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Submitted by

DEVANAND JHA (00113103611)

PRINCE KR. MISHRA (06013103611)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree




(2011 - 2015)

We hereby declare that the project entitled Pneumatic Braking System
submitted by us in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of






AUTOMATION ENGINEERING , comprises our original work and due

references have been made in text to all other material used.

Signature of the Student(s):


This is to certify that the project entitled Pneumatic Braking System is
the bonafide work carried out byDevanand Jha, Sourabh Choudhary,
Prince kr. Mishra student(s) of B. Tech, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha
University Delhi, during the year 2011-2015 in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology and
that the project has not formed the basis for the award of any degree earlier.

Signature of the Guide:


The completion of any inter-disciplinary project depends upon cooperation,
co-ordination and combined efforts of several sources of knowledge. We are
grateful to Mr. Shiv Kumar (HOD MAE) for his even willingness to give us
valuable advice and direction, whenever we approached him with a problem.
We are thankful to him for providing immense guidance for this project. We
are also thankful toMr. Mukesh Kumar and Mrs. Taran for their immense
guiding in theoretical Analysis Part of our project. We are also thankful to all
faculty of MSIT and GPMCE to encourage us for completion of this project
and providing us relevant data for completion of our project.
DEVANAND JHA (00113103611)
Bachelor of Technology in
Mechanical and Automation Engineering
Session : 2011-15

An air brake is a conveyance braking system actuated by compressed air.
Modern trains rely upon a fail-safe air brake system that is based upon a
design patented by George Westinghouse on March 5 1872. The
Westinghouse Air Brake Company (WABCO) was subsequently organized
to manufacture and sell Westinghouse's invention. In various forms, it has
been nearly universally adopted. The Westinghouse system uses air pressure
to charge air reservoirs (tanks) on each car. Full air pressure signals each car
to release the brakes. A reduction or loss of air pressure signals each car to
apply its brakes, using the compressed air in its reservoirs. In this project our
concern are focused on effective and reliable braking. Air braking is not
common in Indian vehicle but some foreign imported vehicle uses
pneumatic braking system.

1. Introduction to the Topic
About Air Brake.
About Drum Brake.
2. Working
3. Operation of control valve
4. Component requirement
5. Project Description
Safety system
Disc Brake
Solenoid valve
6. References


Piping diagram from 1920 of a Westinghouse E-T Air Brake system on a



A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or
pads that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is
connected to a rotating wheel.

Normal drum brake attached with foot pad

The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault,
though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year
earlier. In the first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically operated with
levers and rods or cables. From the mid-1930s the shoes were operated with
oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons (as in the picture), though
some vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for decades. Some
designs have two wheel cylinders.
The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be
adjusted regularly until the introduction of self adjusting drum brakes in the
1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s brake drums on the front wheels of cars were
gradually replaced with disc brakes and now practically all cars use disc
brakes on the front wheels, with many offering disc brakes on all wheels.
However, drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes as it has proven
very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a car when it is not
in use. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake
so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems
of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake

assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos

production, and brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings.
Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements;
however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of
daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many
other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes.


In our project we are using scooter front wheel and its braking lever is
attached with pnumatic cylinder.

we are controlling pnumatic cylinder with Manual Air Control Valve and this
controlling valve is transfer compressed air in to the pneumatic cylinder as
shown above.
(We are using air compressor for compressed air)

How Manual Air Control Valve works


we are using dc gear motor attached with wheel shaft with help of chain and
gear assembly.

wheel are moving when dc motor turnning chain assambly attached with

We are using cutoff switch for stop dc gear motor while we applied drum
brake through pnumatic cylinder.







