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Paper of the SPE. Described the phenomena of dispersion of a core with the dead end pore volume for studies of miscible flooding ( EOR process)

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in Miscible Flooding

L. E, BAKER

MEMBER SPE-AIME

ABSTRACT

The design of the solvent slug size /or a miscible

flood process

can be improved with data on holdup

(or capacitance

effects)

and dispersion

of the

solvent slug in the reservoir.

A modified version of

the Coats-Smith

dispersion-capacitance

mode I and

an improved

solution

method for the model were

used to study dispersion

avd capacitance

effects

in cores.

The velocity

dependence

of the model

parameters

is sbotvn. A correlation

is developed

for

estimating

effective

dispersion

coefficients

for

field application.

The method

described

provides

a means

for

characterizing

the properties

of dispersive

mixing

and micro heterogeneity

of reservoir cores and aids

in the design of the volume o~ solvent for miscible

floods.

INTRODUCTION

The amount of solvent that must be injected

is a

critical

factor in the success

of a miscible

flood.

Because

of the cost of miscible

solvents

such as

carbon dioxide or rich gas, slug processes

generally

are used. If the solvent

slug used is larger than

necessary,

the solvent

cost

will be increased

without compensatory

increases

in oil recovery.

If

too small a slug is used, some of the oil that could

have been moved will be left behind. The slug size

required

is affected

by many variables,

including

reservoir

geometry,

interwell

spacing,

gravity

effects,

mobility

ratios,

etc. Slug degradation

is

caused

by mixing (by dispersion)

of solvent

with

oil at the leading edge of the solvent bank and with

chase fluid (for example,

dry gas) at the trailing

edge. Trapping

of oil and solvent in microscopic

heterogeneities

(regions of dead-end pore volume or

relatively

stagnant

flow) also contributes

to the

mixing-zone

growth.

This

trapping,

known

as

capacitance,

may be caused

by rock heterogeneities 1 or by shielding

of oil and solvent by water

films. 293

Original manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers

office July 23, 1975. Paper accepted for publication Nov. 21,

197S. Revised manuscript received Jan, 24, 1977. Paper (SPE

5632) was first presented at the SPf+A2ME SOth Annual Fall

Technical Conference and Exhibition, held in DaI1as, Sept. 28Oct. 1, 1975. (@ Copyright 1977 American Institute of Mining,

Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

2%1spaper will be included In the 1977 ?%msactfone

volume.

JUNE. 1977

TULSA-

with predicting

solvent

slug requ~rements

in an idealized

linear system

where gravity,

mobility

ratio,

and areal

sweep

effects

are unimportant,

but where longitudinal

dispersion

(mixing at the leading and trailing edges

of the bank) and capacitance

effects are significant.

An example might be a miscible

displacement

In

the pinnacle reef formations of Alberta. A prediction

of the effects

of dispersion

and capacitance

was

needed for the design of a miscible

flood of this

type. The oil-column

height was about 350 ft, and

the flood advance

rate was to be downward

at

0.0384 ft/D. The oil/solvent

viscosity

ratio of 10

was unfavorable;

however, it was expected that the

unfavorable

mobility

effects

would

be largely

compensated

for by the stability

effects of gravity

at the low flow rate.

Publish ed data4-6 relating

to similar reservoirs

volume that could cause

indicated

that stagnant

trapping and degradation

of the solvent slug mjght

be as much as 10 percent of the reservoir

volume,

calculations

were

Based Oi] these data, preliminary

made using the Coats-Smithl

dispersion-capacitance

model to predict

the mixing-zone

profiles.

The

results indicated

that this level of stagnant volume

might cause the solvent requirement

to be increased

by 30 to 90 percent over the amount predicted

by a

simple

dispersion

model

without

capacitance

effects

if the peak solvent

concentration

in the

enriched

gas bank did not drop below 99 percent

throughout the life of the flood.

Coats and Smithl indicated

that tests in short

cores

would

show

extended

mixing

zones

if

capacitance

effects

were present,

but that if the

magnitude

of the traq,$fer group MD = ML/u was

large (as it woulck be i; a field situation,

where L

may be very large),

the influence

of capacitance

wou Id be minimized.

The prediction

of a 30- to

90-percent

increase

iii solvent requirements

for the

case described

above prompted a review of methods

for measuring

capacitance

effects and a search for

a more convenient

method for predicting

the severity

effects

in field application.

An

of capacitance

improved method for modeling data from short core

and experimental

work was

tests

was developed,

performed to investigate

the factors influencing

the

capacitance-model

parameters.

219

DISCUSSION

CAPACITANCE

MODEL

Dispersion

during flow in porous media has been

studied

from both experimental

and theoretical

viewpoints.

