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ALLAH

Design project on the processing of 10,000 barrel/day crude oil for


production of n-paraffin

Session: 2010-2014
Project Supervisor
Engr. Khaqan Javed

Project Co-Supervisor
Engr. Aamir Ali

Submitted by
Beenish Younis Cheema

2010-UET-ShCET-LHR-CE-10

Muhammad Usama

2010-UET-ShCET-LHR-CE-12

Bilal Ahmad

2010-UET-ShCET-LHR-CE-26

Muzammil Muzaffar

2010-UET-ShCET-LHR-CE-27

Department of Chemical Engineering


Sharif College of Engineering and Technology (affiliated with UET),
Lahore
3

Design project on the processing of 10,000 barrel/day crude oil for


the production of n-paraffin

This project is submitted to the Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif


College of Engineering and Technology for the partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the

Bachelor of Science
In
Chemical Engineering
Session 2010-2014

Approved on: ____________


Supervisor:

External Examiner:

Engr. Khaqan Javed

Prof. Dr. Javed Iqbal

________________

________________

Co-Supervisor:

Chairman:

Engr. Aamir Ali

Prof. Dr. Anwar Ul Haq

________________

________________

Department of Chemical Engineering


Sharif College of Engineering and Technology (affiliated with UET),
Lahore
4

DEDICATION
This project work is dedicated to our beloved parents, respected teachers and
to all those people, who are working to make our motherland Pakistan a
Prosperous country.

Acknowledgment
We take on the initiation with the prestiges name Almighty ALLAH, lord,
designer, builder of the most complex processing plants; the human body. Its
accurate and sophisticated fluid transportation, gas absorption, filtration,
chemical reactions and electronic control systems with partial mechanical
structural capillaries is a product of HIS engineering that we strive to understand
and duplicate WHO gave us caliber, incentives and courage to complete this
project within prescribed limits and to the HOLY PROPHET MOHAMMAD (S.A.W)
who showed light of knowledge to the humanity as a whole.
The ideas of report writing are usually attributable to all of the group members
and the sources, which helped us a lot to compile it. This is all due to the
illuminated guidance of our teachers as they are builders of our academic
carrier, all this could not have been done without their enlightened supervision
and coaching. For this we are very much grateful to them, especially Engr.
Khaqan Javed and Engr. Aamir Ali who spared a lot of their precious time in
advising and helping us throughout our project.
It is with great pleasure and extreme feelings of obligation that we thank
professor, Dr. Khalid Qamar (Director of Sharif College of Engineering and
Technology (affiliated with UET), Lahore) and Dr. Anwar-ul-Haque (Head of
Chemical Engineering Department SCET) for their constructive criticism and
valuable suggestions during our academic carrier.
Last but not Least, we owe immense sense of gratitude to our parents who not
only supported us financially throughout our education but gave us the strength
of character and would always remain as beacon of light for us.

Preface
The design report on the production of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) from Crude Oil
is a very useful process used worldwide for the production of LAB, we chose this
project as there is no plant in Pakistan which produces LAB.
The design report of our project is made very carefully and honestly, so hopefully
the content is adequate for the basic understanding of the process as each
and every aspect is discussed in detail with clear visual graphics. All the
designing and calculations are done by using up to date correlations of heat
transfer, mass transfer and equipment design. This report should also be useful to
the engineers in the chemical engineering department.
All the calculations are done in English units and the cost estimation is done in
dollars. The references are given in detail at the end of the report so each can
be accessed easily.
Separate chapters are devoted to each of the step for the designing of a
project including introduction, process description, material and energy
balances and equipment design. For the good operation and safety purpose,
the instrumentation of equipment is done and explained in a separate chapter.
Also, the project cost evaluation is done in the other chapter. Environmental
impacts are also discussed in the last chapter.
Authors

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ... 11
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Synopsis ....... 11
Refineries . 12
List of refineries in Pakistan . 13
Properties and uses of product . 13

2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION ...................... 15


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Brief overview of process .... 15


Raw Material ... 15
Properties ........ 16
Overall Process .. 16

3. PROCESS DIAGRAMS 18
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Input/ Output Diagram .... 18


Functional Diagram .. 19
Operational Diagram ... 19
Process Flow Diagram ..... 20

4. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE ... 20


4.1

Material and Energy Balance over equipments ..... 21

5. EQUIPMENT DESIGN ... 37


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Plug Flow Reactor Design ... 41


Distillation Column Design ..... 53
Heat Exchanger Design .. 67
Fractionating Column Design ....... 75

6. INSTRMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL .... 83


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Introduction .................................... 83
The Importance of Process Control ......... 83
Learning objectives .................... 84
Process control ........................... 84
Process variables ...... 85
8

6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

Objectives ...... 85
Process Control over Fractionating Column-1 ..... 86
Cascade Control .......... 87
Feedback Control ........ 88

7. COST ESTIMATION .. 89
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Equipment Costs ........... 89


Estimation of Project Cost ....... 95
Estimation of Fixed Capital Investment ............. 96
Estimation of Total Capital Investment ........... 97

8. HAZOP STUDY 98
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

What Is a HAZOP Study? ............ 98


Objective of HAZOP ............ 99
How and Why HAZOP is used ................................. 99
Purpose of HAZOP ............................................. 100
HAZOP Study Flowchart ............................. 101
HAZOP Study for a Distillation Column ............ 102

9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .... 104


9.1
9.2

Introduction ......... 104


Potential Environmental Impacts .......... 104

REFERENCES .. 109

List of Figures
Fig. 1.1a

Regional Lab Capacity 11

Fig. 3.1a

Input/ Output Diagram .... 18

Fig. 3.2a

Functional Diagram .. 19

Fig. 3.3a

Operational Diagram ... 20

Fig. 3.4a

Process Flow Diagram ..... 20

Fig. 4.1a

Mass and Energy Balance Diagram 21

Fig. 5.1a

Plug Flow Reactor Schematic Diagram .. 43

Fig. 5.2a

Direct Sequencing Diagram .. 55

Fig. 5.2b

Indirect Sequencing Diagram ... 56

Fig. 5.2c

Indirect Sequence for Process Diagram .... 57

Fig. 5.4a

Fractionating Column Schematic Diagram .. 78

Fig. 6.7a

Process Control on FC-1 Diagram .... 87

Fig. 8.5a

HAZOP Study Flowchart .... 102

10

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Synopsis
Current statistics shows an ever increasing demand for Linear Alkyl Benzene
(LAB). There is no plant in Pakistan that produces LAB. Statistics show that 150-200
metric tons/day of LAB is being imported in Pakistan. These statistics inspired us
to prefer this project over other projects. Regional LAB capacity statistics are
shown in the figure mentioned below:

Figure 1.1a

According to the capacity statistics shown above it is easy to conclude that


Asia is the largest consumer or user of LAB, but out of the countries in Asia only
11

Pakistan is the one which has no plant to produce LAB as it is a very large scale
industry and this plant is expensive to install as well. According to the emerging
needs of LAB it is necessary to install a plant in Pakistan as well. We have tried to
work on the project so that we can contribute towards the progress of our
country. This project is an integration of petroleum and chemicals therefore it
comes under the category of petrochemical industries.

