H2SO4 + MgCO3 MgSO4 + H2O + CO2


Complete the table below

Metal
Ion
Na+

Sulphate salt Chloride salt


(From H2SO4) (From HCl)

Nitric Acid
Carbonate salt
(From HNO3) (From H2CO3)

K+
Zn2+

Mg2+
Ca2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
Cu2+
NH4+
Ba2+
Al3+
Pb2+
Ag2+
INSOLUBLE SALT
1
Solubility of salt.
All K+ , Na+
and NH4+ salts
are soluble All
nitrate salts are
soluble
All carbonate are soluble except K 2CO3,
Na2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3 All Sulphate salts
are soluble except BaSO4 , CaSO4, and
PbSO4 All chloride salts are soluble except
AgCl2 and PbCl2

The
prepara
tion of
salt on
its
solubili
ty of
the salt
and the
nature
of the
reaction

.
P
r
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

METH
OD 3
Insolub
le

o
f
s
a
l
t

METHOD 1

Soluble

K+ , Na+ NH4+

Acid + Alkali

METHOD 2

Other than K+ , Na+


NH4+ salts

- Mix

Salt + H2O

Titration of
acid and alkali

- Add acid to the alkali until it is

neutral with the aid of an


indicator
- Repeat the procedure without
using an indicator

Acid + basic oxide


Salt + water Acid +
metal Salt +
Hydrogen gas

Acid + Metal Carbonate


Salt + Water + CO2

two
solution
containing cations and
anions of insoluble salts
- Stir using glass rod
- Filter using filter funnel
- Rinse the residue with
distilled water
- Dry the residue with filter
paper

- Add basic oxide fillings/metals/metal carbonate to the acid


and heat it until some of it no longer dissolves. (This mean all
acid has reacted with the basic oxide/metal/metal carbonate)
- Filter to move excess solid residue

- Gently heat the filtrate to obtain a saturated solution (one-third of its original volume remains)
- Cool the hot saturated solution to allow it to crystallize
- Filter and dry the crystals by using filter paper

TRY THIS 1
Write all possible chemical equation to prepare soluble salts and chemical equation for insoluble salt
*******KEY*******
S = SOLUBLE
SALT IS =
INSOLUBLE SALT

SALT
Zinc Chloride

SOLUBILIT
Y

CHEMICAL EQUATION

Sodium
Nitrate

Silver Chloride

Copper(II)
Sulphate

Lead(II)
Sulphate

Aluminium
Nitrate

Lead(II)
Chloride

Magnesium
Nitrate

Potassium
Chloride

Lead(II)
Nitrate

Barium
Sulphate

Ammonium
Sulphate

Numerical problem involving stoichiometry reactions in the preparation of salts


A student prepare copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 by reacting copper(II) oxide, CuO with 100 cm3 of 1.5
-3

mol dm nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the mass of copper(II) oxide, CuO needed to react
completely with the acid. [RAM : Cu,64 ; O,16]

8.2 SYNTHESISING QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SALTS

Colour of Salts
SOLID
White salt
Green
Light Green
Blue
Brown
Black
Yellow when hot
White when cold
Brown when hot
Yellow when cold

AQUEOU
S
Colourless
Insoluble
Light Green
Blue
Brown
Insoluble
Insoluble

SOLID/METAL OXIDE

Insoluble

Confirmatory test for several gases


GAS
COLOUR SMELL EFFECT ON
DAMP
LITMUS
PAPER

REAGENT
USED

Hydrogen

Colourless

Odourless

No effect

Lighted
splinter

Oxygen

Colourless

Odourless

No effect

Glowing
Splinter

Carbon
Dioxide

Colourless

Odourless

Blue

Ammonia

Colourless

Pungent
Smell

Red

Chlorine

Greenish
yellow
Brown

Pungent
Smell
Pungent
Smell
Pungent
Smell

Blue

Pungent
Smell

Blue

Nitrogen
Dioxide
Sulphur
dioxide

Hydrogen
chloride

Colourless

Colourless

red

Bring a lighted splinter to the


mouth of test tube. It gives
pop sound
Bring a glowing splinter to the
mouth of test tube. The
glowing splinter lights up
Bubble the gas produce into
lime water. Lime water will
turns chalky/milky/cloudy
Dip a glass rod into
concentrated HCl. White
fumes is released
-

red

red

Acidified
potassium
manganate(VII)
solution
Concentrated
ammonia, NH3
aqueous

Turns acidified potassium


manganate (VII) solution from
purple to colourless

red

Lime water

blue

Concentrated
HCl

CONFIRMATORY TEST

white

Blue
Blue

red

Dip a glass rod into


Concentrated ammonia, NH3,
white fumes is released

Action of heat on salts


a) Most compound which decomposes leave behind oxides
Salt
metal oxide
+
gas
(residue identification
(gas identification
refers to specific cations
refers to anion)
only)
b)
Types of gas
released