The aim is to design and develop a control system based on pneumatic

breaking system of an intelligent electronically controlled automotive

braking system. Based on this model, control strategies such as an 'antilock

braking system' (ABS) and improved maneuverability via individual wheel
braking are to be developed and evaluated.
There have been considerable advances in modern vehicle braking systems
in recent years. For example, electronically controlled ABS for emergency
braking, electronically controlled hydraulically actuated individual brake-bywire (BBW) systems for saloon cars and electronically controlled
pneumatically actuated systems for heavy goods vehicles. The work of
recent years shall form the basis of a system design approach to be
implemented. The novelty of the proposed research programmed shall lie in
the design and evaluation of control systems for achieving individual wheel
motion control facilitated by BBW. In the case of BBW the brake pedal is
detached from the hydraulic system and replaced by a 'brake pedal
simulator'. The simulator provides an electrical signal for the electronic
control system.
Preliminary modeling and simulation work considers a quarter cars initially
followed by a natural progression to the half car and full four wheel station
cases. The model is to be constructed in modular form thus allowing the
replacement / interchange of the various blocks and their associated
technologies. Upon completion of the full vehicle braking model, sensitivity
analyses will be carried out. Once the preliminary simulation model has
been thoroughly benchmarked and existing control system strategies
evaluated, an audit of the technology used is to take place and this will
provide a basis for comparison of iterative technologies / techniques.
The final phase of the new modern vehicle shall include:

Development of improved ABS control systems


Development and assessment of an electro-hydraulic-BBW (EHBBW) system

Individual wheel braking combined with traction control

Assessing sensor failure and fault tolerant control system design

Preliminary studies into an electrically actuated system

Re-engineering using simplified models.



Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out
the simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has played a more
important role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation.
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be
made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of
the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time,
however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of
compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using
reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at
a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.


Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered

and the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at
atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.








The usual written as
PV = C

(or) PV = P2V2

In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about
14.7 Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury,
nearly 30 inches high in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in
pneumatic system but air is the mostly used system now a days.

Disc-style brakes development and use began in England in the 1890s. The
first caliper-type automobile disc brake was patented by Frederick William
Lanchester in his Birmingham, UK factory in 1902 and used successfully on
Lanchester cars. However, the limited choice of metals in this period, meant
that he had to use copper as the braking medium acting on the disc. The poor

state of the roads at this time, no more than dusty, rough tracks, meant that
the copper wore quickly making the disc brake system non-viable (as
recorded in The Lanchester Legacy). It took another half century for his
innovation to be widely adopted. Modern-style disc brakes first appeared on
the low-volume Crosley Hotshot in 1949, although they had to be
discontinued in 1950 due to design problems. Chrysler's Imperial also
offered a type of disc brake from 1949 through 1953, though in this instance
they were enclosed with dual internal-expanding, full-circle pressure plates.
Reliable modern disc brakes were developed in the UK by Dunlop and first
appeared in 1953 on the Jaguar C-Type racing car. The Citron DS of 1955,
with powered inboard front disc brakes, and the 1956 Triumph TR3 were the
first European production cars to feature modern disc brakes. The first
production car to feature disc brakes at all 4 corners was the Austin-Healey
100S in 1954. The first British company to market a production saloon fitted
with disc brakes to all four wheels was Jensen Motors Ltd with the
introduction of a Deluxe version of the Jensen 541 with Dunlop disc brakes
The next American production cars to be fitted with disc brakes were the
1963 Studebaker Avanti (optional on other Studebaker models), standard
equipment on the 1965 Rambler Marlin (optional on other AMC models),
and the 1965 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray (C2).
Disc brakes offer better stopping performance than comparable drum brakes,
including resistance to "brake fade" caused by the overheating of brake
components, and are able to recover quickly from immersion (wet brakes are
less effective). Unlike a drum brake, the disc brake has no self-servo effect
and the braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the
braking pedal or lever.


Many early implementations for automobiles located the brakes on the

inboard side of the driveshaft, near the differential, but most brakes today
are located inside the road wheels. (An inboard location reduces the un
sprung weight and eliminates a source of heat transfer to the tires, important
in Formula One racing.)
Disc brakes were most popular on sports cars when they were first
introduced, since these vehicles are more demanding about brake
performance. Discs have now become the more common form in most
passenger vehicles, although many (particularly light weight vehicles) use
drum brakes on the rear wheels to keep costs and weight down as well as to
simplify the provisions for a parking brake. As the front brakes perform
most of the braking effort, this can be a reasonable compromise.


A cross-drilled disc on a modern motorcycle. The design of the disc varies

somewhat. Some are simply solid cast iron, but others are hollowed out with
fins or vanes joining together the disc's two contact surfaces (usually
included as part of a casting process). This "ventilated" disc design helps to
dissipate the generated heat and is commonly used on the more-heavilyloaded front discs.