1.2 Refineries
Different types of refineries are as follows:
Lube oil Refineries
Fuel oil Refineries
Petroleum to Petrochemical Refineries
A refinery breaks down crude oil into its various components (petroleum
products). These components are then selectively changed into new products.
Refinery has always been very alluring for Chemical Engineers. There is a lot to
become skilled at in refineries for Chemical Engineers. It has an assortment of
Unit Operations and Processes. So, as Chemical Engineers we are inclined
towards a refinery project. In an interview with James Murphy (Process Design
Engineer for the Richmond Refinery) he advised students and I quote:

12

I would advise any student studying Chemical Engineering that Refinery is


definitely worth it. It's a fun, exciting field. It challenges you in your problem
solving, it allows you to be creative and come up with creative solutions to
problems. Chemical engineers are used very heavily in the refining industry [1]

1.3 List of Refineries in Pakistan


Pak-Arab Refinery Ltd. (100,000 bbl/d)
National Refinery Ltd. (64,000 bbl/d)
Attock Refinery Ltd. (46,000 bbl/d)
Byco Petroleum Pakistan Ltd. (150,000 bbl/d)
Pakistan Refinery Ltd. (50,000 bbl/d)
Enar Petroleum Refining Facility (3,000 bbl/d)
Indus Oil Refinery Ltd. (100,000 bbl/d) (not yet operational)

1.4 Properties and uses of Product


LAB is a family of organic compounds with the formula C6H5CnH2n+1.
Typically, n lies between 10 and 16, although generally supplied as a tighter cut,
such as C12-C15, C12-C13 and C10-C13, for detergent use. The CnH2n+1 chain are unbranched. They are mainly produced as intermediate in the production
of surfactants, for use in detergent. Since the 1960s, LABs have emerged as the
13

dominant precursor of biodegradable detergents. It exhibits flammable and


non-toxic properties.
Following are some different areas and products where LAB is utilized:
In Detergent Industry
In Households and Cleaning Products
To remove stains and oil
Can resist static electricity
In Hair Care products
Raw material in Foaming

14

Chapter 2
Process Description
2.1 Brief Overview of Process
Starting with Crude Oil, it is transformed into its fractions from there on higher
carbon chains in Kerosene are estranged as they are requisite for LAB
production. Carbon chains then go through two reactors to remove most of the
impurities. In the end with the help of Gas Separator impurities are estranged.
Preferred Carbon chains are then sent to Molex Unit. After Molex Unit it goes into
Alkylation Unit from where we attain LAB. We are restricting our project till the
production of n-Paraffins. To design all the process in such a short period is not
an achievable goal.

2.2 Raw Material


Primary raw material used is Crude Oil and secondary raw materials used are
Kerosene and Hydrogen. Crude Oil is a fossil fuel and mixture of naturally
occurring hydrocarbons. It is refined through distillation and many other
processes on the basis of difference in their boiling points into
Diesel
Gasoline
15

KEROSENE (Secondary Raw Material)


Heating oil
Jet fuel
Compounds found in crude oil are composed of hydrogen and carbon. In
addition to hydrocarbons, small amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and
some metallic compounds are also present.
NOTE: Composition of crude oil varies according to region from where it is
being extracted.

2.3 Properties [2]


Specific Heat = 0.480 Btu/lbF
Viscosity = 310 lb/ft.s
Temperature = 640F [3]
Degree API = 38.6

2.4 Overall Process


Our overall process includes the following units:
Atmospheric Distillation Unit
N-paraffin Production Unit

16

Molex Unit
Alkylation Unit
We will be working on the following units as to cover the whole production unit
was beyond our ranger and also there is not enough time.
Atmospheric Distillation Unit
N-paraffin Production Unit
In atmospheric distillation unit we get fractions at different boiling points as
crude oil is separated into its fractions and from there on undesired fractions are
cooled down and sent to further treating units whereas desired carbon chain
from kerosene goes further to N-paraffin production unit where it is treated to
give us required chain of N-paraffin to be utilized in the production of Linear
Alkyl Benzene.

17

Chapter 3
Process Diagrams
3.1 Input/ Output Diagram

Figure 3.1a

18

3.2 Functional Diagram

Figure 3.2a

3.3 Operational Diagram

Figure 3.3a
19

3.4 Process Flow Diagram

Figure 3.4a

20

Chapter 4
Material and Energy Balance
4.1 Material and Energy balance over equipments
Material and energy balances are fundamental to many engineering
disciplines and have a major role in decisions related to sustainable
development. Material and energy balances are very important in an industry.
Material balances are fundamental to the control of processing, particularly in
the control of yields of the products. The first material balances are determined
in the exploratory stages of a new process, improved during pilot plant
experiments when the process is being planned and tested, checked out when
the plant is commissioned and then refined and maintained as a control
instrument as production continues. When any changes occur in the process,
the material balance needs to be determined again.
The increasing cost of energy has caused the industries to examine means of
reducing energy consumption in processing. Energy balances are used in the
examination of the various stages of a process, over the whole process and
even extending over the total production system from the raw material to the
finished product.

21

Figure 4.1a

The law of conservation of mass leads to what is called a mass or a material


balance.
Mass In = Mass Out + Mass Stored
The energy coming into a unit operation can be balanced with the energy
coming out and the energy stored.
Energy In = Energy Out + Energy Stored
In order to determine the energy involved in terms of heat following formula is
considered and applied:
Q = m*Cp*T
Material and Energy balance over different equipments used throughout the
designing in project are explained as follows:
22

Heat Exchanger-1 (HE-1)

23

Heat Exchanger-2 (HE-2)

24

Heat Exchanger-3 (HE-3)

25

Heat Exchanger-4 (HE-4)

26

Furnace-1 (F-1)

27

Atmospheric Distillation Column-1 (ADC-1)

28

Stripper-1 (ST-1)

29

Stripper-2 (ST-2)

30

Fractionating Column-1 (FC-1)

31

Fractionating Column-2 (FC-2)

32

Mixer-1 (MX-1)

33

Heat Exchanger-5 (HE-5)

34

Heat Exchanger-6 (HE-6)

35

Plug Flow Reactor-1 (PFR-1)

36

Heat Exchanger-7 (HE-7)

37

Plug Flow Reactor-2 (PFR-2)

38

Heat Exchanger-8 (HE-8)

39

Gas Seperator-1 (GS-1)

40

Chapter 5
Equipment Design
5.1 Plug Flow Reactor (PFR-1) Design
The plug flow reactor (PFR, sometimes called continuous tubular reactor CTR,
or piston flow reactors) is a model used to describe chemical reactions in
continuous, flowing systems of cylindrical geometry. The PFR model is used to
predict the behavior of chemical reactors of such design, so that key reactor
variables, such as the dimensions of the reactor, can be estimated.
A tubular reactor is a vessel through which flow is continuous, usually at steady
state, and configured so that conversion of the chemicals and other dependent
variables are functions of position within the reactor rather than of time. In the
ideal tubular reactor, the fluids flow as if they were solid plugs or pistons, and
reaction time is the same for all flowing material at any given tube cross section.
Tubular reactors resemble batch reactors in providing initially high driving forces,
which diminish as the reactions progress down the tubes. On the coming page
a general schematic diagram represents a tubular reactor in which along the
length concentration changes:

41

Figure 5.1a
(Schematic diagram of an ideal plug flow reactor)
Characteristic of an ideal plug flow:
Perfect mixing in the radial direction (Uniform cross-section concentration)
No mixing in the axial direction or segregated flow.
Flow in tubular reactors can be laminar, as with viscous fluids in small-diameter
tubes, and greatly deviate from ideal plug-flow behavior, or turbulent, as with
gases. Turbulent flow generally is preferred to laminar flow, because mixing and
heat transfer are improved. For slow reactions and especially in small laboratory
and pilot-plant reactors, establishing turbulent flow can result in inconveniently
long reactors or may require unacceptably high feed rates.
Catalytic hydrogenation is done in a tubular plug-flow reactor (PFR) packed
with supported catalyst. The pressures and temperatures are typically high,
although this depends on the catalyst.
This is the reason we chose tubular plug-flow reactor and the catalyst used is
Nickel (Ni)
42

Reaction
C4H4S

3H2

C4H8

H2S

Rate Equation [4]


=

Where;

r = Rate of Reaction
k = Rate Constant
CT = Concentration of Thiophene
CH = Concentration of Hydrogen
Rate Constant
Using Arrhenius Equation to calculate rate constant

Assume Frequency Factor A= 1

Assume Internal Energy E= 17000 J/mol

[5]

Ideal Gas Constant R= 8.31 J/K.mol


Temperature = 513 K

Concentrations

= .

Concentration of Hydrogen= CH = 0.0009

43

Concentration of Thiophene= CT = 0.77

Type of Catalyst
Catalyst used is Palladium Sulfide (PdS), as it is a very commonly used catalyst to
carry out hydrogenation reactions. Some physical properties are:

Bulk density of Catalyst= c = 56.18

Bed Void Fraction= = 0.55

Particle Diameter= DP = 0.0196 ft

Weight of Catalyst [6]


=

Where,

Reactant Flow rate= F

= 1.238

Rate Constant= K1

= 0.0186

Reactant Concentration=

= 0 .77

Fractional Volume Change=

=1

Conversion= XA

= 0.66

Catalyst Volume [20]

44

= .

Volume of Reactor [21]

Reactor Volume is calculated using the following formula:


=

.
.

Space Time [22]

= .

Space Time is calculated using the following formula:

Where;

Space Time=

Volume of Reactor=

= 9.62 ft3

Volumetric Flow Rate of Reacting Mixture=

= 29088.7

Reactor Geometry

In reactor geometry, we discuss necessary parameters regarding shell and tube


side design;

Tube Side Calculations


Let us assume some parameters to design tubes for plug flow;
45

Length of Tube= Lt

= 9 ft

Tube outside Diameter= do

= 0.17 ft

Tube inside Diameter= di

= 0.13 ft

Now, calculating Total Number of Tubes Nt [7]


=
=

. .
.

As we know that most efficient way of arranging tubes is triangular pitch


arrangement so we use this arrangement to carry on with our calculations:
= .

= .

Pressure Drop

To calculate pressure drop [7] for tube side we use Eurgen equation;

Where;

=[

][

][

Bed Void Fraction=

= 0.55

Particle Diameter= DP

= 0.054 ft

Feed Density = f

= 0.032

Viscosity of Feed =

= 0.000021

Length = Lt

= 9 ft

+ .

46

gc

= 32.17
=
=

. .

= .

= .

Now Calculating, Superficial Mass Velocity as follows;


,
=

=
.

= .

Putting all the above values in Eurgen equation to calculate pressure drop;

=[

.
.

][

=[

Material of Construction

][

][

][

.
.

+ .

]
+ .

The reactor tubes are suggested to be of stainless steel so that any kind of
corrosion is avoided.

Shell Side Calculations


Calculating Shell Side inside diameter:
47

Where,

= [

+ ]

ND= Number of tubes at bundle diameter

= [

= [
=

Now, Calculating Shell Side inside diameter


= [

= .

Shell Height

= .

+ ]

. + ]

As assumed above;
Length of Tube= Lt = 9 ft
To calculate Shell height we leave 20% space above and below. So;
=

Pressure Drop

.
.

Water is flowing through the shell side as it is used as Cooling Media.


Heat duty= Q = 546281.24
Specific Heat Capacity of Water= Cp = 0.071

.K

48

Temperature difference= T = 20K


Water Required;

.
.

Mass Flow Rate= mw = 4231.75


Shell Side Flow Area;
=

Where;

Shell Inside Diameter= Di

= 2.41 ft

Total Number of tubes= Nt

= 80

Tube outside Diameter= do

= 0.17 ft
=

[ .

Calculating Equivalent Diameter [7];

= .

]
.

49

=[

=[

Calculating Shell Side Mass Velocity;

= 3.14 ft
=
=

=
Viscosity of Water= 0.00059

.
.

Calculating Reynolds Number;

=
=

=
Where;

=
.

. .

Pressure drop= PS
50

Shell Side Mass Velocity= Gs

= 1544.4

Length of Tube= Lt

= 9 ft

Baffle Spacing= B

= 1.3 ft

Friction Factor for Tube Side= fs

= 0.0015

Number of Crosses= (N+1)

Equivalent Diameter= De

= 3.14 ft

Shell Inside Diameter= Di

= 2.41 ft

Specific Gravity= s

= 0.998

Shell Thickness

= 83

=1

= .

.
.

.
.

(Negligible)

Shell thickness is calculated using the following relationship:

Where,

tp = Design thickness of shell


f = Design stress

= 2880000

for carbon steel

51

Di = Shell diameter

= 2.41 ft

P = Maximum allowable pressure

= 5079

C = Corrosion allowance

= 0.0105 ft under sever conditions

Substituting the values into equation gives;


=
=

Material of Construction

= .

+
+ .

For the reactor shell, proposed material of construction is carbon steel as it is


cheap and compatible.

Heads for Reactor Shell [8]


Most commonly used heads are Standard torispherical for pressure up to 15bar.
Thus torispherical heads has been designed for the reactor. Material of
construction is plain carbon steel.
Specification Sheet

Fixed Bed Multi-Tubular Reactor (PFR-1)


Volume of Reactor = 9.62 ft3
Space Time = 1.19 sec

52

Shell Side

Tube Side

Heat Duty = 546281.24

Material Flow Rate = 0.381

Material Flow Rate = 4231.75

Length = 9 ft

Shell Inside Diameter = 2.25 ft

Inside Diameter = 0.13 ft


Outside Diameter = 0.17 ft

Height of Shell = 12.6 ft


Flow Area = 2.40

ft2

Shell Thickness = 0.0124 ft


Pressure Drop = 0.00036 psi
Temperature = 493 K

No. of Tubes = 80
Pitch = Triangular
Temperature = 513 K
Catalyst
Weight = 243.5 lb.cat
Volume = 4.33 ft3
Bed Void Fraction= 0.33
Particle Diameter= 0.0196 ft

5.2 Atmospheric Distillation Unit (ADU) Design


Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid
mixture by selective evaporation and condensation. Distillation may result in
essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a
partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of
the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of
mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of

53

practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not


a chemical reaction.
Distillation Train
It is a sequence of two or more columns to desirably split streams into specified
composition.
Types
Direct sequence
Indirect sequence

Figure 5.2a

54

Figure 5.2b
Sequence for desired distillation is selected on the basis of some classifying rules.
Rule of thumb for Distillation Sequence
Remove thermally unstable, chemically corrosive, or chemically reactive
components early in the sequence.
Remove final products one-by-one as distillates (the direct sequence).
Separate early in the sequence, those components of greater molar
percentage parentage in the feed.