Colourless
residue

Can predict the


identify of anions
presence in salt

Can predict the


identify of cations
presence in salt

c) Test of carbon dioxide gas liberated when the carbonate salt is heated strongly

d) Write down the chemical equation for the reactions that occur.
Carbonate Salt
Nitrate Salt
Decompose into O2 gas and metal nitrate
Is not decomposed by heat

Ion
K+

Na+

Ca2+
Mg

2+

Decompose into metallic oxide and CO2

Decompose into metal oxide, NO2 and O2

Al3+
Zn2+

Fe2+
Fe3+
Pb2+
Cu2+

Sulphate salts usually do not decompose


Chloride salts do not decompose except NH4Cl
NH4Cl (s)
NH3 (g) + HCl (g)
[sublimation]
Confirmatory test for anions
Unknown Salt Solution

+ dilute
acid
Gas turns
limewater
__________

+HNO3
+ AgNO3

+ HNO3
+ Ba(NO3)2

__________
Precipitate
formed

__________
precipitate
formed

+ H2SO4 dilute
+ FeSO4
+ H2SO4 conc

________
________
__

Confirmatory test for cations


a) The presence of cation can be detected by using two common bench alkalis namely
i) _____________________________ solution

ii) _____________________________ solution


b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction of cations and sodium hydroxide
The function of the alkalis is to produce a precipitate that is
Metal hydroxide
METAL + HYDROXIDE ION

METAL HYDROXIDE
7

Ion

Ionic equation for the reaction of cations and sodium hydroxide


Al3+ + 3OH-

Aluminium ion
Lead (II) Ion
Zinc Ion
Magnesium Ion
Calcium Ion
Copper (II) Ion
Ferrum (II) Ion
Ferrum (III) Ion

8
NH4+

Ca2+ , Fe2+ ,,Fe3+ ,

Zn2+ , Al3+, Pb2+

Al(OH)3

No
Precipitate

Cu2+ , Mg2+
Formation of
precipitation &
Non-soluble in
excess

Formation of white
precipitate & then
soluble in excess

+NaOH a
little
and then in
excess
+NH4OH a little
and then in
excess
NH4+, Ca2+ Fe2+ ,,Fe3+, Al3+
Pb2+, Mg2+
No
Formation of
Precipitate precipitation &
Not dissolve in
excess

Examples

Zn2+ Cu2+
precipitate is
formed & dissolve
in excess
Anion to be test:
CO32- SO42- ClNO3-

Anion
Test
2CO3
+ HCl
SO42ClNO3-

Observation
Gas form white
precipitate with lime
water
+ HCl
White precipitate is
+ BaCl2/ Ba(NO3)2 formed
+ HNO3
White precipitate is
+ Ag(NO3)2
formed
+ H2SO4 (Dil)
Brown ring is formed
+ FeSO4
+ H2SO4 (conc)

K2Fe(II)(CN)6
K2Fe(III)
(CN)6
KSCN

CATIONS TEST

Fe3+

Fe2+ ,
Light Blue
precipitate

Blue
precipitate

Dark Blue
Precipitate
No Change

Brown
Solution
Red solution

+ HCl, white precipitate


occurs and dissolved in

Fe2+ Fe3+

hot water

Pb2+

Confirmatory test

+ KI, yellow precipitate

ION TEST

NH4

occurs and dissolved in


hot water

+ Nessler reagent, brown precipitate is form

ANION TEST
Pre-Test

Confirmatory test
9

Gas evolved from the


reaction with salt

Test for cations


Cations
Al3+
Pb2+

Zn2+
Mg2+
Ca2+
Cu2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
NH4+

Test with a small amount of NaOH solution


until in excess
White precipitate soluble in excess. NaOH
solution
White precipitate, soluble in excess NaOH
solution
White precipitate, soluble in excess NaOH
solution
White precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH
solution
White precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH
solution
Blue precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH
solution
Green precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH
solution
Brown precipitate, insoluble in excess
NaOH solution
No precipitate

10

Test with a small amount of NH4OH until in


excess
White precipitate, insoluble in excess NH4OH
solution
White precipitate, insoluble in excess NH4OH
solution
White precipitate, soluble in excess NH 4OH
solution
White precipitate, insoluble in excess NH4OH
solution
No precipitate
Blue precipitate, soluble in excess NH4OH
solution
Green precipitate, insoluble in excess NH4OH
solution
Brown precipitate, insoluble in excess NH4OH
solution
No precipitate