Many higher performance brakes have holes drilled through them. This is
known as cross-drilling and was originally done in the 1960s on racing cars.
Brake pads will outgas and under use may create boundary layer of gas
between the pad and the disc hurting braking performance. Cross-drilling
was created to provide the gas someplace to escape. Although modern brake
pads seldom suffer from outgassing problems, water residue may build up
after a vehicle passes through a puddle and impede braking performance.
For this reason, and for heat dissipation purposes, cross drilling is still used
on some braking components, but is not favored for racing or other hard use
as the holes are a source of stress cracks under severe conditions.
Discs may also be slotted, where shallow channels are machined into the
disc to aid in removing dust and gas. Slotting is the preferred method in
most racing environments to remove gas, water, and de-glaze brake pads.
Some discs are both drilled and slotted. Slotted discs are generally not used
on standard vehicles because they quickly wear down brake pads; however,
this removal of material is beneficial to race vehicles since it keeps the pads
soft and avoids verification of their surfaces.

A mountain bike disc brake

On the road, drilled or slotted discs still have a positive effect in wet
conditions because the holes or slots prevent a film of water building up


between the disc and the pads. Cross drilled discs may eventually crack at
the holes due to metal fatigue. Cross-drilled brakes that are manufactured
poorly or subjected to high stresses will crack much sooner and more
New technology now allows smaller brake systems to be fitted to bicycles,
mopeds and now even mountain bikes. The market for mountain bike disc
brakes is very large and has huge variety, ranging from simple, mechanical
(cable) systems, to highly expensive and also powerful, 6-pot hydraulic disc
systems, commonly used on downhill racing bikes. Improved technology
has seen the creation of the first vented discs for use on mountain bikes. The
vented discs are similar to that seen on cars and have been introduced to help
prevent heat fade on fast alpine descents. The first use of disc brakes on
mountain bikes utilized mechanical braking systems which did not offer
solid braking power, which is why disc brakes were not popular among
mountain bikers until hydraulic disc brakes were presented. Most mountain
bike brake rotors are made from stainless steel and are very thin. Some use a
two-piece floating rotor style, and some lightweight rotors are made from
aluminum.Disc brake discs are commonly manufactured out of a material
called grey iron. The SAE maintains a specification for the manufacture of
grey iron for various applications. For normal car and light truck
applications, the SAE specification is J431 G3000 (superseded to G10). This
specification dictates the correct range of hardness, chemical composition,
tensile strength, and other properties necessary for the intended use.


Historically, brake discs were manufactured throughout the world with a

strong concentration in Europe, and America. Between 1989 and 2005,
manufacturing of brake discs is migrating predominantly to China.

A reinforced carbon brake disc installed on a Ferrari F430 Challenge race

Warping is often caused by excessive heat. When the disc's friction area is at
a substantially higher temperature than the inner portion (hat) the thermal
expansion of the friction area is greater than the inner portion and warping
occurs. This can be minimized by using "floating" rotors which decouple the
friction area from the inner portion and allow thermal expansion to occur at
different rates. Primary causes of overheating include undersized or


excessively machined brake discs, excessive braking (racing, descending

hills/mountains), "riding" the brakes, or a "stuck" brake pad (pad contacts
the disc at all times).
Measuring warping is accomplished using a dial indicator on a fixed rigid
base, with the tip perpendicular to the brake rotor's face. It is typically
measured about 1/2" (12 mm) from the outside diameter of the rotor. The
rotor is spun. The difference between minimum and maximum value on the
dial is called lateral run out. Typical hub/rotor assembly run out
specifications for passenger vehicles are around 0.0020" or 50 micrometers.
Run out can be caused either by deformation of the disc itself or by run out
in the underlying wheel hub face or by contamination between the rotor
surface and the underlying hub mounting surface. Determining the root
cause of the indicator displacement (lateral run out) requires disassembly of
the rotor from the hub. Rotor face run out due to hub face run out or
contamination will typically have a period of 1 minimum and 1 maximum
per revolution of the brake rotor.
Another cause of warping is when the disc is overheated and the vehicle is
stopped with the brakes continuously applied. In such a case, the area where
the pads are in contact with the disc will cause uneven cooling and lead to
Incorrect fitting also leads to many cases of warping; the disc's retaining
bolts (or the wheel/lug nuts, if the disc is simply sandwiched in place by the
wheel, as on many cars) must be tightened progressively and evenly. The use
of air tools to fasten lug nuts is extremely bad practice, unless a torque tube
is also used. The vehicle manual will indicate the proper pattern for