Perkins

and Johnston7

and Greenkorn

and Kessler8

have reviewed much of the literature

on this

topic.

Of particular

interest

are the

the

effects

of

papersl~2~6~9- 13 dealing

with

heterogeneity

and capacitance

on the development

of mixing zones in porous media.

Capacitance

or stagnant

pore-volume

effects are

most apparent

when a concentration

step-change

miscible-displacement

test is performed. This is a

test in which a continuous

solvent bank is injected,

the in-situ fluid

beginning at time t = O, to displace

from a core. The simple dispersion

model characterized by Eq. 1,

K*IU

ac

ax2

JC

ac=ac

-ax%

.(1)

aX2

f%

+ (1-f)

g+

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3a)

and

when solved

using

boundary

conditions,b

effluent concentration:

C = 0.5 erfc

assumed a velocity-independent

transfer coefficient,

while the Coats-Smith

model does not impose this

limitation.

Brigham6 showed that Eq. 1 could describe either

the flowing (effluent)

or the in-situ concentration,

depending

on the boundary conditions

chosen for

solution of the equation.

Appendix A shows that a

similar choice of boundary conditions

determines

whether

the in-situ

or the effluent

concentration

profile is obtained from the Coats-Smith

capacitance

model.

The method described

in Appendix

A is

much simpler than the method proposed by Brigham6

to determine

the effluent

concentration

for the

capacitance

model, and results

in the following

equations:

the appropriate

initial

and

yields

a solution

for the

ac+

~=

~~-f)

to be solved

()

+ 0.5 e K) erfc

w

m

M(C-C+),

. . . ..(3b)

and boundary

conditions

.(2)

()

c+

The concentration

profile predicted

by Eq, 2 is

nearly

symmetrical

around the PV = 1 point, as

shown in Fig. 1. Also shown in Fig. 1 IS a typical

effluent concentration

profile exhibiting capacitance

effects.

The asymmetric

profile

is attributed

to

fluid in regions

of stagnant

or

holdup of in-situ

very SIOW flow, with subsequent

bleeding

out of

the in-situ fluid as the mixing zone passes.

Several

models

incorporating

dispersion

and

have

been

proposed.

Each

model

capacitance

and convection

in a flowing

includes

dispersion

region of the core and fluid transfer between flowing

and stagnant

regions.

The model described

by

Coats

and Smith 1 was chosen

for the present

analysis.

Experimental

studies performed by Coats

and Smith 1 and by Goddard 12 indicated

the transfer

coefficient,

M, of the model was velocity-dependent,

(xJo) = o

(X,o) = o

c (Ott)

t)=o

c(oo,

@x>o.

o..

..

(4a)

@x>o

. . . . ..(4b)

@t>()

. . . . ..(4c)

Ant

. . . .

..(4cI)

These

equations

are derived

from the equations

obtained

by Brigham by means of a simple transformation of variables.

Eqs, 3a and 3b may be solved in the s (complex

frequency) domain by taking the Laplace transforms

of the equations

and combining

the resulting

ordinaty

differential

equations.

The solution

with

initial and boundary conditions

of Eqs, 4a through

4d is

1.00

,0

o.w

,/

IL

/

0.60

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(5)

OISPIRSION

--WITH

CAPACITANCE

use of the Cauchy Integral Theorem 14:

0.40

by the

If

0, xl

=+

c (x)t)

o. m

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

HYDROCARBON

FIG.

EXAMPLE

0.8

1.0

1.4

1.6

1.8

EFFLUENT

PROFILES.

2m

i.?

~jw

~(c),

stds

. . . . . .(6)

-P

CONCENTRATION

2.0

the numerical

integration

involved

However,

quite time-consuming,

especially

when it must

done many times during the iterative

process

fitting the ~odel to the experimental

data.

is

be

of

3- WAY VALVE

that, rather than

transforming

the model solution to the time domain,

the data could be transformed

into the frequency

domain, An algebraic

curve-fitting

procedure

then

could be used, reducing

the computing

time and

inaccuracies

introduced by the numerical integration

of Eq. 6. A method for transforming

time-domain

data to the frequency

domain and for fitting the

model is outlined in Appendix B. This method was

An additional

found

to be quite

satisfactory.

advantage

of this procedure

is that the frequency

response of the flow system can be obtained directly

from step,

impulse,

sinusoidal,

or many other

concentration

signals.

EXPERIMENTAL

BENZENE

D

PUMP

II

SAMPLE

COLLECTIONl!!!?

FIG,

Step-change

tests

of miscible

displacement

in

cores were made with benzene (p = 0.604 cp, p =

0.8734 gin/cc) and meta-xylene

(p = 0.584 cp, p =

0,8601 gin/cc).

The flow system is shown in Fig.

2.

