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Contents

INTRODUCTION

PIPE RACK

Pipe Rack design criteria

Shapes

Future Space

Width of Pipe Rack

Clearance

Pipe Rack Loading

RACK PIPING

Positions of Lines (Process & Utilities)


Hot Lines & Cold Lines
Bigger Size Lines
Pipe Spacing
Anchor Bay
Unit Battery Limit
Expansion Loops
Pipe Route
Trays

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INTRODUCTION

A pipe rack is the main artery of a process unit. It connects all


equipment with lines that cannot run through adjacent areas. Because
it is located in the middle of the most plants, the pipe rack must be
erected first, before it becomes obstructed by rows of equipment. Pipe
racks carry process, utility piping and also include instrument and
electrical cable trays as well as equipment mounted over all of these.
The primary data required for detailed development of a pipe rack : Plot Plan
P&IDs
Client Specification
Construction Materials
Fire proofing requirements
Statutory requirements

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

Shapes

Future Space

There are various shapes of pipe rack like L/T/U/H/Z. These shapes
shall be considered based on the area available.

The total width of the pipe rack shall include 25% extra space for
future expansion/modification in unit for rack-width upto 16m and
10% for rack-width above 16m. The future space %age is normally
based on the client requirements.

Width of Pipe rack

The width of the rack shall be 6m, 8m or 10m for single bay and
12m, 16m or 20m for double bay having 4 tiers maximum. The
spacing between pipe rack portals shall be taken as 6m in general.
However it can be increased to 8m depending on the size of the
pumps to be housed below pipe rack.

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RACK WIDTH SELECTION CRITERIA

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DIFFERENT SHAPES OF PIPE RACKS

DEAD END YARD LINES ENTER &


LEAVE ONE END OF THE RACK

L-SHAPED YARD LINES CAN


ENTER & LEAVE NORTH & EAST
OF THE RACK

STRAIGHT THROUGH YARD LINES


CAN ENTER & LEAVE BOTH ENDS
OF THE RACK

T-SHAPED RACK PIPING CAN


ENTER & LEAVE THREE SIDES OF
THE RACK

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DIFFERENT SHAPES OF PIPE RACKS

COMPBINATION OF I & T SHAPED


RACK

U-SHAPED YARD LINE CAN ENTER


& LEAVE ALL FOUR SIDES OF THE
RACK

COMPLEX RACK PIPING ARRANGEMENT


FOR VERY LARGE CHEMICAL PLANT

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

Clearance

For units, clearance beneath pipe rack shall be 4m


minimum both in longitudinal and transverse
directions.
For Offsite, clearance beneath pipe rack shall be
2.2m minimum both in longitudinal and transverse
directions.
Road clearance shall be 7m for main road and 5m for
secondary road.

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PIPE RACK LOADING

Pipe rack loads shall be given by stress group to Civil &


structural discipline for pipe rack design.
Sustain Load (Dead Load)

Weight of piping, valve and load insulation

Thermal Laod

Load by thermal expansion of piping & Reaction force by


internal pressure of expansion bellows

Dynamic Laod

Load by vibration of piping & by wind and earthquake

Sustained Load (Live Load)

Liquid load for hydrostatic pressure test

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RACK PIPING

Position of Lines
Predominantly process lines are to be kept at
lower tier and, utility & hot process lines on upper
tier.

Hot Lines & Cold Lines


Generally hot lines & cold lines are to kept at
different tiers or at different groups on a tier.

Pipe Spacing

Minimum spacing between adjacent lines shall be decided


based on O.D. of bigger size flange (minimum rating 300# to
be considered), O.D. of the smaller pipe, individual insulation
thickness and additional 25mm clearance. Even if flange is
not appearing the min. spacing shall be based on above basis
only. Actual line spacing, especially at L bend and loop
locations, shall take care thermal expansion/thermal
contraction/non-expansion of adjacent line. Nonexpansion/thermal contraction may stop the free expansion
of the adjacent line at L bend location.

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RACK PIPING

Bigger Size Lines

Anchor Bay

Large size lines (14 and larger) shall be arranged close to the
column in order to decrease the bending moment of beam.
Water lines more than 30 shall not be routed over pipe rack,
these shall be routed underground.

Anchors on the racks are to be provided on the anchor bay if


the concept of anchor bay is adopted. Otherwise anchor shall
be distributed over two to three consecutive bays.
Anchors shall be provided within unit on all hot lines leaving the
unit.

Pipe Route

Racks shall be designed to give the piping shortest possible run


and to provide clear head rooms over main walkways,
secondary walkways and platforms.

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RACK PIPING

Trays

Generally top tier is to be kept for Electrical cable trays (if not
provided in underground trench) and Instrument cable
ducts/trays. Cable tray laying to take care of necessary
clearances for the fire proofing of structure.

Battery Limit (ISBL)

Process lines crossing units (within units or from unit to main


pipeway) are normally provided with a block valve, spectacle
blind and drain valve. Block valves are to be grouped and
locations of block valves in vertical run of pipe are preffered. If
the block valves have to be located in an overhead pipe-way,
staircase access to a platform above the lines shall be provided.

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RACK PIPING

RACK PIPING

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RACK PIPING

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EXPANSION LOOPS

Expansion loop is provided on the high temperature


lines. This information shall be given by stress group.
All the loops shall be located around one column only.

MAKE LINES INTO A GROUP AND INSTALL A


LARGE SIZE PIPING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE
PIPING TO THE EDGE OF THE RACK

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EXPANSION LOOPS

When necessary to install an expansion loop on the


condensate line, do it horizontally to prevent water
hammering. But do as above if horizontal loop is impossible.

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

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PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA

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