tightening as well as a torque rating for the bolts. Lug nuts should never be
tightened in a circle. Some vehicles are sensitive to the force the bolts apply
and tightening should be done with a torque wrench.
Several methods can be used to avoid overheating brake discs. Use of a
lower gear when descending steep grades to obtain engine braking will
reduce the brake loading. Also, operating the brakes intermittently - braking
to slower speed for a brief time then coasting will allow the brake material to
cool between applications. Riding the brakes lightly will generate a great
amount of heat with little braking effect and should be avoided. High
temperature conditions as found in automobile racing can be dealt with by
proper pad selection, but at the tradeoff of everyday drivability. Pads that can
take high heat usually do best when hot and will have reduced braking force
when cold. Also, high heat pads typically have more aggressive compounds
and will wear discs down more quickly. Brake ducting that forces air directly
onto the brake discs, common in motorsports, is highly effective at
preventing brake overheating. This is also useful for cars that are driven both
in motorsports and on the street, as it has no negative effect on drivability. A
further extension of this method is to install a system which mists the discs
with water. Jaguar has reported great reductions in disc temperatures with
such a system.
Warping will often lead to a thickness variation of the disc. If it has run out,
a thin spot will develop by the repetitive contact of the pad against the high
spot as the disc turns. When the thin section of the disc passes under the
pads, the pads move together and the brake pedal will drop slightly. When
the thicker section of the disc passes between the pads, the pads will move
apart and the brake pedal will raise slightly; this is pedal pulsation. The

thickness variation can be felt by the driver when it is approximately

0.17 mm or greater (on automobile rotors).
Not all pedal pulsation is due to warped discs. Brake pad material operating
outside of its designed temperature range can leave a thicker than normal
deposit in one area of the disc surface, creating run-out due to a "sticky" or
"hotspot" that will grab with every revolution of the disc . Grease or other
foreign materials can create a slippery spot on the disc, also creating
Rotors can be machined to eliminate thickness variation and lateral runout.
Machining can be done in-situ (on-car) or off-car (bench lathe). Both
methods will eliminate thickness variation. Machining on-car with proper
equipment can also eliminate lateral run out due to hub-face nonperpendicularity.

Brake discs being polished after scarring occurred Scarring (US: Scoring)
can occur if brake pads are not changed promptly when they reach the end of
their service life and are considered worn out. Once enough of the friction
material has worn away, the pad's steel backing plate (for glued pads) or the
pad retainer rivets (for riveted pads) will bear directly upon the rotor's wear
surface, reducing braking power and making scratches on the disc. Generally
a moderately scarred / scored rotor, which operated satisfactorily with


existing brake pads, will be equally usable with new pads. If the scarring is
deeper but not excessive, it can be repaired by machining off a layer of the
disc's surface. This can only be done a limited number of times as the disc
has a minimum rated safe thickness. The minimum thickness value is
typically cast into the disc rotor during manufacturing on the hub of the rotor
or on the edge of the disc in the USA.
To prevent scarring, it is prudent to periodically inspect the brake pads for
wear. A tire rotation is a logical time for inspection, since rotation must be
performed regularly based on vehicle operation time and all wheels must be
removed, allowing ready visual access to the brake pads. Some types of
alloy wheels and brake arrangements will provide enough open space to
view the pads without removing the wheel. When practical, pads that are
near the wear-out point should be replaced immediately, as complete wear
out leads to scarring damage and unsafe braking. Many disc brake pads will
include some sort of soft steel spring or drag tab as part of the pad assembly,
which is designed to start dragging on the disc when the pad is nearly worn
Cracking is limited mostly to drilled discs, which may develop small cracks
around edges of holes drilled near the edge of the disc due to the disc's
uneven rate of expansion in severe duty environments. Manufacturers that
use drilled discs as OEM typically do so for two reasons: appearance, if they
determine that the average owner of the vehicle model will prefer the look
while not overly stressing the hardware; or as a function of reducing the
unsprung weight of the brake assembly, with the engineering assumption