A constant-rate

positive-displacement

pump

manifolded

to two fluid reservoirs

controlled

flow

rates at 1.45 x 10-5 to 9.88 x 10-3 cm/sec (0.041

to 28 ft/D). A three-way

valve at the core inlet

determined

which fluid was injected

into the core.

The pump maintained

equal pressure

on both fluid

reservoirs

to minimize pressure

surges when flow

was switched

from one fluid to the other, Volumes

of the core end-caps

and inlet and outlet tubing

were less than 1 percent of the core volume.

A Berea sandstone

core (chosen for its homogelimestone

core

(which

neity)

and

a vugular

preliminary

tests

indicated

was heterogeneous)

were used. The cores were sealed with epoxy resin

and reinforced

with Fiberglas

tape. The sandstone

core (Core 1) was 22,86 cm long and 5.o8 cm in

with a permeability

of 175 md and a

diameter,

core (Core

porosity of 21.4 percent. The limestone

2) was 9.4 cm long and 7.60 cm in diameter,

and

had a permeability

of 5,4 md and a porosity of 11.9

percent.

No brine saturation

was present

in the

cores.

The cores

were evacuated

before

being

saturated

with liquid.

The procedure

for each test was to saturate

the

core with one of the miscible

fluids and establish

a stable flow rate. The injection

valve was then

switched to the other fluid, and injection

continued

at the same rate as samples

of the effluent fluid

were taken

for analysis.

Concentration

profiles

were monitored by gas chromatographic

analysis

of

1 RUN

CORE

WATER

PROCEDURE

TABLE

!YLENE

SYSTEM.

FLOW

the effluent

samples.

The precision

of the sample

analysis

were ~ 1 percent.

For the initial

runs,

samples

were collected

manually.

For later tests,

an in-line gas chromatography with an automatic

sample valve was used. In

these later tests,

a backpressure

of JO psig was

maintained

at the sample-valve

outlet. Repeat tests

showed no effect of the change in backpressure

or

sampling procedure.

The run variables

are listed

in Table

1, and

example

effluent

profiles

are plotted

in Figs.

3

an; 4.

DISCUSSION

OF RESULTS

The capacitance

model was fitted to the data of

each run as described

in Appendix B, Fig. 3 shows

the experimental

data and the best-fit

calculated

points for Run 2. The data of Runs 1 through 3 (in

the 23-cm Berea core) were fitted very well by the

simple dispersion

model (to which the capacitance

model reduces when / = 1.0). This is illustrated

by

the straight-line

fit of the data of Run 2 on the

probability

plot 1s of Fig. 4.

Runs 4 through

10 were made v.ith a vugular

limestone

core at flow velocities

of 0.04 to 19.9

An

ft/D (1.45 x 10-5 to 7.02 x 10-3 cm/see).

example

concentration

profile and best-fit

calculated curve (for Run IO) are shown in Fig. 3. The

concentration

profile is also shown on the probability

plot of Fig. 4. The curvature of the data as shown

that some type of holdup

on this plot indicates

(capacitance)

occurred.

Fig.

5 shows

the dispersion

coefficients

for

Runs

1 through

10. The dispersion

coefficients

VARIABLES

Model Parameters

Run tire

.

11

21

31

4

52

62

72

82

9

10

J!.NE, 1977

2

2

Flow Rate

Displacing

Fluid

Displaced

Fluid

(CIII/S@C X 105)

(ft/D)

Mets-xylene

Benzene

Benzene

Mets-xylene

Benzene

Mets-xylene

Eerrzene

Benzene

Mets-xylene

Met&xylene

Benzene

Mets-xyl ene

Mets-xylene

Benzene

Mets-xylene

Benzene

Mete-xylene

Met&xylene

Benzene

Benzene

104

490

988

1.45

14.7

30.6

31.9

109

123

702

2,95

13.9

28.0

0,047

0,416

0.668

0.803

3.08

3.49

19,9

(m

Cn&c

19.3

157

301

1,36

28.6

85.3

46.4

225

174

1,590

105)

(s@c-lX 106)

1.000

1.000

1,000

1,80

5,46

13,8

20,0

25.5

53.6

222

0.363

0.670

0.404

0.562

0.691

0.579

0.666

221

increase

with velocity;

the line shown connecting

the points for the limestone

core has a slope of 1.0

and that for the sandstone

core has a slope of 1.25.

This indicates

that the correlations

suggested

for

homogeneous

cores (Eq. 7) is also valid for cores

exhibiting

capacitance

effects:

~ , ~l.

coefficients,

M,

computed for Runs 4 through 10. The data indicate

a dependence

of M on velocity

to the 0.84 power,

Coats and Smith* also noted a possib!e

velocity

variation

of M, as did Goddard. 12 If fluid transfer

diffusion

alone,

M

was dependent

on transverse

should

be independent

of velocity.

