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- Chapter 14 Earthquakes & Earth's Interior
- Introduction
- Elevators
- 1080tp_simser Seismicity
- EQMagIntensity
- The Severity of an Earthquake 1
- BGS Earthquake Frequently Asked Questions
- Earthquake
- EAP Unit 2 Earthquake
- Earthquake Risk Appraisal through Seismic Monitoring Structure and Guidelines of India
- [Feilden] Between Two Earthquakes
- Types of Earthquake Waves
- Hydraulic Fracturing Scientificamerican0716-46
- Earthquake
- Earthquakes
- There Are Two Ways of Describing an Earthquake
- B. A Notice.doc
- Elasticity and Elastic Waves 2015
- Seismic Design Principles
- e.r.a - Unit-i (a)

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Elsevier Scientific

NORMAL,

Publishing

Company,

Amsterdam

- Printed

in The Netherlands

EARTHQUAKE

CLASSIFICATION

NEW WAY OF

MAGNITUDES

S.J. DUDA

and R. NORTMANN

(Received

September

23. 1982)

ABSTRACT

Duda,

S.J. and

classification

Nortmann,

tion of Earthquakes.

Mon~hromatic

the spectral

functions

taking

routinely

radiation

red earthquakes-a

of body-waves

into account

Quantifica-

radiated

periods

from earthquake

of waves recorded,

a means to recognize

improve

the consistency

differences

magnitude

in

calibration

of magnitude

figures

to earthquakes.

presented.

blue and

magnitudes.

magnitudes,

contents

assigned

Preponderance

in another

regionalization

of short-period

of earthquakes

radiation

according

in one class

is compared

to their spectral

of earthquakes,

and

character

are

of long-period

earthquakes.

INTRODUCTION

the strength of an earthquake. Thereby, a unique relation was postulated between

the magnitude and the total seismic energy radiated from the source. However,

doubts are mounting as to the possibility of determining the seismic energy with an

accuracy sufficient to verify the postulate. Moreover, it becomes apparent that the

strength of an earthquake cannot be adequately expressed in a single magnitude

scale. By now several, independently determined magnitudes are being already

reported routinely (see, e.g., NEIS and ISC).

The differences between the magnitude scales in use lie primarily in the period

ranges utilized, even though the periods usually are not published with the magnitudes. While the body-wave magnitude mB is being determined from P-waves

ranging in period from about 0.1 s to 10 s, the body-wave magnitude mb from

WWSSN-stations is based on P-waves with a period of about 1 s (short-period

Benioff seismometers). The local magnitude M, emphasizes periods around 0.8 s,

0040- 195 1,83,$03.00

B.V.

magnitude

M, i,, bated

M, IS fvund frt,m w;1%~h

ranging in period frs)m 30 6 t5: 250 s. and finally. the moment magnitude

,%I, V,

supposed 10 be based on waves with infinite period. The bituatli.rn is aggravated.

however,

scales

&phase

While

is employed,

the surface-wave

the bk>dy-wave

magnitude

used. It is eventually

of rhc: loyal

ITlliigtl~tUd~

ail unspecified

mixture

magnitude

type underlying

u~uail~

of Loge- and Ra! leiph-waves

the magnitude

figures uith

the

the Sg- 01

f<)i

IS

each other is

a formidable task! The large variety cf magnitude scales indicates that the strength

of earthquakes needs to be d~terin~ned in various parts of the radiated spectrum.

It is obvious that P- and S-waves are the only waves radiated from the focus. and,

in principle, it suffices to base the magmtude scale on the two kinds of body--waves.

In the past. the problem of radiation intensity as function cf :ta\e

investigated

theoretically.

We refer here. m particular,

to the papers

( 1964, 1966). Hirasawa

penod was

by Haskeil

and Jacob

(1968). Brune ( 1970). Savage ( 1972). Hanks and Wyss ( 1972) and Geller ( 1976). The

investigations

aim at finding the relation between the phybical parameter> of the

focal process on one side, and the radiated signal in the time or frequency domain

on the other. The physical parameters of special importance

are thereby the fault

length and width, the dislocation. the fracture velocity. the rise tmte. the stress drop

and the seismic moment. Based on the similarity principle, the authors postulate

relations between two or more of the parameters. The spectra of the signals radiated

though prove to be dependent on the model, and no unanimous

opinion exists as to

the optimum

model. applicable to ail earthquakes.