that enough brake disc mass remains to absorb racing temperatures and
stresses. A brake disc is a heat sink, so removing mass increases the heat
stress it will have to contend with. Small hairline cracks may appear in any
cross drilled metal disc as a normal wear mechanism, but in the severe case
the disc will fail catastrophically. No repair is possible for the cracks, and if
cracking becomes severe, the disc rotor must be replaced.
The discs are commonly made from cast iron and a certain amount of
surface rust is normal. The disc contact area for the brake pads will be kept
clean by regular use, but a vehicle that is stored for an extended period can
develop significant rust in the contact area that may reduce braking power
for a time until the rusted layer is worn off again. Over time, vented brake
rotors may develop severe rust corrosion inside the ventilation slots,
compromising the strength of the structure and necessitating replacement.


Disc brake caliper (twin-pot, floating) removed from brake pad for changing
pads.The brake caliper is the assembly which houses the brake pads and
pistons. The pistons are usually made of aluminum or chrome-plated steel.


There are two types of calipers: floating or fixed. A fixed caliper does not
move relative to the disc. It uses one or more pairs of opposing pistons to
clamp from each side of the disc, and is more complex and expensive than a
floating caliper. A floating caliper (also called a "sliding caliper") moves
with respect to the disc, along a line parallel to the axis of rotation of the
disc; a piston on one side of the disc pushes the inner brake pad until it
makes contact with the braking surface, then pulls the caliper body with the
outer brake pad so pressure is applied to both sides of the disc.
Floating caliper (single piston) designs are subject to sticking failure, which
can occur due to dirt or corrosion entering at least one mounting mechanism
and stopping its normal movement. This can cause the pad attached to the
caliper to rub on the disc when the brake is not engaged, or cause it to
engage at an angle. Sticking can occur due to infrequent vehicle use, failure
of a seal or rubber protection boot allowing debris entry, dry-out of the
grease in the mounting mechanism and subsequent moisture incursion
leading to corrosion, or some combination of these factors. Consequences
may include reduced fuel efficiency, excessive wear on the affected pad, and
friction-induced heat warping of the disc.
Various types of brake calipers are also used on bicycle rim brakes.
The most common caliper design uses a single hydraulically actuated piston
within a cylinder, although high performance brakes use as many as twelve.
Modern cars use different hydraulic circuits to actuate the brakes on each set
of wheels as a safety measure. The hydraulic design also helps multiply
braking force. The number of pistons in a caliper is often referred to as the


number of 'pots', so if a vehicle has 'six pot' calipers it means that each
caliper houses six pistons.
Brake failure can occur due to failure of the piston to retract - this is usually
a consequence of not operating the vehicle during a time that it is stored
outdoors in adverse conditions. On high mileage vehicles the piston seals
may leak, which must be promptly corrected.
The brake pads are designed for high friction with brake pad material
embedded in the disc in the process of bedding while wearing evenly.
Although it is commonly thought that the pad material contacts the metal of
the disc to stop the car, the pads work with a very thin layer of their own
material and generate a semi-liquid friction boundary that creates the actual
braking force. Of course, depending on the properties of the material, disc
wear rates may vary. The properties that determine material wear involve
trade-offs between performance and longevity.
The brake pads must usually be replaced regularly (depending on pad
material), and most are equipped with a method of alerting the driver when
this needs to take place. Some have a thin piece of soft metal that rubs
against the disc when the pads are too thin, causing the brakes to squeal,
while others have a soft metal tab embedded in the pad material that closes
an electric circuit and lights a warning light when the brake pad gets thin.
More expensive cars may use an electronic sensor.