The velocity

that

the

transfer

dependence

of M confirms

mechanism

involves

mixing other than diffusion,

The flowing fractions

(/) for Runs 4 through 10

are shown in Fig. 6. A large amount of scatter in

the data is evident;

/ values range from 0.383 to

0.691, with no apparent velocity correlation.

If the

two lowest values are disregarded,

the other data

points are fit fairly well by an average value of / =

0.64. Some variation

of / with velocity

might be

expected;

however, the data of Fig. 6 do not justify

any conclusion

except

that the flowing fraction

appears to be constant

in these runs for velocities

greater than 10-4 cm/sec (O. 28 ft/D).

APPLICATION

matching

the capacitance

model to experimental

data may be limited by the repetitive

and timeconsuming

numerical

integration

of the inverse

Laplace

transform

(Eq. 6). The frequency-domain

curve-fitting

procedure outlined in Appendix B does

not require the inversion

of the Laplace

transform;

thus, for a given amount of computing

time, the

frequency-domain

fit allows the use of many more

data points. The result is a more precise fit of the

model to the data.

Application

of the capacitance

model to prediction

of solvent concentration

profiles in field application

also can be simplified.

Stalkup2 and Brigham G have

shown that for reservoir-scale

systems,

the concentration curves predicted

by the capacitance

model

(Eqs. 3a and 3b) approach the symmetrical

profile

predicted

by the simple dispersion

model (Eq. 1).

The apparent

or effective

dispersion

coefficient

(Ke), however, is greater than the true dispersion

coefficient

(K). To confirm this, mixing-zone lengths

(the distance between the IO- and 90-percent solvent

concentration

points for a step-change

test) were

calculated

(using

the

capacitance

model)

for

several

values of K and M at 100 and 1,000 ft of

For each set of parameters,

the

flood advance.

,0-2

l.al ~

-r-@--w+-!

..-

1 DISPERSION

2 OISPIRSION

&

m 0)S3

X 03SS

CORE 2 MASS

TRANSFER

m

@

x

*

~o-i

&

10+

a

1~

10+

~

JJ

o.IxJ

0.0

1.

0.5

.L

..-.

1.5

1.0

..1.

20

25

FOR[ vOLUMIS

FIG.

3 EFFLUENT

Zm

l_

3.0

4.0

3.5

lNJftl[O,

4.5

CONCENTRATION

10-3

,0-2

VELOCITY, WSEC

FIG. 5 VELOCITY

DEPENDENCE

OF THE DIS.

PERSION

COEFFICIENT

AND MASS -TRANSFER

COEFFICIENT.

:r-

10

A RLN

PROFILES.

mRW2

1.54

5.0

]~+

..

Lal [

I-1 o,~ .

+.30

0.50 -

~a.aemmm /

*

. *

*

~emeeao

-Lm -

flu

*S

0.al

I

~y

-1,54-.

-zoo -250 ,

0.010

,

0.100

,

O.m

0.6UI

awl

o. Wo

EFFUKNTCONCLNTR41IW

FIG,

222

4 EFFLUENT

CONCENTRATION

FIG,

PROFILES.

6VELOCITY

DEPENDENCE

FRACTION.

10-2

OF THE

FLOWING

mixing-zone

length increased

as the square root of

the

distance

that

was

traveled.

The

simple

dispersion

model also predicts growth of the mixing

zone with the square root of distance

traveled;

thus, it appeared that it should be possible

to use

the simple dispersion

model (with an effective

dispersion

coefficient)

to predict the mixing-zone

growth for field applications.

To determine

the effects

of M and / on the

effective dispersion coefficient,

mixing-zone lengths

(10- to 90-percent

solvent concentration)

were calculated for a range of values of the dimensionless

parameters

NBO, MD, and /. The effective dispersion

coefficient,

K@, was defined by 15

LMZ 3.62S

MDINBO

LMZ2

()LMZr

for r3C+/dt

dispersion-

$-ug=%

(11)

This is analogous

to the simple dispersion

model

(Eq. 1), with an effective

dispersion

coefficient,

Ke, defined by

&

&

o-;(9)

shown in this

figure are for values of NBO greater than 1,000, and

will overestimate

Ke for lower values of NBO.

It follows from Eq. 8 that the ratio Kc/K is also

the square of the ratio of the mixing-zone

lengths

with and without capacitance

effects:

Ke

T

expression

3a, the

W........(8)

For constant

values

of K, M, /, and u, the

coefficient

increased

asympeffective

dispersion

totically

to a limiting value, Klim, as NBO increased

(increasing

L), The limiting values,

expressed

as

K1im/K, were correlated

as a function of f and the

dimensionless

group

~=

#~+

,,+g.~

[1ax;..........

substituted

into

Eq.

is

capacitance

model becomes

. . . . . . . . . ..