For a given model. however. the

shape of the spectrum radiated is fixed, as is the relation betueen the InagnItud~s

obtained as result of sampling the spectrum in the respective penod ranges.

It is seen that

only the strength

together

the seismic

of long-periodic

additional quantities.

It has been proposed

radiated

of an earthquake---

radiation,

parameters

(Nortmann

spend to a given earthquake,

SO

moment

if measurable--reflects

controlling

and Duda,

at other periods,

1983) to sample

by

of radiation

by way of

will correthe spectral magnitudes

being determined

indepen-

Digital broad-band

recordings of seismic waves are preferable for the determination of a complete set of spectral magnitudes.

Also, the period bands have to be

specified as to their mid-band and band-edge periods. The magnitudes obtained in

this way are called monochromatic,

as they permit to measure the strength of the

earthquake in relatively narrow, non-overlapping

period ranges of the seismic waves

radiated.

291

In this paper

sented.

Assuming

monochromatic

model,

monochromatic

an earthquake

magnitudes

or whether

MONOCHROMATIC

model,

empirically

significant,

Digital

magnitudes

for a choice

the question

is investigated,

determined,

measurable

of earthquakes

satisfy

deviations

are pre-

whether

the predictions

the

of the

of the monochromatic

magni-

are present.

MAGNITUDES

broad-band

seismograms,

obtained

at the Central

Seismological

Observs-

earthquakes,

as given in Tab!e I. were selected for the investigation.

The epicenters

are shown in Fig. 1.

Band-pass

2 octaves,

with mid-band

and band-edge

the bandwidth

periods

as given in

to

record (BB), as well as 5 band-pass filtered selsmograms. are shown for the vertical component of the P-wave, and the two horizontal

components

are proportional

range.

to the ground

earthquake.

The seismogram

traces

period

From the figures, it is seen that for the given earthquake the maximum ground

velocity at the station occurred a! filter position 3 (mid-band

period: 4 s) for the

1w

150

135

_ .-__--__~-~.---

_-__._._..__-..-.-~

___~.__

12r

105

90

75

60

150

.--. -

15

Islands. South-West Asia and Central America.

15

3C

60

9)

051

120Q 115

150

165

180

Kllr;l

50

02

I9

I4

05

22

10

1978 Mar.24

I978 Dec. 06

1980 Feb. 23

1980 Feb. 23

1980 Dec. 3 I

2403B

O612B

2302A

2302B

3112

1978 Aug. 23

1978 Nov. 29

I979 Mar. 14

1979 Oct. 21

1980 Aug09

1980 Oct. 24

29118

1403

2710

0908

2410

1978 Mar. 19

1903

2308

Centrui A mtwcu

16

09

35

07

35

45

53

Ii

14

05

14

region number

l6.ON

47

52

I9

l8.2N

72

88.5W

98.2W

22

90.9w

l5.9N

5P

101.3w

13.8N

49

1X

56

36

17.8N

57

X5.2W

10.2N

38

96.6W

99.7w

I7.ON

I4

30

39

00

88.3

6.4

h.1

5.7

84.2

6.5

87.2

6.4

5.7

5.K

90.3

89.U

86.4

YO.1

29.3

46

01

3R.lN

49.OE

20

35

1X

19X0 May04

0405

6.4

6.X

1.6

7.7

7.0

6.4

A.

523

73

71

5X

60

7x

59

338

366

5

371

5.

34x

366

345

330

221

221

-21

721

221

221

221

221

221

I

5.3

19.5

31

29.8E

35.75

5X

30

05

1980 May 02

6.6

h.U

5.1

6.5

5.X

7.0

7.6

7.5

6.8

5.7

5.3

MS7

Rcginn

No. h

5.3

6.0

0.0

5Y.7E

3X.7

0205

33.9N

79

34

21

06

1979 Dec. 31

33

31.5E

36.2N

22

21

02

1979 Nov. 14

1411

6.1

6.0

6.7

5.)

