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The Labor Force

Percent Women
in Labor Force
Percent Women
Earn for Doing the
Same Job as Men

1950

2001

Growth in 50 Years

30 %

67 %

37 percentage points

59

73

14 percentage points

Source: Frey, William H., Bill Abresch and Jonathan Yeasting. (2001) America by the
Numbers, New York: New Press.

Why Have Women Joined the Labor Force?

World War II

Early Baby Boom

Late Baby Boom

MARRIAGE PATTERNS
Percent Married
Women
Men

77 %
77

64 %
64

60 %
54

CHILD REARING PATTERNS


Percent without Children (women)

19

30

33

EDUCATION PATTERNS
Percent with College Degree(s)
Women
Men

12
19

21
26

23
24

Source: Bianchi, Suzanne. (1995) Changing Economic Roles of Women and Men, In R. Farley (ed.) State of the
Union: America in the 1990s, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Professional Degrees Conferred to Women


1970

1980

1990

Percent of Degrees Conferred


to Women in:
Law

5%

30 %

41 %

Medicine

23

33

Dentistry

13

26

Business

22

34

Source: Bianchi, Suzanne. (1995) Changing Economic Roles of Women and Men, In R. Farley (ed.) State of the
Union: America in the 1990s, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Major Occupation Groups, by Percentage Women


1970

1980

1990

Private Household Occupations


Administrative Support / Clerical
Service Jobs

96 %
73
61

95 %
77
63

95 %
77
63

Professional Specialty
Sales
Managers / Executives

44
41
19

49
49
31

54
49
42

Technicians
Machine Operators
Farming, Forestry, Fishing

34
40
9

44
41
15

46
40
16

Percent Women in Labor Force

38

43

46

Source: Bianchi, Suzanne. (1995) Changing Economic Roles of Women and Men, In R. Farley (ed.) State of the
Union: America in the 1990s, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Household Division of Labor (General Population)

Not Married / Not Living With Partner


Responsible for All Household Tasks
Responsible for Most Household Tasks

Men

Women

21 %

26%

4
7

11
35

Equal Division of Labor in Household

24

21

Spouse / Partner Responsible for Most


Household Tasks

36

Spouse / Partner Responsible for All


Household Tasks

Other arrangements

1,015

1,104

SAMPLE SIZE

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. (2002) Knowledge Networks Survey. Conducted September 1 30.

Child Care Arrangements (General Population)


Percentages are Based on Sub-Sample of Respondents with Children Living at Home

Responsible for All Child Care Tasks


Responsible for Most Child Care Tasks

Men

Women

7%

33 %

23

Equal Division of Child Care Tasks

35

26

Spouse / Partner Responsible for Most


Child Care Tasks

32

Spouse / Partner Responsible for All


Child Care Tasks

16

16

Other arrangements

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. (2002) Knowledge Networks Survey. Conducted September 1 30.

Household Division of Labor (Professional Elite Sample)

Not Married / Not Living With Partner


Responsible for All Household Tasks
Responsible for Most Household Tasks

Men

Women

11 %

26%

29

Equal Division of Labor in Household

31

30

Spouse / Partner Responsible for Most


Household Tasks

48

Spouse / Partner Responsible for All


Household Tasks

Other arrangements

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. and Richard L. Fox. (2002) The Citizen Political Ambition Study.

Child Care Arrangements (Professional Elite Sample)


Percentages are Based on Sub-Sample of Respondents with Children Living at Home

Men
Responsible for All Child Care Tasks
Responsible for Most Child Care Tasks

Women

2%
3

23 %
34

Equal Division of Child Care Tasks

35

35

Spouse / Partner Responsible for Most


Child Care Tasks

46

Spouse / Partner Responsible for All


Child Care Tasks

14

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. and Richard L. Fox. (2002) The Citizen Political Ambition Study.

Generation X versus Baby Boom Attitudes about Womens Roles


Percent Answering Yes
Generation X
Men

Generation X
Women

Baby Boom
Men

Baby Boom
Women

Is it more important for a wife to help her


husbands career than have a career for
herself?

20 %

13 %

17 %

16 %

Is it better for everyone involved if the


man is the achiever outside of the home
and the woman takes care of the home
and the family?

29

18

32

23

Is a preschool child likely to suffer if


his/her mother works outside the home?

47

27

46

34

Can a working mother establish just as


secure and warm a relationship with her
children as a mother who does not work?