(10)

for a given

dispersion

7 shows

that,

Fig.

coefficient

and velocity,

the mixing-zone

length is

less for a larger value of / (less stagnant

volume)

or for a larger value of the transfer coefficient.

The

range

of KMln2

values

shown

includes

those

measured

in the present work and those mentioned

in earlier papers. 1~2*4-G~12

The correlation

of Fig. 7 can be derived from

Eqs. ja and 3b. If Eq. 3b is differentiated

with

.l+~2

,..

&_

3X2

-(2

(12)

If we assume

that d2C/dx2

and d2&/dx

2 are

equal (at a large rravel distance,

L), the values of

Kc/K given by Eq. 12 agree within a few percent

with the values shown in Fig. 8 for Khf/u2 values

greater than 0.001. For smaller values of KM/u2,

the approximation

d% /dx2 = &C+/dx2

is apparently

invalid;

as M approaches

zero (no fluid

transfer between flowing and stagnant

regions),

the

effective

dispersion

coefficient

should

again

approach the true dispersion

coefficient.

Deansll

used a different

approach

to derive a

relation similar to Eq. 12, but limited in application

to small values of the group KM/u2. His correlation

predicts

thar Kc/K will approach

zero for large

values

of KM/u2 or for values

of / approaching

unity.

This correlation

shows that the solvent concentration is a function of the dimensionless

groups

NBO, KM/u2, and f, and that it is the group KM1u2

rdther than MD that determines

whether capacitance

effects will be negligible

in a reservoir application.

Thus, capacitance

effects

do not disappear

with

~~creasing system length, as implied by Coats and

~mith I and Stalkup. 2

t\\\x

-w

1?

0.001

a01

0.10

1.0

Y

FIG. 7 DEPENDENCE

PERSION

COEFFICIENT

COEFFICIENT

AND

JWE, 1977

OF THE EFFECTIVE

DISON THE MASS-TRANSFER

FLOWING FRACTION.

10-111

, , ,1

10-3

104

Ke,

FIG.

8 ERROR

EFFECTIVE

-i

1 , , I,

10-2

CM21SEC

DISPERSION

COEFFICIENT.

OF

223

the dispersion

group NBO was about 12,250. The

transfer group MD was estimated

to range from 46

(Case

1) to 132 (Case 2). Concentration

profiles

predicted

by the

simple

dispersion

and

the

capacitance

models for these values,

and with a

of 0.9 (10 percent

{stagnant

flowing

fraction

volume), are shown in Fig. 9. The 10- to 90-percent

mixing zone is 11.2 ft long for the simple dispersion

case, increasing

to 15.45 ft (Case 1) or to 21.7 ft

(Case 2) with the inclusion

of capacitance

effects.

The same prediction

can be obtained

from Fig. 7;

at KM/u2 = 1,07 x 10-2 (Case 1), the Kc/K ratio is

1.96, corresponding

to a mixing-zone

length ratio of

w=

1.4. At KM/u2 = 3.74 x 10-3 (CaSe 2), the

Kc/K ratio is 3.61, corresponding

to a 90-percent

.

increase

in mixing-zone

length.

EFFECT

The correlation

of Eq. 12 suggests

that it may not

be possible

to specify unique K, M, and / values to

fit the data of any given run. If one of the values

is specified

arbitrarily,

the others can be chosen

to obtain any desired

value of Ke (within certain

limits). To investigate

this possibility,

the error in

fitting

the model to the experimental

data was

calculated

for a range of values of the parameters

(K and M values ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 times the

best-fit

values

found by the fitting

procedure

described

in Appendix B, and values of / ranging

f 0.2 from the best-fit

values).

The results

are

shown in Fig. 8 for a representative

case as a plot

of E (sum of squared

errors)

vs K@. Nea: the

there

best-fit region (Ke = 1.2 x 103 sq cm/see),

are several combinations

of K, M, and / that give

relatively

good fits. However, there are mar,y more

combinations

giving the same valuee of Ke that do

not fit the data well, Examination

of the error in fit

as a function of each of the variables

K, M, and /

shows that there is a relatively

narrow region for

each parameter within which values can be chosen

to produce acceptable

fits.

was developed

and used to model unit-viscosity

ratio, laboratory miscible-displacement

tests over a

wide

rc.nge of velocities.

The method

allows

frequency

response

data

to be obtained

with

nonsinusoidal

input signals.

The dispersion

coefficients,

K, and fluid transfer

coefficients,

M, for the dispersion-capacitance

model were found to be velocity-dependent,

while

the flowing fractions,

/, were relatively

independent

of velocity.