55

Sequence separation points in the order of decreasing relative volatility so


that the most difficult splits are made in the absence of other
components.
Sequence separation points to leave last those separations that give the
highest purity products.
Sequence separation points that favor near equimolar amounts of
distillates and bottoms in each column.
Selected Sequence
On the basis of thumb rules, following sequence is selected for the separation of
kerosene among crude oil.
Indirect Sequence in Process

Figure 5.2c

56

Available Data [9]

K
Xi,f

Xi,d
549

C1

0.002302 0.002326

C2

0.018419 0.018606

C2=

0.020722 0.020931

527
523
260
C3

0.07598

0.076748

C4

0.08519

0.086051

C5

0.004605 0.004651

C5=

0.001151 0.001163

C6

0.010361 0.010466

iC6

0.008059

0.00814

n-C7

0.02145

0.0214

i-C7

0.013673

0.0136

n-C8

0.014401

0.0143

n-C9

0.019917

0.0199

n-C10

0.029694

0.0296

i-C10

0.010948

0.0109

n-C11

0.013837

0.0137

C-11=

0.01325

0.0132

i-C11

0.004182

0.004

175
102
101.3
68
67.3
51
50.7
34
26.06667
19.83333
19.66333
13.03333
12.86333
12.46667
10.2
n-C12
n-C13
(H.K)

0.017313

0.012

0.01202

0.0119

7.026667

57

6.233333
n-C14

0.043232

0.0431

n-C15
i-C15
(L.K)

0.034545

0.0345

0.021414

0.0214

C16

0.046869

0.0468

C17

0.033636 0.033976

C18

0.027374

C19

0.028889 0.029181

C20

0.013131 0.013264

C21

0.017071 0.017243

C22=

0.012323 0.012448

C23

0.030505 0.030813

C23=

0.018788 0.018978

4.533333
4.363333
3.343333
2.096667
1.87
0.02765
1.53
1.133333
1.02
0.793333
0.566667
0.555333
0.51
C24

0.048485

C25

0.067879

C26

0.04202

C27

0.019394

C28

0.022626

C29

0.025859

C30

0.032323

C31

0.006465

0.436333
0.357
0.226667
0.187
0.147333
0.130333
0.113333
Column-1
Calculation of Number of Plates [10]

58

Calculating minimum number of plates using Fenskees equation:

X X
ln LK HK
X HK d X LK
Nm
ln LK

Nmin = 2.59
Ideal Number of Plates from graph = 3
Calculating minimum reflux ratio using Colburns equation [10]:

Rmin

X dL
X
AB dH

X nH
( AB 1) X nL
1

Rmin = 0.99
Net Area [11]
An = mv/un
Where
mv= Vap flow rate(ft3/s) = 1.87 ft3/s
un= Actual vapor velocity(ft./s) = 0.2182 ft3/s
An = 2.179 ft2
Column Area
Down comer area = 15% * Cross Sectional Area

59

Ac = 2.394 ft2
Diameter of column
Ac = (pi/4)*(Dc)2
Dc = 1.74 ft
Downcomer Area
Ad = 0.15*Ac
Ad = 0.2155 ft2
Active Area [10]
Aa = Ac-2*Ad
Aa = 1.963 ft2
Hole Area [11]
Ah = (Ah / Aa) * Aa
Ah/Aa =0.1
Ah = 0.1374 ft2
Specification Sheet

Column-1

Sequence

Indirect

60

Column temperature

673.5 F

Column pressure

4 psi

Column diameter

1.74 ft

Number of plates (minimum)

2.59

Ideal number of plates

3.01

Type of column

Tray

Tray type

Sieve

Tray spacing

0.5

Active Area

1.96 ft2

Hole Area

0.137 ft2

Material of construction

Carbon steel

Column-2
Calculation of Number of Plates
61

Calculating minimum number of plates using Fenskees equation:

X X
ln LK HK
X HK d X LK
Nm
ln LK

Nmin = 13.8
Ideal Number of Plates from graph = 15.3
Calculating minimum reflux ratio using Colburns equation:

Rmin

X dL
X
AB dH

( AB 1) X nL
X nH
1

Rmin = 0.5
Net Area
An = mv/un
Where
mv= Vap flow rate(ft3/s) = 1.97 ft3/s
un= Actual vapor velocity(ft./s) = 0.3182 ft3/s
An = 3.302 ft2
Column Area
Down comer area = 15% * Cross Sectional Area
Ac = 3.71 ft2
62

Diameter of column
Ac = (pi/4)*(Dc)2
Dc = 2.086 ft
Downcomer Area
Ad = 0.15*Ac
Ad = 0.3339 ft2
Active Area
Aa = Ac-2*Ad
Aa = 3.04 ft2
Hole Area
Ah = (Ah / Aa) * Aa
Ah/Aa =0.1
Ah = 0.2129 ft2
Specification Sheet

Column-2

Sequence

Indirect

Column temperature

630 F

63

Column pressure

5 psi

Column dia

2.08 ft

Number of plates (minimum)

13.8

Ideal number of plates

15.3

Type of column

Tray

Tray type

Sieve

Tray spacing

0.5

Active Area

3.04 ft2

Hole Area

0.21 ft2

Material of construction

Carbon steel

Column-3
Calculation of Number of Plates
Calculating minimum number of plates using Fenskees equation:

64

X X
ln LK HK
X HK d X LK
Nm
ln LK

Nmin = 3
Ideal Number of Plates from graph = 4.1
Calculating minimum reflux ratio using Colburns equation:

Rmin

X dL
X
AB dH

( AB 1) X nL
X nH
1

Rmin = 0.45
Net Area
An = mv/un
Where
mv= Vap flow rate(ft3/s) = 1.77 ft3/s
un= Actual vapor velocity(ft./s) = 0.291 ft3/s
An = 2.233 ft2
Column Area
Down comer area = 15% * Cross Sectional Area
Ac = 2.627 ft2
Diameter of column
65

Ac = (pi/4)*(Dc)2
Dc = 1.755 ft
Downcomer Area
Ad = 0.15*Ac
Ad = 0.236 ft2
Active Area
Aa = Ac-2*Ad
Aa = 2.15 ft2
Hole Area
Ah = (Ah / Aa) * Aa
Ah/Aa =0.1
Ah = 0.1508 ft2
Specification Sheet

Column-3

Sequence

Indirect

Column temperature

540 F

Column pressure

5.7 psi

66

Column dia

1.75 ft

Number of plates (minimum)

Ideal number of plates

4.1

Type of column

tray

Tray type

sieve

Tray spacing

0.5

Active Area

2.15 ft2

Hole Area

0.15 ft2

Material of construction

Carbon steel

5.3 Heat Exchanger (HE-2) Design


A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from
one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall to
prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used
in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical
67

plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing,


and sewage treatment.
Heat transfer is perhaps the most important as well as most applied process in
chemical and petrochemical plants. The economics of plant operation often
are controlled by the effectiveness of the utilization and recovery of heat .The
word exchanger applied to all type of equipment in which heat is exchange but
is often specifically to denote equipment in which heat is exchange between
two process streams. A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment that continually
transfers heat from one medium to another, without mixing the process fluids.
Classification of Heat Exchanger
In general, industrial heat exchangers are classified according to their:
Transfer processes
Degrees of surface compactness
Flow arrangements
Pass arrangements
Phase of the process fluid
Heat transfer mechanism
Types of Heat Exchanger:
The major types of heat exchangers that are used industrially are:
Double pipe
68

Shell and tube


Spiral type
Plate and frame
Compact heat exchanger
Types of Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Fixed tube
U tube
Floating head
Advantages of Shell and Tube Exchanger:
It is used for high heat transfer duties.
It can be used in systems with higher operating temperatures and
pressures.
Shell and tube heat exchangers are ideal for applications with extremely
high flow rates.
Its configuration gives large surface area in small volume.
Its cleaning and repairing (maintenance) is straight forward.
It is used for high heat transfer duties.
Its compactness is more.