Although almost all road-going vehicles have only two brake pads per
caliper, racing calipers utilize up to six pads, with varying frictional
properties in a staggered pattern for optimum performance.
Early brake pads (and linings) contained asbestos. When working on an
older car's brakes, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present on the
caliper (or drum). Although newer pads can be made of exotic materials like
ceramics, kevlar and other plastics, care to avoid inhalation of brake dust
produced during operation should still be practiced no matter what materials
are employed.
Sometimes a loud noise or high pitch squeal occurs when the brakes are
applied. Most brake squeal is produced by vibration (resonance instability)
of the brake components, especially the pads and discs (known as forcecoupled excitation). This type of squeal should not negatively affect brake
stopping performance. Simple techniques like adding chamfers to linings,
greasing or gluing the contact between caliper and the pads (finger to
backplate, piston to backplate), bonding insulators (damping material) to pad
backplate, inclusion of a brake shim between the brake pad and back plate,
etc. may help to reduce squeal. Cold weather combined with high early
morning humidity (dew) often makes brake-squeal worse, although the
squeal stops when the lining reaches regular operating temperatures. Dust on
the brakes may also cause squeal; there are many commercial brake cleaning
products that can be used to remove dust and contaminants. Finally, some
lining wear indicators are also designed to squeal when the lining is due for

Overall brake squeal can be annoying to the vehicle passengers, passers-by,

pedestrians, etc. especially as vehicle designs become quieter. Noise,
vibration, and harshness (NVH) are among the most important priorities for
today's vehicle manufacturers.
Apart from noise generated from squeal, brakes may also develop a
phenomenon called brake judder or shudder.
Brake judder is usually perceived by the driver as minor to severe vibrations
transferred through the chassis during braking
The judder phenomenon can be classified into two distinct subgroups: hot
(or thermal), or cold Judder.Hot judder is usually produced as a result of
longer, more moderate braking from high speed where the vehicle does not
come to a complete stop.It commonly occurs when a motorist decelerates
from speeds of around 120 km/h to about 60 km/h, which results in severe
vibrations being transmitted to the driver. These vibrations are the result of
uneven thermal distributions, or hot spots. Hot spots are classified as
concentrated thermal regions that alternate between both sides of a disc that
distort it in such a way that produces a sinusoidal waviness around its edges.
Once the brake pads (friction material/brake lining) comes in contact with
the sinusoidal surface during braking, severe vibrations are induced, and can
produce hazardous conditions for the person driving the vehicle.
Cold judder, on the other hand, is the result of uneven disc wear patterns or
DTV (disc thickness variation). These variations in the disc surface are
usually the result of extensive vehicle road usage. DTV is usually attributed

to the following causes: waviness of rotor surface, misalignment of axis

(runout), elastic deflection, thermal distortion, wear and friction material
When braking force is applied, small amounts of material are gradually
ground off the brake pads. This material is known as "brake dust" and a fair
amount of it usually deposits itself on the braking system and the
surrounding wheel. Brake dust can badly damage the finish of most wheels
if not washed off. Airborne brake dust is known to be a health hazard, so
most repair manuals recommend the use of a chemical 'brake cleaner' instead
of compressed air to remove the dust. Different brake pad formulations
create different amounts of dust, and some formulations, particularly
metallic brake pads, are much more damaging than others. Ceramic brake
pads contain significantly fewer metal particles, and therefore produce less
corrosion of surrounding metal parts.



A Solenoid Valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is

controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a twoport valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve,
the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid
valves can be placed together on a manifold.
Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics.
Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are
found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching,
high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the
materials used, low control power and compact design.
Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivotedarmature actuators and rocker actuators are also used.
There are many valve design variations. Ordinary valve can have many ports
and fluid paths. A 2-way valve, for example, has 2 ports; if the valve is
closed, then the two ports are connected and fluid may flow between the
ports; if the valve is open, then ports are isolated. If the valve is open when
the solenoid is not energized, then the valve is termed Normally Open
(N.O.). Similarly, if the valve is closed when the solenoid is not energized,
then the valve is termed Normally Closed. There are also 3-way and more
complicated designs. A 3-way valve has 3 ports; it connects one port to
either of the two other ports (typically a supply port and an exhaust port).