A correlation

was developed

for estimating

the

effective dispersion

coefficient

for field application

from the values

of the dispersion

coefficient,

transfer

coefficient,

and flowing fraction

derived

from short core tests. It was shown that / and the

dimensionless

group KM/u2 determine

the value of

the effective

dispersion

coefficient.

Application

of the capacitance

model to an

example

reservoir

shows

that

the exaggerated

tailing noted in laboratory

tests using short cores

is not as pronounced

in longer systems.

However,

mixing-zone

lengths and solvent require~n~s

may

be increased

significantly

by capacitance

effects

in reservoirs.

NOMENCLATURE

c.

{in-situ

c.

flowing

C*

h-=

method for matching

a

dispersion-capacitance

model to experimental

data

dispersion

Klim

= limiting

uL/K)

I

350

360

9 PREDICTED

MIXING

ZONE

370

AT 350 FTi

B)

sq cm/sec

coefficient

of Ke (at

(defined

by

values

of

large

cm

transfer

seel

group,

ML/u

sol-

= mixing-zone

length

without

capacitance

effects, cm (reference

length)

integral number of cycles

Appendix B)

Bodenstein

%=

s=

DI STANCE, FE~

available

fraction

= mixing-zone

length ( 10- to 90-percent

vent concentration),

cm

n=

FIG.

Appendix

= Laplace transform of C

fluid transfer coefficient,

o.al -

224

value

core length,

LMZ,

I

Ml

stag-

in model fit

coefficient,

K= = effective dispersion

Eq. 8), sq cm/sec

LMZ

~

~

in

volume readily

is the stagnant

ratio (see

MD = dimensionless

a mm

errors

M=

am -

fluid

fluid

/= pore volumes of fluid injected

j= W-

f?(c)

%

of injected

by C+ = C* - (K/u) (dC*/dx)

sum of squared

FA . ampIitude

L=

Lm

fluid

concentration

fraction

of pore

for flow; (1 -/)

/=

of injected

of injected

concentration

of in jetted

nant region

c+ . defined

K=

SUMMARY

concentration

Cj = concentration

dispersion

number

Laplace

transform

of phase

group

lag (see

(uL/K);

transform

variable,

t = time, sec

tn = time at which the output

returns to its initial value

reaches steady-state

value

reaches a steady-state

value

Ci

u = velocity,

distance

a =

proportionality

~ = phase

relative

p = density,

constant,

defined

Appendix

1964) 73-84

Trans., AIME,

Vol.

231.

Shelton,

J. L, and Schneider,

F. N.: The Effects

of

Water Injection

on Miscible

Flooding

Methods

Using

Hydrocarbons

and Carbon Dioxide, ~ Sot, Pet. Eng.

J. (June 1975) 217-226.

4.

AERCB

Texaco,

Inc., Wizard Lake field (Oct. 1969, 197 1).

5.

AERCB

Application

Gas Co., 2ama-Virgo

6.

Brigham,

W. E.:

5065, Hudsons

Bay

field (Msrch 1970).

{tMixing

Equationa

Etz& ].

SO=. Pet.

Vol.

Oil

and

1974)

9.

Cbetn. Ens Sci. (1958) 156-165.

Disperaiofl

in a Packed

Gottschlich,

C. F.: /lAxial

Jour.

(1963)

88-92.

Model for Dispersion

in the Direction

of Flow in Porous Media, Sot. Pet,

Eng. ]. (March 1963) 49-52; Tratis., AIME, Vol, 228,

12.

Goddard,

R. R.: Fluid

Diapersion

and Distribution

in Porous

Media

Using

the Frequency

Response

Method With a Radioactive

Tracer, Sot. Pet. Eng.

Trans.,

AIME,

Vol.

237.

Determination

of Diapersion

and

Goaa,

M. J.:

Diffusion

of Miscible

Liquids

in Porous

Media by a

Frequency

Response

Method, paper

SPE

3525

presented

at the SPE-AIME

46th Annual

Fall Meeting, New Orleans,

Oct. 3-6, 1971.

Complex Variables and ApplicaBook Co., Inc., New York (1960)

14.

Churchill,

R. V.:

tions, McGraw-Hill

118.

1 s.

Brigham,

W. IL, Reed,

P. W., and

~~ExPeriments on Mixtig During Miscible

Media,

Sot. Pet. Ens

8; Trans., AIME, Vol. 222.

in Porous

Clements,

Testing

Proc,

JUNS, 1S77

T.

R.:

AIChE

Jour. (1967)

for Dynamic

Analysis,

.,

equation

. . ..(A-l)

at

b%

which describes

the in-situ concentration,

C, of a

fluid flowing through a porous medium, has a form

to that of the equation

identical

32C

_aJ

, ac

ax

TiT

.(A-2)

....

the flowing concentration,

C, which is equivalent

to the effluent or cup-mixing

concentration.