69

It can be fabricated with wide variety of material depends upon fluid


properties.
Applications of Heat Exchangers:
Heat exchangers are commonly used in a wide variety of industrial, chemical,
and electronics processes to transfer energy and provide required heating or
cooling. Automotive radiators are a common example. Heat from the hot
engine water is pumped through the radiator, while air is blown through the
radiator tins. The hot engine water's heat energy is transferred to the air, thus
keeping the water at the right temperature, to keep the engine from
overheating. Essentially automotive radiators are liquid-to-air heat exchangers.
Heat exchangers occur naturally in the circulation system of whales. Arteries to
the skin carrying warm blood are intertwined with veins from the skin carrying
cold blood causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold
venous blood.
Heat Duty
Q= m*Cp*T
= (11800 lb/hr) x (0.65 Btu/lb. oF) x (380 oF 350oF )
= 230159Btu/hr
= 2.30159*10^5 Btu/hr
LMTD [12]

70

LMTD

380 137.17 350 133.45


380 137.17
ln

350 133.45
= 222.29oF

T2 T1
8.064
t 2 t1

t 2 t1
0.015
T1 t1

Ft [23]
1-2 exchanger: Ft (possible)
The four 1-2 exchangers in series are more adequate for heat transfer.
Tm = (.97) x (222) =229 oF
tc = 137.4 - 133.4 = 3.72 oF
th = 380 - 350 = 30 oF
tc/th = 0.124
Kc = 0.344
Fc = 0.21
Tc = T2 + Fc (T1-T2) = 360.5 oF
Tc = t1+Fc (t2-t1) = 134.29 oF
Tube Specifications [24]
71

Length = 6 ft
OD, BWG, pitch = 3/4in, 16 BWG, 1in Square pitch
Passes = 2
Outside surface area per linear ft. = a = 0.1963 ft2
Flow area of tube, at = 0.302 in2
Ud = 32 (for dirt factor of .003 and allowable pressure drop 5 to 10 psi)
Estimation of Heat Transfer Area [25]
A = Q/ Ud *Tm = 32.13
No. of tubes = Nt = A/ a*L = 28 (for 1 exchanger)
Nearest Count =Nt = 32
Shell ID = 8 1/2 in
Baffle spacing = 5 in
New Area = (outside surface area/linear foot x no. of tubes x tube length)
= (.1963 x 32 x 6)
= 37.68 ft2 (For One Heat Exchanger)
Hot Fluid (Tube Side) [26]

= 1+2/2=365
ab 0.302 in2

at

Ntat
144 n
72

= 0.334 ft2
Gt

W
at

=3616411 lb/hr.ft2
Tc = 360.5 oF
= 8.712 lb/ft.hr
Re = DGt/
= 0.0156*3616411/8.712 =21249
Jh = 80
For = 0.23 cp and 70 o API

ho

J h k Cp
1/ 3
(
k )
De
K*(C/k)1/3 = 0.398
s = 1

hi = 616.49 Btu/hr.ft2 oF
h io = ho x ID/OD
= 616.49 x 0.012
=509.44 Btu/hr.ft2 oF
Cold Fluid (Shell Side)

as

ID C B
144 Rt
73

as

8 ..1875 1.6
= 0.333 ft2
144 1

Gs = W/as
= 11800/0.333 = 354000 lb/hr.ft2
At tc = 421oF
= 0.23 lb/ft.hr

De DGt/
Re

0..0458 354000
= 29150.2
0.23

jH = 98
Cp = 0.69 Btu/lb oF
1/ 3

k C
ho jH

De k

= 363.49 Btu/hr.ft2 oF
Clean overall coefficient for preheating Uc

[26]

Uc = (hio * h o)/( hio + ho)


= (509.44 x 363.49) / (509.4+363)
= 212.2 ft2 oF Btu/hr
Rd = Uc Ud / Uc * Ud
Rd = 0.00312 hr.ft2.oF/Btu
Pressure Drop [12]

74

Tube side
Re = 21429.39
f = 0.00024 ft2/m2
Specific gravity

= 0.7

fGt2 Ln
Pt
5.22 1010 DeSt
= 9.34 psi
Shell Side
Re = 29150.4
De =0.62 in= 0.0516
f = 0.0010
No. of crosses = N + 1 =12 Lp/B
= 6*12/5
D=8/12= 0.666 ft
= 0.44 Psi
Specification Sheet

Heat Exchanger (HE-2)

Area

32.17ft2

75

Diameter of shell

8 in

Number of Tubes

32

Type of tube

Plain

Tube length

6 ft

Material of construction

Carbon steel

Clean Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient 212.4 Btu/(hr)(ft2)( F)

Design Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient 27.43 Btu/(hr)(ft2)( F)

Dirt factor

0.031(hr)(ft2)( F)/Btu

Pressure drop shell side

0.446psi

Pressure drop tube side

9.43 psi

5.4 Fractionating Column (FC-1) Design


A fractionating column is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so
as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the
differences in volatilities. Fractionating columns are used in small scale
laboratory distillations as well as for large-scale industrial distillations.

76

Simple distillation can be used to separate components of a mixtures that have


large difference in their boiling point. If two components have a boiling point
difference of less than 40-50C, simple distillation will not be successful at
separating them. In this case fractional distillation is used.