63

6.7

6.5

5.9

29.5

37.5

6.4

6.

57

_.

5.4

nlh

Magnitude

20.0

3112B

98

3i.aE

32

34

27

33

4X.9E

09

36.4N

79.7

45

78.6

79.3

44

53

7x.3

79.4

78.7

91

33

63.6E

1979 May ZR

2805A

37.7N

19

22

40.4N

23

30

I5

1978 Nov.04

0411

151.5E

146.9E

43.2N

53

3X

46.ON

146.8E

43.5N

03

51

I?

146.6E

44.6N

01

32

148.Yk

44.2N

I9

197X Jun. 04

0406

M~PrrAsia

148.4E

44.9N

20

I5

47

03

lY8O Mar.23

2303E

South

79.5

46

149.OE

44.2N

02

31

00

1978 Mar.23

2303A

33

79.6

149.9E

79.5

51

45

149.7E

44.43\3

02

OX

44.5N

I6

02

03

09

idegr.)

197X Feb. 09

(deg. 1

____~

Epicentral

distance

Depth

(km)

1978 Jan. 14

EpIcenter

0902

time

Kurii Islunds

1401B

Orlgm

Date

studied

No. =

quake

Earth-

List of earthquakes

TABLE I

299

0 .l

.izs

.is

.5

Fig. 2. 2-octave

Fig. 3. Kuril

broad-band

band-pass

Island

16

earthquake,

record

Band-Edpe Period. s

Mid-Band Period. 9

periods

of monochromatic

component),

seismograms

obtained

from

magnitudes

91 km, 44.6N.

S-wave, respectively.

$4

filters employed

the broad-band

123

$2

to a velocity

amplitude

and E-W-component

of 100 pm/s.

of the

P-wave.

and

seismogram

minimum

at filter

position

4 (mid-hanci

for

the

P-wave

a+ filter

perwd:

psittcm

5 14 due

to

fht;

f3c.t

th,,t

for the S-wave at filter position 1 points 11 the fact thaf the wrth>

sufficiently

pervious

teleseismic

distances.

perIoda

31nvnd

f-he

0.25

tz!

nc ~~.~fficient

the rnir~irnllrn

m:mtle

he

i\ not

wr.~~r.~blcl

a1

It is the primary role of any rnsgnit(lde wale to I-ompencate the ~+ser\:ed ground

motion for the attenuation

of the \xa\e alony the ray path, and trl .irrivb,t: al CT-K(>Imore numbers characteristic

From the P-wave and

measured

S-wave grnund

yelncity amphtudes.

were determined.

seismograms

Figure 4 shows the monochromatic

I--S. as far as measurable,

for both

monochromatic

magnitudes

can

be

magnitudes

anti Dudn

magnitudes

for each of the filter plktions

types of body-waves.

It ii wen from the

In Fig. 4. that---;tt

of hnth

its thr\

in Fig. ?. monochromatic

variance

types of bodv-wales

radiated from I hr focus h:\\e

In

,j

'A

Kurii

Wan

Fig. 4. Monochromatic

magnitudes

nents).

to the seismograms

corresponding

arithmetic

periods

average

of band-edge

m(r)

for P-wave

frequencies:

magnitudes

in Fig. 3. The

T, = (T-,, t

301

maximum at filter position 3 (mid-band period: 4 s). The shift of the spectral

maximum for S-waves towards shorter periods is due to a stronger compensation of

S-waves with decreasing period, in course of the magnitude determination, if

compared with that of P-waves.