The two concentrations

are related

by

Dew,

J.

N.:

Displacement

J. (March

1961)

S ln~

& t%g.

.(A-3)

O, X=

C(X, O)=

t)=o,

C(o,t)

O . . . . . .

t=o

= I +:

. . . . . .

~

, t 2?0

..(A-~a)

..(i%dq

(A-4C)

The flowing

concentration

(which is the one

is

usually

measured

in laboratory

core tests)

obtained when the conditions

C(X, O)=O,

C(w,

t)=

C(O, t)=l,

x20,

(l,

t~(j

t=

. . . .

.( A-5a)

, . . . . .( A-5b)

O , . . . . .( A-5c)

1-

ac

is obtained upon solution of Eq. I or Eq. 2 depends

on the initial and boundary conditions

chosen.

The

in-situ concentration

is obtained when the following

conditions

are used:

C(m,

11.

16.

ac=ac ..

._

c=c-~~....

Greenkom,

R A, and Kessler,

D. P.: Dispersion

in Heterogeneous

Non-Uniform

Porous

Media, k!

& f?ng. Cbem. (Sept. 1969) 14-32.

~.

Systems,

Harris,

of Mathem$tk&l

91-99;

257.

8.

13.

and

Evaluation

in Short Labora-

( Feb.

Perkins,

T. K., Jr,, and Johnston,

O. C.: A Review

of Diffusion

and Dispersion

in Porous

Media, Sot.

Pet. Eng. ], (March 1963) 70-84; Trans., AIME, Vol.

228.

Bed, AICbE

pointed

*C

K%

3.

10.

for Dynamic

Brighamb

radians/see

of Oil by Solvent

at

Stalkup,

F. I.: Displacement

High Water Saturation, jr SO=, Pet. Errg. J. (Dec. 1970)

337-348.

7.

W. C,,

Domain

DETERMINING CONCENTRATION

PROFILE

OBTAINED

2.

AIME,

Clements,

gin/cc

Eng. J. (March

Trans.,

of Edinburgh

. and Experiences

in

Eng. Prog,, Monograph

APPENDIX

B)

Volume and Dispersion in Porous Media,$ Sot. Pet.

Cores, !)

R.,

by K = au

REFERENCES

tory

J.

Frequency

Modela

374-378.

cp

u = frequency,

1.

Experiments

J. 0.:

18. Hougen,

*~ Cbem.