Figure 5.4a

(Chemical engineering schematic of a continuous fractionating column)


Fractional distillation is one of the unit operations of chemical engineering.
Fractionating columns are widely used in the chemical process industries where
large quantities of liquids have to be distilled. Such industries are the petroleum
processing, petrochemical production, natural gas processing, coal tar
77

processing, brewing, liquefied air separation, and hydrocarbon solvents


production and similar industries but it finds its widest application in petroleum
refineries. In such refineries, the crude oil feedstock is a complex, multicomponent mixture that must be separated, and yields of pure chemical
compounds are not expected, only groups of compounds within a relatively
small range of boiling points, also called fractions. That is the origin of the name
fractional distillation or fractionation. It is often not worthwhile separating the
components in these fractions any further based on product requirements and
economics.
In our project, kerosene ranging from C7 to C18 is sent into the fractionating
column-1 for further separation and the Bottom Product we obtained from here
is our desired range of kerosene C12 to C16.This range is then further sent for the
treatment. As importance of this equipment is high in the process, so, that is the
reason why we selected this equipment as well for designing.
Available Data
Temperature and flow rate ranges of feed, bottom and top product are given
below:
TEMPERATURE (oF)
FLOW RATES
(lbmol/hr)

FEED
176.66

TOP
335

BOTTOM
350

11800

7540

4259

Feed composition is given below [9]:


Mass Flow
FEED
(lb/hr)
n-C7
354
i-C7
118

Composition
0.03
0.01
78

n-C8
n-C9
n-C10
i-C10
n-C11
i-C11
n-C12
C12=
n-C13
n-C14
n-C15
i-C15
n-C16
n-C17
n-C18
C4H4S

472
1144.6
2124
472
1416
354
1062
212.4
944
1062
354
47.2
1180
247.8
129.8
106.2

0.04
0.097
0.18
0.04
0.12
0.03
0.09
0.018
0.08
0.09
0.03
0.004
0.1
0.021
0.011
0.009

Calculation for top product

TP
n-C7
i-C7
n-C8
n-C9
n-C10
i-C10
n-C11
i-C11
n-C12
C4H4S

Cmpstn
0.03
0.01
0.04
0.097
0.18
0.04
0.12
0.03
0.09
0.002

Press (psi)
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

Vap Press [19]


(335F)
88.1
84.3
43.7
25.4
15.5
14.9
6.5
5.7
3.5
2.9

k
(335F)
5.99
5.73
2.97
1.73
1.05
1.01
0.44
0.39
0.24
0.20

Vap Press
(600F)
95
61
52
33.5
32

k
(600F)
6.46
4.15
3.54
2.28
2.18

x (dew
pt)(335F)
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.06
0.17
0.04
0.27
0.08
0.38
0.01
1.02

Calculation for bottom product


BP
C12=
n-C13
n-C14
n-C15
i-C15

Cmpstn
0.018
0.08
0.09
0.03
0.004

Press (psi)
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

y (bbl pt)
0.12
0.33
0.32
0.07
0.01
79

n-C16
n-C17
n-C18
C4H4S

0.1
0.021
0.011
0.007

14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

24
19
14
3.3

1.63
1.29
0.95
0.22

Vap Press
(350F)
100
99.3
48
29
17
16.4
8.7
8.4
5.3
4.9
3.1
2
1.4
1.1
0.7
0.5
0.31
0.04

k
(350F)
6.80
6.76
3.27
1.97
1.16
1.12
0.59
0.57
0.36
0.33
0.21
0.14
0.10
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.00

0.16
0.03
0.01
0.00
1.05

Calculation for feed boiling point temperature

FEED
n-C7
i-C7
n-C8
n-C9
n-C10
i-C10
n-C11
i-C11
n-C12
C12=
n-C13
n-C14
n-C15
i-C15
n-C16
n-C17
n-C18
C4H4S

Cmpstn
0.03
0.01
0.04
0.097
0.18
0.04
0.12
0.03
0.09
0.018
0.08
0.09
0.03
0.004
0.1
0.021
0.011
0.009

Press (psi)
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7

y (bbl pt)
0.20
0.07
0.13
0.19
0.21
0.04
0.07
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.01

Pressure and relative volatilities [10]


At Top P=14.7 Psia
Therefore, LK= K1/K2=1.64
At Bottom P=14.7 Psia
Therefore, HK= K1/K2=1.005

80

Calculation of Number of Plates [10]


Calculating minimum number of plates using Fenskees Equation

Nm

X X
ln LK HK
X HK d X LK

ln LK

Minimum Number of Plates= Nm = 5

Ideal number of plates from graph = 12


Minimum reflux ratio [11]
ixi,f/i- = 0
= 0.97
ixi,d/i- = Rm+1
Rm= 2.56
Net Area
An = mv/un
Where
mv= Vap flow rate(ft3/s) = 0.265 ft3/s
un= Actual vapor velocity(ft./s) = 0.018 ft3/s
An = 1.17 ft2

81

Column Area
Down comer area = 15% * Cross Sectional Area
Ac = 3.627 ft2
Diameter of column
Ac = (pi/4)*(Dc)2
Dc = 1.317 ft
Downcomer Area
Ad = 0.15*Ac
Ad = 0.10 ft2
Active Area
Aa = Ac-2*Ad
Aa = 0.98 ft2
Hole Area
Ah = (Ah / Aa) * Aa
Ah/Aa =0.1
Ah = 0.18 ft2
Height of Column
82

Total Height = ((no. of trays -1) Tray spacing) + (no. of trays width of tray +
(0.25diameter) + 1
Total Height = 11.31 ft
Specification Sheet

Fractionating Column (FC-1)


Column Diameter (ft)

1.317

Number of Trays (Nm)

Number of Trays (N) (incl. Reboiler)

12

Reflux Ratio

2.56

Operating Pressure (psi)

14.7

Column Height (ft)

11.31

Tray Type

Sieve

Tray Spacing (ft)

0.7

Total Net Area (ft2)

1.17

Active Area (ft2)

0.98

Hole Area (ft2)

0.18

Downcomer Area (ft2)

0.10

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

83

Chapter 6
Instrumentation and Process Control
6.1 Introduction
Control in process industries refers to the regulation of all aspects of the process.
Precise control of level, temperature, pressure and flow is important in many
process applications. This module introduces you to control in process industries,
explains why control is important, and identifies different ways in which precise
control is ensured. The following five sections are included in this module:
The importance of process control
Control theory basics
Components of control loops and ISA symbology
Controller algorithms and tuning
Process control systems

6.2 The Importance of Process Control


Refining, combining, handling, and otherwise manipulating fluids to profitably
produce end products can be a precise, demanding, and potentially
hazardous process. Small changes in a process can have a large impact on the
end result. Variations in proportions, temperature, flow, turbulence, and many

84

other factors must be carefully and consistently controlled to produce the


desired end product with a minimum of raw materials and energy. Process
control technology is the tool that enables manufacturers to keep their
operations running within specified limits and to set more precise limits to
maximize profitability, ensure quality and safety.

6.3 Learning objectives


Learning objective involves to,
Define process
Define process control
Describe the importance of process control in terms of variability,
efficiency and safety

6.4 Process control


Process control refers to the methods that are used to control process variables
when manufacturing a product. For example, factors such as the proportion of
one ingredient to another, the temperature of the materials, how well the
ingredients are mixed, and the pressure under which the materials are held can
significantly impact the quality of an end product. Manufacturers control the
production process for three reasons:
Reduce variability
Increase efficiency
85

Ensure safety

6.5 Process variables


A process variable is a condition of the process fluid (a liquid or gas) that can
change the manufacturing process in some way. Common process variables
include:
Pressure
Flow
Level
Temperature
Density
pH (acidity or alkalinity)
Liquid interface (the relative amounts of different liquids that are
combined in a vessel)
Mass
Conductivity

6.6 Objectives
Define control loop
Describe the three tasks necessary for process control to occur:

Measure

Compare
86

Adjust

Define the following terms:

Process variable

Set point

Manipulated variable

Measured variable

Error o Offset

Load disturbance

Control algorithm

6.7 Process Control over Fractionating Column-1 (FC-1) [13]

Figure 6.7a

87

In the above diagram two different type of control schemes are illustrated
which are:
Cascade Control
Feedback Control

6.8 Cascade Control


In cascade control, we have one manipulated variable and more than one
measurement. Cascade Control Systems contain integrated sets of control
loops:
Primary Loop: Monitors the control variable and uses deviation from its set
point to provide an output to the secondary loop
Secondary Loop: Receives its set point from the primary loop and controls
the reference variable accordingly. In this configuration:
In the picture mentioned above we have two Feedback controllers but only a
single control valve. Cascade control is employed to regulate the temperature
at the top of distillation column and the secondary loop is used to compensate
for changes in flow rate. Two different types of controllers are used in the above
mentioned Cascade control:
PI controller is used to control the flow
PID controller is used to control the temperature

6.9 Feedback Control

88

In Feedback control information from measurements are used to manipulate a


variable to achieve the desired result. Feedback control takes control action
after the influence of disturbances on the process. In the picture mentioned
above we have a Feedback controller in which composition is analyzed and
then accordingly flow rate of the steam is manipulated.