Solenoid valve are also characterized by how they operate. A small solenoid
can generate a limited force. If that force is sufficient to open and close the
valve, then a direct acting solenoid valve is possible. An approximate
relationship between the required solenoid force Fs, the fluid pressure P, and
the orifice area A for a direct acting solenoid value is:

Where d is the orifice diameter. A typical solenoid force might be 15 N

(3.4 lbf). An application might be a low pressure (e.g., 10 pounds per square
inch (69 kPa)) gas with a small orifice diameter (e.g., 38 in (9.5 mm) for an
orifice area of 0.11 sq in (7.1105 m2) and approximate force of 1.1 lbf
(4.9 N)).


When high pressures and large orifices are encountered, then high forces are
required. To generate those forces, an internally piloted solenoid valve
design may be possible. In such a design, the line pressure is used to
generate the high valve forces; a small solenoid controls how the line
pressure is used. Internally piloted valves are used in dishwashers and
irrigation systems where the fluid is water, the pressure might be 80 pounds
per square inch (550 kPa) and the orifice diameter might be 34 in (19 mm).
In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly on the main valve. Others
use a small, complete solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to actuate a larger
valve. While the second type is actually a solenoid valve combined with a
pneumatically actuated valve, they are sold and packaged as a single unit
referred to as a solenoid valve. Piloted valves require much less power to
control, but they are noticeably slower. Piloted solenoids usually need full
power at all times to open and stay open, where a direct acting solenoid may
only need full power for a short period of time to open it, and only low
power to hold it.
A direct acting solenoid valve typically operates in 5 to 10 milliseconds. The
operation time of a piloted valve depends on its size; typical values are 15 to
150 milliseconds.
The main working theory of solenoid valve is that there is a fully closed
cabinet inside the valve, with holes in different position. Each hole is
connected with different hose. The valve is centered with two electric
magnets aside, when the power is on, the valve will be pulled to that side.


Though the movement of the valve, the hole which is connected to the hose
will be closed / open, the oil inlet is always open, the hydraulic oil flows to
different hoses and push the cylinder piston by its pressure. The piston
drives the piston stem and then the equipment into movement. by this
means, the mechanical movement can be controlled by controlling the
electricity of solenoid valve.
While there are multiple design variants, the following is a detailed
breakdown of a typical solenoid valve design.
A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The
solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn,
opens or closes the valve mechanically. A direct acting valve has only a
small flow circuit, shown within section E of this diagram (this section is
mentioned below as a pilot valve). In this example, a diaphragm piloted
valve multiplies this small pilot flow, by using it to control the flow through
a much larger orifice.
Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have
electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold
the valve opened (normally open) or closed (normally closed) while the
valve is not activated.


A-Input side
B- Diaphragm
C- Pressure chamber
D- Pressure relief passage
E- Solenoid
F- Output side
The diagram to the right shows the design of a basic valve, controlling the
flow of water in this example. At the top figure is the valve in its closed
state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is an elastic diaphragm and
above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The diaphragm has a pinhole
through its center which allows a very small amount of water to flow
through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so


that pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm, however the

compressed spring supplies a net downward force. The spring is weak and is
only able to close the inlet because water pressure is equalized on both sides
of the diaphragm.
Once the diaphragm closes the valve, the pressure on the outlet side of its
bottom is reduced, and the greater pressure above holds it even more firmly
closed. Thus, the spring is irrelevant to holding the valve closed.
The above all works because the small drain passage D was blocked by a pin
which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a
spring. If current is passed through the solenoid, the pin is withdrawn via
magnetic force, and the water in chamber C drains out the passage D faster
than the pinhole can refill it. The pressure in chamber C drops and the
incoming pressure lifts the diaphragm, thus opening the main valve. Water
now flows directly from A to F.
When the solenoid is again deactivated and the passage D is closed again,
the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the
main valve closes. In practice there is often no separate spring; the elastomer
diaphragm is molded so that it functions as its own spring, preferring to be
in the closed shape.
From this explanation it can be seen that this type of valve relies on a
differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input
must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work.