Process

Dynamics,

Series (1960) Vol. 4, 33-34.

~~~e

Society

to core inlet

angle (see

p = viscosity,

Royal

vol.

19. Hays,

cm/sec

x =

L. N. G.: Proc.,

49, 38-47.

17. Filon,

( 1928)

concentration

Chem.

in the two solutions

are

minor except

when the dimensionless

dispersion

20 or

group NBO . ux/K is small (for example,

22s

the range of NBO

that is most likely

to be encountered

In tests

performed in reservoir core samples.

The same problem appears in the application

of

the Coats-Smith 1 three-parameter

capacitance

model

to short core data. The model may be written as

A more satisfactory

approach is the transformation

of the experimental

data to the frequency

domain

and fitting of the model in the frequency

domain.

This can be accomplished

easily using the following

method, as described

by Clements. 16

The Laplace

transform

of a function

C(x, t) is

defined by

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A-6a)

a co

~~

(1 -f)

= M(C

-C).

, . . .( A-6b)

of variables,

arbitrarily,

within certain limits.

be written as

co

as

X(C)

m .f ac + (l-f)

a*c

-uax~

ax2

=M(C -C+}.

(l-f) ~

Again,

-#

C,.CX3C

u

. . . . (A-7b)

. . . . . . (A-8)

ax

= {

(A-is)

by

,..

(A-9)

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN

EXPERIMENTAL

The solution

of the

time domain

is given

integral:

c (x, t)=

z%

B

FITTING

DATA

OF

capacitance

model in the

by a complex

numerical

~jmX(C)

-jce

et ds

by

J3c,)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(B-2)

The computing time and round-off errors involved

in evaluating

this integral

are undesirable,

especially

for an iterative

curve-fitting

process

that

requires the integration

to be performed many times.

226

dt

- j

sk

(tit)]

dt

(B-5)

function,

jd(x,

~)

. . . . .

(B-6)

The numerical

integration

of Eq. !3-5 can be

accomplished

quickly and accurately

using Filons

method. 17

For an input signal that does not return to its

initial value but does reach and hold a steady-state

value within a finite time (such as a step-change),

the method of Walsh and Wiesner18 m~y be used to

transform

the data. This method is equiva!.ent

to

transforming

the derivatives

of the input and output

signaIs,

and is performed as follows:

. . . . .(B-l)

,w,+/~j

X((v

.. .

is a complex

ac) = t?(x,td)+

( m fx,

C

X(c)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The result

Substitution

of Eqs. A-8 and A-9 into Eqs. A-6a

and A-6b leads directly to Eqs. A-7a and A-7b.

The proper boundary conditions

for solving Eqs.

A-7a and A-7b to obtain C are Eqs. A-5a through

A-~c.

sin (Wt)]

Consider

the response

of a flow system

to a

concentration

input pulse that begins at time t = 0,

rises to a finite value, and decreases

again to zero.

The output concentration

also will rise from zero

to a finite value, then will drop again to zero at a

finite time tn. Thus, the integral of Eq. B-4 need

be evaluated

only for the finite period for which

C(X, t) + o:

Z(C)

C+=c+$.......

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(B-4)

by

APPENDIX

u may be chosen

The trmtsforrn may

f=

t)e

Ci (O, t)

Stdt

e t dt

o

ymacg

p e -5t dt

.>,

t

~c. (O,t)e -Stdt

(B-7)

The equivalence

of these ratios is based on the

fact that C(Y., O) = Ci(O, O) = O. Since the input and

output functions reach steady-state

values at finite

then

times t2 and tl, respectively,

SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEtiRS JOURNAL

ac (x t)

~=ot?t=t

at

l......

(B-8~)

and

2Ci (O, t)

at

Thus,

O@tt2

. . . . . ..(B-8b)

by parts

x(c)

:

C (x, tl)e

E=

Ci (O,t 2) e

-Stz +5

J

X(c)

Zza,c

I

s

C (xjt) e tit

.&u2!x(Ci)

~XPtl

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (B-IO)

0 t2

~(Ci)

to give

tl

-Stl + ~

initial velocity

estimate,

Ul, is made by dividing

the concentration

vs time integral

into the core

length.

3. Estimates

of Kl, /1, and Ml are made.

4. Eq. B-2 is evaluated

for each value of s = j~

and the sum of squared errors

Cl (O, t) e

-St ~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(B-9)

Both these integrals are finite, and can be evaluated

from the original experimental

data without further

manipulation.

It should be noted that the input signal Ci may

be a step, pulse,

or any other wave form with

frequency

content

to be

Laplacesufficient

transformed.

It is not limited to a step change as

used in this paper.

Fitting of the model to the data then proceeds

by

the following steps:

1. The experimental

data are transformed

to the

complex (frequency)

domain using Eq. B-9 for a

series of values O ~ 0< timax (~max is chosen as

the value of ~ at which the absolute

value of the

transfer function Y (C)/l? (C~) is equal to 0.3).16

Values

of o are chosen

by trial

and error,

beginning at u = O, such that for each succeeding

value

of w the absolute

value of the transfer

function !? (C)/!? (Ci) is abour 93 to 95 percent of

the transfer-function

magnitude

for the preceding

value of ~. Other techniques

used to choose the

frequencies

(within the range specified)

resulted

in

different

frequency

sets,

but the same best-fit

values of K, f, and M.

2. A material balance is made by integrating

the

dimensionless

effluent

concentration

profile with

respect

to time. (In most cases,

the integral

was

found to be within

2 percent

of its theoretical

value: core pore voIume divided by injection

rate.)

The model fit, in some cases, may be very sensitive

to errors in the assumed

velocity;

therefore,

an

is calculated.

5. A Taylor-series

expansion

of Eq. B-2 around

the parameter

estimates

of Ki, /i, Mi, and ui is

is made to determine

the dmection

of steepest

descent of the sum of squared errors.

6, New parameter

estimates

of Ki+l} /i+ 1, Mi+ 1,

and ui+ ~ are made, and Steps 4 through 6 are

repeated

until a minimum sum of squared errors is

reached.

In all cases,

the final (best-fit)

veIocity differed

from the estimated

(material-balance)

velocity only

by a few percent.

Hays et al. 19 have shown that the method of

least-squares

fitting in the frequency

domain is

equivalent

to least-squares

fitting

in the time

domain. In this study, few problems with convergence

resulted

when reasonable

initial

estimates

were

used,

and the substitution

of different

initial

estimates

led to essentially

the same final parameter

values.

The transformed

data are equivalent

to the data

obtained

from frequency-response

testing

using a

sinusoidal

input signal for exam le, the methods

used by Goss 13 and by Goddard. 1$ The amplitude

ratio of the concentration

signal at any frequency

u is given by

$ =

where

lag is given

tan-l

by

(d?/~)+Zn~

n is the integral

number

of cycles

.( B-12)

of lag.

*x~*

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