69

80

61

79

Source: Farley, Reynolds. (1996) The New American Reality, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections


Women
1964
1968
1972
1976
1980
1984
1988
1992
1996
2000

67 %
66
62
59
59
61
58
62
56
56

Men
72 %
70
64
60
59
59
56
60
53
53

Note: In each year, the total number of women voters was greater than the total
number of men who cast a ballot. In 2000, the difference was approximately 7.8
million. Source: Center for American Women and Politics. (2002) Sex Differences
in Voter Turnout.

Voter Turnout in Off-Year Elections


Women
1966
1970
1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
1994
1998

53 %
53
43
45
48
46
45
45
42

Men
58 %
57
46
47
48
46
45
44
41

Note: In each year, the total number of women voters was greater than the total
number of men who cast a ballot. In 2000, the difference was approximately 4.4
million. Source: Center for American Women and Politics. (2002) Sex Differences
in Voter Turnout.

The Gender Gap: Candidate Preferences


Which candidates did voters favor?
Women

Men

2000 Election
George Bush
Al Gore

43 %
54

53 %
42

1996 Election
Bob Dole
Bill Clinton
Ross Perot

38
54
7

44
43
10

1992 Election
George Bush
Bill Clinton
Ross Perot

37
45
17

38
41
21

1988 Election
George Bush
Michael Dukakis

50
49

57
42

1984 Election
Ronald Reagan
Walter Mondale

54
46

62
38

1980 Election
Ronald Reagan
Jimmy Carter
John Anderson

47
42
9

53
35
9

Source: Voter News Service (for 1992 2000); ABC News / Washington Post (for
1980 1988).

The Gender Gap: Attitudes on Public Policy Issues


Men

Women

Believe the government does


too much.

66 %

50 %

Would prefer a smaller government


providing fewer services than a
bigger government providing more
services.

67

55

Favor cutting spending on social


programs.

60

47

Think poverty and homelessness


are among the most important
problems facing the country.

44

63

Favor raising the minimum wage.

72

83

Think we should abolish affirmative


action programs.

52

36

Source: Center for American Women and Politics. (2002) The Gender Gap.

Men and Womens Attitudes About War


Do you favor or oppose . . .
Favor

Oppose

Unsure

The U.S. declaring war on Iraq?


Men
Women

45 %
29

32 %
33

23 %
37

40
24

34
38

25
38

Men
Women

44
24

29
38

27
37

Declaring war on nations suspected of


harboring terrorists?
Men
Women

56
42

21
23

23
35

Capturing and executing foreign leaders


who harbor terrorists?
Men
Women

57
46

22
20

22
34

38
24

41
43

21
33

Even if means sending in


250,000 ground troops?
Men
Women
Even if it means occupying
Iraq for as long as 5 years?

Torturing suspected terrorists to gain


information about future attacks?
Men
Women

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. (2002) Knowledge Networks Survey. Conducted September 1 30.

Percentages of Women in Elective Offices: 1979 2002

U.S. Congress
1979
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2002

3%
4
4
5
5
5
6
10
10
11
12
14

State Legislatures
10 %
12
13
15
16
17
18
21
21
22
23
22

Governor
4%
0
0
2
4
6
6
6
2
2
8
10

Source: Center for American Women and Politics. (2002) Women in Elective
Office Fact Sheet.

Women Candidates for U.S. House Seats: 1976 - 2000

Total

Republican

Democrat

1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996 *
1998

54
46
52
55
65
64
59
69
106
112
120
121

20
19
25
28
35
34
26
30
36
40
42
46

34
27
27
27
30
30
33
39
70
72
77
75

2000

122

42

80

* One Independent ran.


Source: Center for American Women and Politics. (2002) Women Candidates Fact
Sheet.

Attitudes about Women Entering the Electoral Arena

Total

Men

Women

Believe that men are better


suited emotionally than
women for politics

26 %

34 %

19 %

Believe that men tend to be


more qualified than women
to hold elective office

20

27

13

Believe it would not be a


good idea if more women
held elective office

28

36

20

Would be willing to vote for a


woman president if she were
qualified and were nominated
by the respondents political
party

65

58

70

2,119

1,015

1,104

Sample Size

Source: Lawless, Jennifer L. (2002) Knowledge Networks Survey. Conducted


September 1 30.

Should Women Run the County???


Do you agree or disagree with this statement: Women should take care of running
their homes and leave running the country up to men.
Percent in Agreement
1970

33 %

1975

35

1980

28

1985

26

1990

20

1995

16

Source: National Opinion Research Center.