The spectrum of the ground motion at teleseismic distances is biased relatively to

t.he spectrum of the waves radiated from the focus. The bias is caused by the

different attenuation for P- and S-waves. due to the different perviousness of the

intervening medium for both types of body-waves. As a rule, the attenuation iq

higher for S-waves. For a given wave type, the perviousness increases with the period

of the wave. The period-dependent calibration function of Nortmann and Duda

(1983) compensates the bias, and yields magnitude figures believed to reflect the

strength of the radiation of P- and S-waves from the focus. Thereby. the monochromatic magnitudes m(T) are related to the energy spectral density of either wave type

by the relation:

E(T)

1()Zrn(?l~k

in J/Hz

The constant k was chosen as - 1.4, in order to assure maximum consistency with

magnitude figures obtained earlier on the basis of the calibration functions of

Gutenberg and Richter (1956) (cp. Nortmann and Duda, 1983).

From Fig. 4, it can be seen that for the given earthquake the monochromatic

magnitudes for the S-wave are about 1.6 units larger than those for the P-wave.

From the observation at a single station, as in the present case, and without knowing

the position of the station with respect to the nodal lines of the fault-plane solution.

it cannot be excluded that the difference is simply due to the geometric radiation

pattern of the earthquake. Should the difference be genuine, however, it would

signify that the total seismic energy radiated from the focus in the form of S-waves is

3.2 orders of magnitude larger than that of P-waves. i.e. that the P-wave radiation is

negligible energywise with respect to that of the S-wave.

NORMAL.

BLUE AND

RED EARTHQUAKES

Haskell (1964, 1966) has investigated the theoretical energy density spectrum of

the far field radiation from a dislocation source in an elastic medium. The maximum

of the spectrum occurs at a period depending on the fault length and the rise time of

the earthquake (deterministic model). or the correlation length and the correlation

time of the earthquake process (statistical model). The spectrum decays with

increasing periods in proportion to the square of the period, and with decreasing

period in proportion to the 2nd to 4th power of the period. The width of the

spectrum depends on the physical parameters characterising the process at the focus.

On the basis of the similarity principle of Aki (1967), the period of the maximum

is simply proportional to the fault length. Also, the displacement amplitude spectral

density at the period of the maximum is proportional to the 3rd power of the fault

length. Consequently.

the maximum of the energy density spectrum radiated

the focus is proportional

to the 4th power of the period of the maximum.

The proportionality

principle.

constants.

The uncertainties

parameters.

in particular

lead to a multitude

however.

with respect

with respect

of theoretical

cannot

be obtained

earthquake

models.

whether earthquakes

in different

parts of the earth

basically different

description.

focal process,

to the interdependence

to the proportionality

of the physical

constants.

The question

eventually

arises whether

or

occur in accordance

with

can be found.

from

earthquakes

for the

need to be

of a model earthquake

assumed to reflect normal

conditions

during the focal process. Accepting the similarity principle and a corresponding set of interrelations

between the focal parameters, normal

earthquakes

can be defined, and their spectral characteristic

used as basis for the analysis of

natural

earthquakes.

Earthquakes

deviating

significantly

labeled as blue

and red. in order to express a relative preponderance

of

short-period

and long-period radiation of seismic waves (Duda and Nuttli, 1974).

REGIONALIZATION

The following

and the analysis

tion.

Figure

AND EMPIRICAL

discussion

is limited

of monochromatic

5 displays

the focus

corresponding

P-wave

are grouped

P-wave

magnitudes,

magnitudes

investiga-

in three regions,

as indicated.

in

The

are shown as function of the respective filter position (cp. Fig. 2). All

exhibit a maximum of their monochromatic

magnitudes

in the period

from

to the monochromatic

S-wave magnitudes

monochromatic

magnitudes

earthquakes

MODEL

of each

of the earthquakes,

filter position 3 or 4. Thereby,

density

monochromatic

near

the period

magnitude.

magnitude

occurs, with one exception, either at

the mid-band

periods are 4 s and 16 s. and the

12.8 s, resp.

While for the Kuril (Fig. Sa) and South-West

Asia (Fig. 5b) earthquakes

the

maximum

lies mainly at filter position 3. it lies for the Central American earthquakes (Fig. 5c) at filter position 4 (in one case at 5).