Should the pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input
then the valve would open regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot

Example core tubes. Non-magnetic core tubes are used to isolate the fluid
from the coil. The core tube encloses the plug nut, the core spring, and the
core. The coil slips over the core tube; a retaining clip engages the
depression near the closed end of the core tube and holds the coil on the core
Solenoid valve designs have many variations and challenges.
Common components of a solenoid valve:
Solenoid subassembly
Retaining clip (a.k.a. coil clip)
Solenoid coil (with magnetic return path)
Core tube (a.k.a. armature tube, plunger tube, solenoid valve tube,
sleeve, guide assembly)
Plugnut (a.k.a. fixed core)
Shading coil (a.k.a. shading ring)

Core spring (a.k.a. counter spring)

Core (a.k.a. plunger, armature)
Core tubebonnet seal
Bonnet (a.k.a. cover)
Bonnetdiaphrambody seal
Hanger spring
Backup washer
Bleed hole
Valve body
The core or plunger is the magnetic component that moves when the
solenoid is energized. The core is coaxial with the solenoid. The core's
movement will make or break the seals that control the movement of the
fluid. When the coil is not energized, springs will hold the core in its normal
position. The core tube contains and guides the core. It also retains the
plugnut and may seal the fluid. To optimize the movement of the core, the
core tube needs to be nonmagnetic. If the core tube were magnetic, then it
would offer a shunt path for the field lines. In some designs, the core tube is
an enclosed metal shell produced by deep drawing. Such a design simplifies
the sealing problems because the fluid cannot escape from the enclosure, but
the design also increases the magnetic path resistance because the magnetic
path must traverse the thickness of the core tube twice: once near the plugnut


and once near the core. In some other designs, the core tube is not closed but
rather an open tube that slips over one end of the plugnut. To retain the
plugnut, the tube might be crimped to the plugnut. An O-ring seal between
the tube and the plugnut will prevent the fluid from escaping.
The solenoid coil consists of many turns of copper wire that surround the
core tube and induce the movement of the core. The coil is often
encapsulated in epoxy. The coil also has an iron frame that provides a low
magnetic path resistance.
The valve body must be compatible with the fluid; common materials are
brass, stainless steel, aluminum, and plastic. The seals must be compatible
with the fluid.
To simplify the sealing issues, the plugnut, core, springs, shading ring, and
other components are often exposed to the fluid, so they must be compatible
as well. The requirements present some special problems. The core tube
needs to be non-magnetic to pass the solenoid's field through to the plugnut
and the core. The plugnut and core need a material with good magnetic
properties such as iron, but iron is prone to corrosion. Stainless steels can be
used because they come in both magnetic and non-magnetic varieties. For
example, a solenoid valve might use 304 stainless steel for the body, 305
stainless steel for the core tube, 302 stainless steel for the springs, and 430 F
stainless steel (a magnetic stainless steel) for the core and plugnut.


Many variations are possible on the basic, one-way, one-solenoid valve
described above:

one- or two-solenoid valves;

direct current or alternating current powered;

different number of ways and positions;


Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems,
to control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves.
Automatic irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an
automatic controller. Domestic washing machines and dishwashers use
solenoid valves to control water entry into the machine. Solenoid valves are
used in dentist chairs to control air and water flow. In the paintball
industry, solenoid valves are usually referred to simply as "solenoids." They
are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the propellant
(usually compressed air or CO2). In addition to this, these valves are now
been used in household water purifiers (RO systems).
Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids, solenoids are used in
pharmacology experiments, especially for patch-clamp, which can control
the application of agonist or antagonis



The illustration below depicts the basic components of a solenoid valve. The
valve shown in the picture is a normally-closed, direct-acting valve. This
type of solenoid valve has the most simple and easy to understand principle
of operation.

1. Valve Body

4. Coil / Solenoid

7. Plunger

2. Inlet Port

5. Coil Windings

8. Spring


3. Outlet Port

6. Lead Wires

9. Orifice

How does a solenoid valve work?

The media controlled by the solenoid valve enters the valve through the inlet
port (Part 2 in the illustration above). The media must flow through the
orifice (9) before continuing into the outlet port (3). The orifice is closed and
opened by the plunger (7).
The valve pictured above is a normally-closed solenoid valve. Normallyclosed valves use a spring (8) which presses the plunger tip against the
opening of the orifice. The sealing material at the tip of the plunger keeps
the media from entering the orifice, until the plunger is lifted up by an
electromagnetic field created by the coil.
The video animation below shows the operation sequence for a direct-acting
solenoid valve.