PI controller is used

89

Chapter 7
Cost Estimation
7.1 Equipment Costs
Plug Flow Reactor
Material of Construction: Carbon Steel
Purchased cost (2004) [14]:
ost @

Where,
ost @

= Cost of equipment at 2004 (for carbon steel grade A515 material

of construction).

C = cost constant ($) = 15000$


S = size of equipment (m3) = 0.231 m3

n = index value = 0.4


ost @

= $8347

Present Cost (2015):

ost @
index @

= 463 [15]

index @
=(
index @

) ost @

90

index @

= 1024 [15]
ost @

for reactor = $

ost @

for reactors = $

Heat Exchanger
Shell: Carbon steel
Tubes: Carbon Steel
Purchased cost (2004):
According to graph [16] for

Area

= 3.5 m2

Pressure

= 1.01 bar
Purchase Cost @ 2004 = Bare Cost * Type factor * Pressure factor
= $63000 (0.8) (1.0) = $50400

Present Cost (2015):


Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

ost

index
index

ost @
91

ost
ost @

ost @

=
for . E = $

for . E = $

Atmospheric Distillation Column


Shell: Carbon Steel
Plates: Stainless Steel 410
Purchased cost (2004):
Vessel purchase cost according to graph [17] for

Vessel Height

= 8.37 m

Vessel Diameter

= 1.69 m

Purchase Cost @ 2004 = Bare Cost * Material factor * Pressure factor


= $10100 (1.0) (1.1) = $11110
Cost per plate [18]

$900* 1.7

= $1530

22 plates

= 1530 *22 = $ 33660


Total cost of column @ 2004 = 11110 + 33660 = $ 44770

92

Present Cost (2015):


Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

ost

index
index

ost
ost @

ost @

=
for . D. = $

Fractionating Column
Shell: Carbon Steel
Plates: Stainless Steel 410
Purchased cost (2004):
Vessel purchase cost according to graph [17] for

Vessel Height

= 3.44 m

Vessel Diameter

= 0.3991 m

Purchase Cost @ 2004 = Bare Cost * Material factor * Pressure factor


= $5100 (1.0) (1.0) = $5100
Cost per plate [18]
93

$1000* 1.7

= $1700

12 plates

= 1700 *12 = $ 20400


Total cost of column @ 2004 = 5100 + 20400= $ 25500

Present Cost (2015):


Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

ost

=
ost
ost @

ost @

index
index

ost @

=
for . = $

for . = $

Centrifugal Pump
Material of Construction: Stainless Steel 316
Purchase Cost @ 2004 = $5000
Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

94

ost

index
index

ost
ost @

ost @
=

for ump = $

ost @

for

ump = $

Mixer
Material of Construction: Carbon Steel
Purchased cost (2004):
Purchase Cost of Tank @ 2004 = $996
Purchase Cost of Propeller @ 2004 = $319
Total cost of Mixer @ 2004 = 996 + 319= $ 1315
Present Cost (2015):
Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

ost

=
ost

index
index

ost @
=
95

ost @

for ixer = $

Gas Separator
Purchase Cost @ 2004 = $10,800
Index @ 2004 = 463
Index @ 2015 = 1024

ost

index
index

ost

ost @

ost @

for . = $

7.2 Estimation of Project Cost

Equipment

No. of equipments

Cost ($)

Plug Flow Reactor

36921

Heat Exchanger

891742

Atmospheric Distillation

99016

112794

Column

Fractionating Column

96

Centrifugal Pump

14

154812

Mixer

2908

Gas Seperator

23885

Total cost of the equipments @ 2015 = $ 1,322,078


Total cost of the equipments incl. 20% extra for other accessories = $ 1,586,494

7.3 Estimation of Fixed Capital Investment


Purchased equipment delivered,

25% of total

= $ 396623

Purchased equipment installation,

6.3% of total

= $ 99949

Instrumentation (installed),

6.4% of total

= $ 101535

Electrical installed,

4.6 % of total

= $ 72978

Piping (installed),

7.3 % of total

= $ 115814

Buildings including services,

4.6 % of total

= $ 72978

Yard improvement,

1.8% of total

= $ 28556

Service facilities installed,

13.8% of total

= $ 218936

Land,

0.9% of total

= $ 14278

Total Direct Plan Cost, D = $ 932855


Engineering and Supervision,

9.2% of total

= $ 155276
97

Construction expenses,

11 % of total

= $ 174514

Contractors fee,

1.8 % of total

= $ 28556

Contingency,

7.3 % of total

= $ 115814

Total Indirect Cost, I = $ 474,160


Fixed Capital Investment = D+I = $ 1,407,015

7.4 Estimation of Total Capital Investment


Total Capital Investment = Fixed Capital + Working Capital
Working capital cost = 20% of Fixed Capital Investment = $ 281,403
Total Capital Investment = $ 1,407,015 + $ 281,403
Total Capital Investment = $ 1,688,418

98

Chapter 8
HAZOP Study
8.1 What Is a HAZOP Study?
A Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) is a systematic approach to
investigating each element of a process to identify all of the ways in which
parameters can deviate from the intended design conditions and create
hazards or operability problems.
A HAZOP Study typically involves using the piping and instrument diagrams
(P&ID), or a plant model, as a guide for examining every section and
component of a process. A HAZOP team consisting of experienced and
knowledgeable people, brainstorms potentially hazardous situations that could
arise in each section of pipe, each valve, and each vessel in the system.
The HAZOP team should be led by someone with an in-depth knowledge of the
process, but they do not need to be an expert in the technology used in the
process. The HAZOP team should include people with a variety of expertise
such as operations, maintenance, instrumentation, engineering/process design,
and other specialists as needed.

99

8.2 Objective of HAZOP


Identifying cause and the consequences of equipment and associated
operator interfaces in the context of the complete system.
It accommodates the status of recognized design standards and codes of
practice but rightly questions the relevance of these in specific
circumstances where hazards may remain undetected.
8.3 How and Why HAZOP is used
HAZOP identifies potential hazards, failures and operability problems. Its
use is recommended as a principal method by professional institutions
and legislators on the basis of proven capabilities for over 40 years. It is
most effective as a team effort consists of plant and prices designers,
operating personnel, control and instrumentation engineer etc. It
encourages creativity in design concept evaluation. Its use results in fewer
commissioning and operational problems and better informed personnel,
thus confirming overall cost effectiveness improvement.
Necessary changes to a system for eliminating or reducing the probability
of operating deviations are suggested by the analytical procedure.
HAZOP provides a necessary management tool and bonus in so far that it
demonstrates to insurers and inspectors evidence of comprehensive
thoroughness.