Moreover, it is seen that the spectra of the Kuril and South-West

Asia earth-

quakes are clearly broader than those of the Central American earthquakes.

The slope of the energy density spectra at short-periods,

as seen from the

monochromatic

magnitudes in Fig. 5. is proportional

to about the 4th power of the

303

KurllIslands

South-West Aslo

lb)

6-

0 1978 ILOIB

0 1976 0902

19

A 1978 2303A

1960 2302A

A 1978 2303E

0 1960 23028

, 1976 2LO3B

V 1980 3112

5-

f

.I

rlll

5-

06128

0 1978 OLO6

-l

Period s

1978 Ull

A 1979 IL11

1980 0205

Period.

s

1979 2805A

0 1979 31128

A 1980 0405

IO

100

CentralAmerica

ICI

19781903

o 1978 2308

A 1978 29118

A 1979 IL03

.-

/I

dr

Fig. 5. Monochromatic

Fig.

1980 0908

1980 2410

,.!,,

, !,

magnitudes

m(T)

Period.

s

IO

,,,,,

100

for P-waves,

for earthquakes

4.

305

Asian to be red.

For Central America1 earthquakes no specific tendency is

noticeable.

The deviations are small, but not insignificant. Nevertheless, the question arises

whether more pronounced deviations are possible. It appears, that present-day

obse~ational facilities do not permit to give an answer to the question. Earthquakes

with a maximum monochromatic magnitude of, say, 6.5 at filter position 1 (see

Fig. 6) would saturate regionally distributed seismographs, due to the limited

dynamic range of the instruments. At the same time, the small pe~iousness of the

earths mantle would prevent such earthquakes to be recognized at teleseismic

distances. On the other hand, earthquakes with a maximum monochromatic magnitude of 6.5 at filter position 5 (see Fig. 6) would remain unnoticed at both regional

and teleseismic distances, due to insufficient sensitivity of seismometers at the

corresponding periods.

In conclusion, it appears from the investigation of 23 earthquakes that significant

deviations from a normal spectral characteristic are given. Regions can be indicated

with earthquakes deviating towards a preponderance of either short-period or

long-period radiation. Present-day observational facilities, however, generally do not

favour the recognition of earthquakes with energy density spectra strongly deviating

from some average behavior. Broad-band large dynamic range seismological observatories in sufficient number would probably yield the answer to the question

whether a significant portion of the seismicity of the earth is occurring in additional

modes, others than the one of normal earthquakes.

The concept of monochromatic magnitudes offers a new means of quantifying the

energy density spectrum of the waves radiated from the earthquake focus, as well as

a means of classifying earthquakes in accordance with their spectral characteristic.

indicates

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The investigation was performed under a research grant of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn-Bad Godesberg.

One of us (R.N.) wishes to acknowledge the support of IASPEI for his participation in the General assembly in London, Ontario, Canada.

REFERENCES

Aki, K., 1972. Scaling law of earthquake

Berckhemer,

analyzing

H. and Jacob,

K.H.,

source time-functions.

1968. Investigation

75: 4997-5009.

Geophys.

of the dynamical

J.R. Astron.

process

Geophys.,

in earthquake

Univ. Frankfurt,

foci by

13.

J. Geophys.

Res.,

306

Duda,

O.W.,

1974. Earthquake

magnitude

scales. Geophys.

Surv..

1: 429-45X.

regionalization.

Bull. Seismol.

Geller.

for earthquake

source parameters

and magnitudes.

Gutenberg,

Hanks,

B. and Richter.

T.C. and Wyss, M.. 1972. The use of the body wave spectra

parameters.

Haskell.

Ann. Geofis..

in the determination

9: I- 15.

of seismic source

density

from propagating

density

from propagating

Haskell,

Hirasawa.

T. and Stauder.

body

waves

from

a finite moving

source.

Bull.

from

their

Tectonophysics.

93:

Nortmann.

R. and

magnitudes.

of spectral

Duda,

Quantification

properties

of earthquakes

of Earthquakes.

251-275.

Savage,

of corner

frequency

to fault dimensions.

J. Geophys.

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