100

HAZOP reports are an integral part of plant and safety records and are
also applicable to design changes and plant modifications, thereby
containing accountability for equipment and its associated human
interface throughout the operating lifetime.
HAZOP technique is now used by most major companies handling and
processing hazardous material, especially those where engineering
practice involves elevated operating parameters:

Oil and gas production

Flammable and toxic chemicals

Pharmaceuticals etc.

Progressive legislation in encouraging smaller and specialty


manufacturing sites to adopt the method also as standard practice.

8.4 Purpose of HAZOP


It emphasizes upon the operating integrity of a system, thereby leading
methodically to most potential and detectable deviations which could
conceivably arise in the course of normal operating routine including "start-up
and "shut-down" procedures as well as steady-state operations. It is important to
remember at all times that HAZOP is an identifying technique and not intended
as a means of solving problems nor is the method intended to be used solely as
an undisciplined means of searching for hazardous scenarios.

101

8.5 HAZOP Study Flowchart

Figure 8.5a

102

8.6 HAZOP Study for a Distillation Column

SYSTEM:
DISTILLATION
COLUMN
PARAMETER

GUIDEWORD

CAUSE

CONSEQUENCES

HIGH level

Level
Controller
fault

Level rises and reboiler operation


stops.

LEVEL

TEMPERATURE

HIGH

LOW

PRESSURE
HIGH

Increased
re-boiler
duty.
More reflux
than
optimum.

Blockage
at outlets.

Composition can
be affected

SAFEGUARD

High level
alarm
Temperature
controller,
Control Reflux
ratio

Composition can
be affected

Control reflux
ratio

Column can burst.

Pressure
controller and
alarm.
Pressure relief
valve
Composition
analyzer at
inlet.

COMPOSITION
Misdirected

Disturbed
column
feed

Inferior product
quality

Recycle
bottom
product.

103

SYSTEM:
REBOILER

TEMPERATURE

High

Low

More steam
injection

Less steam
injection

Control valve
at steam inlet
More cost

Desired separation
will be affected.

Temperature
controller

Control Valve

SYSTEM:
CONDENSER

PRESSURE

High

High water
temperatur
e.

Excessive Pressure

Backup
cooling water
system

Vapors will not


condense.

Increase
reflux.

No water.

TEMPERATURE

High

Low

Fault in
cooling
water
generator
Failure of
temperatur
e sensor.

Operating cost will


increase.

Install tripping
system.

104

Chapter 9
Environmental Impact
This chapter aims to present the main environmental impacts of oil and gas
industry throughout the stages of hydrocarbon production, separation, new
deposits and oil refining. It also addresses the issue of environmental risks in
industry and possible accidents that may arise from occurring activities.

9.1 Introduction
Oil plays a vast and vital role in our society as it is organized today.oil represents
much more than just one of the main source of energy used by mankind.
Besides, being an important energy source, petroleum products serve as
feedstock for several consumer goods, thus playing a relevant and growing role
in humans life.
On the other hand oil industry holds major potential hazards for the environment,
and may impact it at different levels air, water, soils and consequently all living
beings on our planet.

9.2 Potential environmental impacts


Following table presents in a simplified manner the main potential environmental
impacts and some feasible alleviating measures
105

Potential environmental
impacts

Mitigation measures

Limitations

Water contamination

No waste water shall be discharged

Total solids (70g)

due to effluent, wash

without appropriate treatment into

water and cooling

rivers or other locations where

water discharges, and

infiltration may occur.

SS (10g)

Water effluents may be treated by:

BOD (6g)

seepage from disposal


and waste tanks.

neutralization, evaporation,

Water contamination

flocculation, aeration, oil and grease

due to discharges of

separation, carbon adsorption,

water effluents rich in

reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and

inorganic salts without

bio treating etc, depending on the

appropriate treatment.

contaminant to be removed.

(saline pollution)

TDS (50)

Nitrogen (40)
Phosphorus(10)
Chloride(50)
Grease(2g)
COD (50g)

Liquid effluent discharges into


Thermal pollution due to
discharge with
temperatures higher
than the recipients
water bodies
Water contamination
due to oil spills

recipient water bodies must comply


with standard governed by laws and
regulations adopted in each
country.
Materials that may seep due to rains
must be placed in covered storage
areas, equipped with drainage
systems, in order to avoid
contamination of rain waters.

Particulate emissions

Particulate emissions can be

PM( ranging from less

into the atmosphere

controlled by equipments such as

than 0.1 to 3 kg )

106

generated during

cyclones, bag filters, electrostatic

Sox( 1.3 kg, ranging

operations at

precipitators and scrubbers among

0.2 to 0.1 kg )

production and refining

others.

plants.

Acidic emissions such as sulfur and

NOx( 0.3 kg, ranging


0.06 to 0.5 kg)

nitrogen oxides can be controlled


with the use of wet scrubber.
Dust emissions from outdoors and
patios areas free from chemical
contaminants can be controlled with
water sprays.

Sulfur and nitrogen

Gas emissions can be controlled by

oxides, ammonia, acid

wet scrubbers or carbon adsorption

mist and fluorine

among other techniques.

compounds gas
emissions from
production and refining
plant operations.

Occasional release of

Preventive maintenance of

BTX (ranging 0.75 to 6

potential hazardous

equipment and storage areas, to

g)

materials, such as

prevent occasional releases.

solvents and acid or


alkaline materials.

Dikes and catch basins placed


around or downstream from
dangerous or environmentally
hazardous materials storage tanks.
Solid wastes that cannot be

107

Soil, surface water

recycled must be treated

Sludge( 0.3 kg per

and/or ground water

appropriately before final disposal.

ton of crude

contamination by
inappropriate disposal
of solid wastes resulting
from chemical industry
processes, including

The choice of appropriate treatment

processed )

must comply with the waste


classification according to the
pertinent regulation(s).

effluent treatment,

Depending on the nature of the

sludge and particulate

waste, possible treatment methods

matter from dust

include: incineration, controlled

collectors.

landfill disposal, chemical


immobilization and solidification,
encapsulation, burning in cement
kilns.
Should these treatments be
unavailable at the site, the waste
may be treated in other plants with
suitable facilities, in which case
special care must be taken during
waste transportation.
If the waste is not treated
immediately after being generated,
there must be suitable area for
storage at plant site.

Changes in local traffic

Accessibility and road system

due to truck

conditions must be assessed during

circulation(including

feasibility studies, selecting the best

dangerous cargos)

routes to reduce impact of

108

accidents.
Noise pollution caused

Acoustic treatments by enclosure of

by equipment and

equipment or soundproofing

operations that cause

buildings that hold loud equipment

loud noise.

and/or units that operate at

Daily exposure to
workers noise (3 dBA)

significant noise levels.


Accidents that impact
the environment such as
large spills, leaks, fires

Emergency response plan.

and explosion on plants.


Eventual deaths.

109

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110

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111